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Aar. Page 

I. — I. Archdeacon Hare's Last Charge. 1855. 

2. Vindication of Luther against his Kecent English 

Assailants. Second Edition. 1855. 
8. Two Sermons preached in Herstmoncenx Church on 
the Death of Archdeacon Hare, by the Bev. H. Y. 
Elliott, and b; the Rev. J. N. Simpkinson. 1855 - 1 

II. — ^Histoire de la Ddcouverte de la Circulation da Sang. 
Par P. Flourens, Membre de TAcad^ie Fmnfaise et 
Secretaire Perp^tuel de TAcademie dee Seknces (In- 
Btitut de France), Frofesseur au Mua^ d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Paris, &c. Paris. 1854 - - - 28 

III. — Alloamone della Santita di nostro Signore Pio Papa IX. 
del 22 Gennaio, 1855 ; segi^ta 6a nna Esposizione, 
conredsta di Documenti. (Reprint.) Torino, 1855 - 41 

ly. — 1. Observations on the Site of CamuloduQum. Com- 
municated by the Rev. Henry Jenkins, B.D. Archeeo- 
logia, vol. xxix. 1842. 

2. Colchester Castle built as a Temple of Claudius Csesar. 
By the Rev. H. Jenkins, B.D. 1852. 

3. Colchester Castle not a Roman Temple. By the Rev. 
Edward L. Cutts. 1853 71 

V. — 1. A Memoir of the Rev, Sydney Smith. By his 
Daughter, Lady Holland. With a selection from his 
Letters, edited by Mrs. Austin. 2 vols. London. 

2. The Works of the Rev. Sydney Smith. London. 

3. Elementary Sketches of Moral Philosophy, delivered 
at the Royal Institution, in the years 1804, 1805, and 
1806. By the late Rev. Sydney Smith, M.A. Second 
edition. London. 1850 106 

VI. — I. La Croyance a I'immaculee Conception de ia Sainte 
Vierge ne pent devenir dogme de foi. Par M. I'Abb^ 
Laborde. Seme ^itioa. Paris. 1854. 

2. Lettre a N. S. P. le Pape Pie IX. sur I'impossibilite 
d'un nouveau dogma de fui relativement a la Concep- 
tion de la Sainte Viei^e. Par M. I'Abb^ Laborde. 
FranQaJB et Latin. Paris. 1854. 

3. Relation et Memoire des opposans an nouveau dogme 
de rimmaoalee Coocseption, et ji la Bulle * Inefiabilis.' 
Par M. I'Abb^ Laboide. 


Apt, Ppge 

4. De immaciilato B. "V. Mariae conceptu an dogtnatieo 

decreto detiniri possit. DisquUurio theolog^ca JoaniiLt 
PcTTone, e Soc* Jesu in Cnll. Ram. Theol. Prof. Mo- 
nasterii Giiestphalorum, 1S48. 
fi< The 8l!i December, 1&54: Some account of the defini- 
tion of the Inmiaculate Conception of tlie Most Blessed 
Moiher of God, witli the dogmatic Bull of His Holiness, 
and a Preface. By a Prieat of the Diocese of Weat- 
minEter. London. 

6. Pastoral Letter of his Eminence Cardinal "Wiseman, 
announcing the definition of the Immaculate Conpep- 
tion of the Blessed Virg-in Mary. London. 1S55. 

7. A Pastoral Charge by the Rig-ht Rev. Bishop Gillis on 
the recent dogmatical definition of the Immaculate 
Conception of the Moiit Biased Virgin Mary. Edin- 
burgh. 1S55. 

|8. On the Immaculate Conception, Nos. XIT. andXLTIL 
of Occasional Sermons, preached in Westminster Abbey. 
By Chr. Wordsworth, D.D.^ Canon ofWestniinaier. 

9. Konie: her new Dugma and our DnliES. A Sermon 
preached before the University, at St. Mary's Church, 
Oxford, on tlie Feast of tlie Annuncialion of the 
Blessetl Virgin Mary. By Siinmel Lord Bi.'ihop of 
Oxfui-d. 1855 ...,,.. 143 

VII.^L Scottish NewapapcT Directory and Guide to Adver- 
tisers. A complete Manual of the Newsjiaper Press. 
Second Edition. Edinburgh and London. 
2. The Fourth Estate: Contributiona towards a History 
of Newspapers, and of the Liberty of tiie Press. By 
F. Kiiiglit Hunt. 2 vols. Tendon ... 183 

TTIIT.- — 1.. Nouveau Manuel Compkt du Marchand Papetiw et du 
Eif-gleur. Paris. 1855. 

2. Objects in Art- Manufacture: No. 1. Paper. Kdited 
by Charles Tomlinson. Issued to Schools by the Board 
of Trade Deparlmetit of Science and Art. London. 

3. The Fibrous Plants of India fitted for Cordage, Cloth- 
ing, and Paper. With an Account of the Cultivation 
and Preparation of I' lux. Hemp, antl! their Substitutes. 
By J. Forb*3 Royle, M.D., F.ltS., &c. London. 
1855 - . - - 225 

IX. — 1. Pari iardeniary Papers relating 1o tlie J^^egoliation at 
Vienna on the Eastern Question, Presented lo both 
Houses of Parliajneul. l^art XIII. London. 1855. 
2, Le Parli de la Paix au Parlemetit Anglais; Dis- 
cuura prononce« a la Chambre dea Communes par 
Mil. Gladstone, Cobdeo, Bright, Sydney Herliert, et 
Sir James Graham. Traduction complete. Par Louis 
Hymana. Bnixelles, 1855 - . - . . 243 




Abt. P»g» 

I. — Huet, Eveque d'Arrandies; ou Le Sceplicisme Theo- 

logique. Par Christian Bortholm^ss. I^ris. 1850 - 291 

II. — I. A Tcar*s Sermons to Bojs, preached in the Chapel of 
St. Peter's College, Radley. By W. Sewell, B.D., 
Warden. Xiondoo. 1 8o4. 
2. Seven SeimoDs preached in the Chapel of Marlborough 
College. By George £. L. Cotton, M.A., Master of 
Marlborough College. London. 1856 - - - 335 

III. — The Newcomes. Slemoirs of a most respectable Family. 
Edited by Arthur Pendeonis, Esq. With illustrations 
on steel and vood by Bichard Doylei 2 tola., 8ro. 
London. 1855 350 

IV. — Selections from the Family Papers preserred at Caldwell, 
I496-I853. Presented to the Maitland Club by William 
Mure, M.P. Glasgow, 1854 378 

V. — 1. The Charities of London : comprehending the Benevo- 
lent, Edacational, and Religions Institutions, their 
Origin and Design, Progress, and present Position. By 
Sampson Low, jun. London. 1850. 

2. The Million-peopled City. By the Rev. J. Garwood. 

3. The Rookeries of London. By Thomas Beames, M.A. 
London. 1S50. 

4. Meliora. First and Second Series. Edited by Yisooimt 

5. Chapters on Prisons and Prisoners. By the Rev. J, 

6. The Sorrows of the Sircels. By M. A.S.Barber. 18.55. 

7. The Hearths of tlie Poor. By M. A. S. Barber. 1852. 

8. Notes and Narratives of a Six Tears' Mission, prin- 
cipally amoncr the Dens of London. By R. W. Van- 
derkiste, late London City Missionary. London, 1854. 

9. Sought and Saved. A Prize Essay on Ragged .Schools 
and kindred Institutions. By G.J. Hall, AI.A. Lon- 
don. 1855. 

10. Ragced Schools; their Rise, Progress, and Results. 
By John M'Gregor, M.A. 

11. Social Evils; their Causes and their Cure. By Alex- 
ander Thomson, Esq., of Banchory. London. 1862. 

12. Juvenile Delinquents; their Condition and Treatment, 
By Mary Carpenter. London. 1853. 


Art. Page 

13. Home Kefonn. By Henry Roberta, F.S. A. London. 

14. London Labour and the London Poor. By Henry 
Mayhew. London. 

16. The R^^ged School Union Mf^;az]ne. 

16. The City Missioa Magazine. 

17. The Scripture Reader's Journal - - - - 407 

, VI. — 1. A Copious and Critical Latin-English Lexicon, founded 
on the Gennan-Latin Dictionaries of Dr. William 
Freund. By the Rev. Joseph Esmond Riddle, M.A., 
Author of a Latin-English and English-LiUin Dic- 
tionary. London, 1849. 

2. A Copious and Critical Latin - English Lexicon, 
founded on the larger Latin-German LexicoD of Dr. 
■William Freund ; with Additions and Corrections from 
the Lexicons of Gesner, Facciolati, Scheller, Georges, 
Ac. By E. A. Andrews, LL.D. New York, 1851 ; 
London, 1852. 

3. A Latin-English Dictionary, based upon the Works of 
Forcellini and Freund. By William Smith, LL.D., 
Editor of the Dictionaries of Greek and Roman An- 
tiquities, Biography and Geography. London, 1855. 

4. A Smaller Latin-English Dictionary, abridg^ from 
the Larger Dictionary. By William Smith, LL.D. 
London, 1855 451 

VII. — 1. CEuvres de Fran9oi8 Arago, Secr^twre Perpetuel de 
I'Acad^mie des Sciences, publi^es d'apr^s son ordre 
s^ous la direction de M. J. A. Barral. — Notices Biogra- 
phiquee. 3 vols. Paris, 1854-1855. 
2. The Works of Henry, Lord Brougliam. Lives of Philo- 
sophers of the Time of Geoige III. London and Glas- 
gow. 1855 473 

VIII. — Memorials and Correspondence of Charles James Fox. 
Edited by Lord John Russell. Vols. L and II. 
London, 1853 513 



Art. I. — 1. ArckfJcacoii TTare'ii jLrtsi C/iarqs. 1855. 

2. Vindi&ition. of' Luther nr/ainst his Recent EjtfflUh Asaaiianis. 
Second Edition, 1855. 

3. 'rtco Sermons preached in J/erstmoncvtrT Church on the Zi^dk 
of Archdeacon Nare, btj the Rev. IL V. JSfHoU, and bif the 
Rev. J. N. Simpkinxou. 1855. 

OVV (li^cult it is for foreigTiers to UTiderstnnd tie instilu- 


involved in our constitution, in our church, in our universities !' 
How hard it is lo discover the gpritifrs which influence the nation I 
How entangled are the T&mmcRXiom of law, of literature, of 
science! Wr have all been made acquainted with this peculiarity 
in one vast branch through the l<?rrihle revelations of war. But it 
is, in fact, ii part not only of 'ibe $)*stem,' as it is called, but of 
oor character, ot our situation. It is at once our curse and our 
bles&ing. Its dangers can be guarded against^ its advanlages msj 
be made tlie most of; but iU root is deep in our very inmost 
being — we cannot lose it or change it without ceasing lo be wLat 
we are or Iiave been. 

To no jioint does this apply more truly than lo our literature 
and iheolo-ry. Oo to France or Germany, and no man will be at 
a lo6S to tell you where the most learned, the most enlightened 
men of the country are to be found. They are members of the 
Institute; they are lecturers in the College of Henri IV. j thej 
are Professors in the Univrrsitles. Here and there they may 
have risen to be Ministers of Ktate. But such a rise hfis been 
through iheir 1 iterarv eminence ; and that eminence is iUustraled, 
not superseded, by their new position, Every one knotvs where 
is the oracle at vihose mouth be is to inquire. In England it 
is far otherwise. Now and then it may be that a great light in 
theology ■ur lilslory will burst forth al Oxford or Cambridge and 
draw all eyes to itself. But these are exceptions. Look over 
the roll of our literary heroes in ancient lime* or in present. 
Engaged io the distracting labour^ of the school-room, serving 
the tables of a bank, in the back room of a public oflicp, in the 
seclusion of a rustic parish, are too often planted the men who in 

VOL. :icrii. MO. cxciir. is Fnxw» 

Arduleaeou Hare. 

France or Germany would have been cotlironed nn professorial 
chain atldrcBsing themselves to ihc rUinj; liistorinns, philolog^rs, 
or tlieologian* of the ii;jp. The evil has been pointed out in 
the Report of the late Oxford Commissinn, and may, we hope, 
he remedied to some extent hj the new one ; for an evil un- 
dnuhtcdly it is, tiiat Archimedes should he without the stcindiag- 
plnco fr^m whence he might move the world. But there ia a 
brighter side lo this state of thingis which is riot to be overEookcd. 
It is a goud ihat lig^ht should be diffused as wetl a» contentraled ; 
that ftpeculation aod practice should he combined and iiol always 
isolated ; that genius should be at times forced into um^ongenlal 
channels and compelled to ajiLinate forms of life which else 
would hecondeuined to hopeless mctlioerity, 

\'V'e have made the&e lemnrks because we are about to enter on 
a remarliahle instance of their applieabiilly. If any foreijnier 
landing in En<r]and \n£t year had asked where he sliould find the 
man best acquainted with all modern furms of thought here or on 
the Cnntinem — where he sliould find the most complete collec- 
tion of the phih'»sophi(al, theolo^ic-at, or historical literature i>f 
Germany — wbere he should [ind profound and exact srUolar- 
ship combined with the most varied and eslensive learning 
—what would have been the answer? Not in Oxford — not in 
Cambridge — not in London. He must have turned far away 
from Arcademic towns or public libraries to a secluded parish in 
Susseit, 9nd io the minister of that parish, tn an archdeacon of 
one of the least important of English dioceses, he would have 
found what he snuf^ht. He would Lave found such an one there : 
he would now fmd such an one no more. For such was Julius 
Hare, late Kector of Herstmonceux and Archdeacon of Lewes. 
There are many in humble places and in high to whooi, both oo 
public and private grounds, a brief attempt to emieavour to 
sketch ihe life and character of such a nianj to fix the ^tosition 
which he held in his generation towards bis cburcb and country, 
may not be unacceptable, l 

Jutius Charles Hare was born on the 13tU of Septembrr, 1 705. 
He w:is the tliird of four brothers, all more or less remarkable, 
and all united tofjether by an unusually strong' bond of iVatcmal 
affertion- — Francis, Augustus, Jultus, and Marcus. Of these the 
eldest and the youngest have left no memorial behind; but the 
two nenrest in yearsand nearest in character cannot be mentioned 
together without notiring the one as well as the otlier. Augustus 
Hare will lung be remembered by all who can recall the lofty and 
chivalrous sool, the firm yet fjentle heart, which was so well repre- 
sented in his bearing and countenance. He will be hmg remem- 
bered by those who never knew hira through the two volumes of 


*Sennons !o a Conntry CoDjsjegalion," vliich will probably be 
handed down to fulure frenerations as ihe first cxauiple of the 
frrea.1 improvement of rural prcnelimg in tbifniiipteent!] century — 
as a striliirto: prm»f of ihe cfTcct which a rpfined aod cultivated 
minfl may Lave in directing the dp\'otions jind livrs of ihc most 
simple and ijntn-ant populatk'n*!. But he will be remembered 
also bv the umlYiD" affection of his vnunfrer and mnri? celebrated 
brother, expressetl many a time nnd oft with a fer^'our and 
simplicity unusual in our countninen — nowhere more strikingly 
than in the revised edition of the 'Gueaees at Truth by Two 
Brothers,' in which they first appeared hefore the world. 

'Id truth, thiviigh the whole oFtliif work I liave been holding eua- 
verse with him vrhu was onee the [xtrtuer in it, as he was in all my 
thoug'lite and feeling?, from the earliest dawnuf bulh. He too is ggne. 
Bm is lie Ifwt to me? Oh no ! Uii whose heart was ever pourinff | 
forth a Htream of love, the purity and inexhaustiblt^ness of whicn | 
betokened it» heavenly ori^ii, bs he was trer stri'viiig to lift me above-i 
jnyaeit. ia otill at my side, pointing my gi»w upwRrri. Only the love i 
whieh wa.9 then hicl'icr] within liiin has now ovi^rHoweiJ an<l trs'i^g'urvd 
hi* wWle heing, and his earthly Cona is turned ieilo titat of an *ng«l of 

In ItJs early iraininif he owed mnrb to his mother, a woman ■ 
of great strength and beauty of clmrarter, daughter of Dr. 
Shipley, Eiahop of St, Asaph, and his aunt. Lady Jones, tvidow 
of the famous Ori*^ntalist. A lar^c portion of his boyhood 
and youth were spent abroad ; and to this most be in some mea- 
sure nsrribed the foreign tinge which appeared^ ai well ia the 
simplicity and impulsiveness o>f his character, a9 in his litcmrj 

Eredilertiona. * In 1811/ he playfully said, 'I saw the mark of 
uthcr's ink on the walls of the castled of Wartburfj; and there I 
first learned to throw inkstands at the nevj].' This, as we shall 
afterwards see, eipresaed, in a fuller sense than that in which he 
liad inteodcd it, the origin of much of his future lalwaurs — the 
influence exercised over his mind by fJcrmany and its great Re- 
former. His regular education was be^Tin at the Cliarterhnuse, and 
be there fell in with one *>f those golden times which at successii-e 
intervals crown the harvests of schools and colleges as well as of 
the natural world. The siime genetalion of schoollxiys numbered 
on its roll, besides his own, the names of Wadtlingtoo, thencrom- 
plished Dean of Durham, and of Orotc and Tliirlwnll, the fulure 
hislorians of Greece, not To menlinn others less known to fame, 
but whose stnjng pmctical abilities, or whose fresh and genial 
natnm, lon^; retained a bold on the respect or the aflection of 
tbetr fellow Carlhusiaut, 

From the Charterhouse he went to Cambridge in 1812. His 

B 2 ticaAcY&waX. 

J Archdeacon Hare. 

academical career was terminated by his election as Fellow of 
Ti'initv CoIIe=[e ia October, 1818; wbither, aftRr a sliort sludv 
of the legal prafessicn^ he returned in 1822, and entered on the 
office ol' AssistaJit Tulor of the Colleg^e, In the honoured suc- 
cession of those wha have occupied the princely chambers which 
open on the Ion*: green iivcnue of limes — the g^loryof the Trinity 
Gardens — JuUus Hare will always fill a tlLstin)fui&bed place, 
To the twenty years which he pasaed al Trinity Collejie he 
owed, as he says himself, * the building^ up of his mind." 
Not only as a teacher, but as a student, he entered with all 
the aniuur of his mind into tlL& p1iilolc|i!;ical learning' in which 
the University of Cnmhridge hns always been pre-eminent. 
There, toOj he laid tiie foundation of that German library 
which Iins now returned once more to the walls within which 
it was first br^un. With hja friend and colleiitjue, now Bishop 
of St. David's^ he there made accessible in an English garb 
the great work of Niebuhr* than which perhaps no historical 
work has ever had such an awakening and inspiring effect 
on the minds of the generntion to which it was offired. With 
the same eminent man he set on foot the ' Philological Museum/ 
which shared the usuii! transitory fate of such learned periodicals, 
but which during the period of its existence furnished more 
solid additions to English literature and scholarship than any 
other of the kind that has appeared. 

But it was not from the intellectual atmosphere of Cambridge 
that his mind received ils most lasting influences. There was 
the circle of his numerous and most distinguished friends. It 
has sometimes struck us that tlipre was a strength and per- 
manence in the youthful friendships of thai genetatiiin which 
we hardlyfind innur own. How far more strikinifly does Arnold 
stand out from the baekgmund of his generation hy reason of the 
group of faithful and loving equals — equals not in clmrarter or 
genius^ but in age and sympnthy — with whom he is surrounded 
from first to last. So too il was with .lulius Hare. Removed hv 
distance, by occupation, perhaps by opinions, from almost aSI of 
them, he never forgot or was forgiiltcn by them. Of 'I'hirlwall 
we have already spoken, in liis exquisitely polished Essays on 
philology and history giving the promise of that cahn, coioj>re- 
hen&ite, imperturbable judgment which has made his Kpiscopal 
Charges the chief oracles of the English Church for the last ten 
years. Sedgwick was there, awakening, as his friend well ei- 
presses it, 'an almost affectionate thankfulncBs' f for the delight 

* Iledication of ^'rmoDE un the VicIotj of Fuili. 
I GaesKS si Trulli, let Miiei, 4lli ti» p. 3S3. 


Archdeacon Hare. 


which Ms genial Wit and eloquent conversation afforded ; yet more 
for tijc free and generous s^^mpatby whith, uncSiillcd Ijj tiint-, !ie is 
still as ready cis ever to pour forth. Less knoMn, but not to be 
forgotten, was the autlior of the ' ilroad Stone of Honour ' and of 
*Tliu A^res of Faith,' to that generation the chief representative 
of the admiration for mediaeval times which has since 8pr(.'ud ba 
wide, and so fnr overshot the legitimate reactiou which was then 
unquestionEiblv needed in their behalf. Perhaps the one to whom 
he looked back with the chiefest portion of gratitude was bis 
powerful and vifornus colleague. Dr. Whewell — now the liend of 
ihat illustrious College — through whose urgency he was mainly 
induced lo exchange a legal for an academical course, a lay for 
a clerical profession. 

There was yet another and a more iolimate circle which grew 
cp round the Tulor of Trinity — the exceeding great reward of every- 
one sincerely engaged in the work of education, and, in the sense in 
which we here speak of it, (lie peculiar blessing^ of a college tutor 
— the circle of his pupUs. Many there must be who look back 
with interest to the stores oi knowledge wliicli sfreameil forth 
111 only too abundant profusion In (hat well-known lecture-room } 
many who cherish a grateful and affectionate reverence for ih&j 
memory of bim who de]ijE;hted lo be not only iht^ instructor, but! 
the friend, of those youn|^ and aspiring minds with whom he wasj 
ihUB brought into contact; — in whose very aspect they read a| 
rebuke lu all suggestions of evil, an enkiodlcinent to purity and' 
goodness. Three, however, rerjuirc especial notice — three who to 
iheir connexion with him wouhl probably have gladly coiifcgsecl 
that they owed a great porlirfnof that cultivation which has given 
them a place in the literature of their country, and on whom he 
in return looked with a love, and in one instance at least with a 
reverence, which almost made one forget that the Buperiorlty of ; 
yearft and station, to speak of nothing more, was on his side, and 
not on theirs. There was the bold and generous, it may perhaps 
be a<Ided, the rash and eccentric, spirit of one whose story, 
with hajdlv any incidents worth tetoiding, has had the singular 
fate of being told by two of the most gifted mea * of his time, 


* W« allude, of l-outw, to the- tro biugrsphirA of Joho St^^rliag, by Ari'hiIeacDa 
Ilari; aiid Mr, Curljl-;, Eacli '» Vt W rwkiini,il uuqdhsl dii; lupet iBier«iing of 
iu. author'^ vritiuj^. h wuulil be preiniiuptuouE to adjiitiicati; btitwcvti iwo tiuch 
awiij bui we iiaiitiol fortn-ar to ckpres* our conviction ihuE itiv view given of 
Sirrbng (ly Ihe Archdi*acou is njoru tnrri^i ihaii Chal giii'D \>y the hiitaniui of 
ill* FrifiKh Kvviiliicioii, It is very protwlili- iliat ih*' former has uri<l*:rsiiiti.fl the 
unoutit iiTl^icrUiiK'xtloulx^ iu l>iE 'aUTjeuru. But lu I'i the maiii ]K)iiit at Ese-ue 
hclwceu itii: twu "eUiiBeiit lib graph ere— ihe KUioa^ ai Slorling's abmidojinu-iii of I 
tlic clerical pntAssioii — v-i hate uo (tuulil tlmt t)u? A rcli-lfacnii tvus rigbt in 
■tcribiug it to tbv naipli- ca,use of ill btftlili, which Mr, Cnrlyle nwntoiiu Ui tuv«' 


Arduieacou liarv. 

and wlio certAioly left an impression oa all who cvar beard his 
converse, 5Ucli as cat! battlly he conceived by those who orJy 
knuw him tlirougb the far inferior medium of his writLea wurds. 
Tlierc was the accomplished author of the ' NoU-s on the 
P&rables,' who Las the meritof having first rscalled the course of 
Kng^lish iheolojK)' from patristic to pxegetical studies, wfier the 
doclitie nnd fall of the Oxford ScLoul, atid who, more thui 
any other of Hare's pupils, imbibed from him the accurate di&- 
criminBti(jii which has produced the scries nf delig'btfLiI little 
Toluincs on * Word*,' ' Proverbs,' and * the Hn|jlish l^angaagb,' 
There was finally the noblc-hearlcd man, who, wliatevcr may be 
thought uf the obscurity of his fttylc, the insufiicicacy of his 
arg^uments, or the ernjncuusiiess uf sotnc of his contlusioiis, 
is perhaps the best example that this age can show of that 
deP'p prophetic fervour, of that power of apostolic sympathy 
which awakens not the le&s because it oftcji fails to satisfy — 
which edifies not the less because it often fails to convtiiL«. 
We may not be able to go along with the vehement evpressiotjs 
ofadmiratioiilorMr. MauriLf's works which fill the Archdeacon'* 
pages, but wc can well uiideistnnd and honour the g-eciuine en- 
thusiasm with which he laboured to bring all the world to ugroe 
with him in bis estimate of his friend and pupil, and, as was 
afterwards the caaCj his near and dear kinsman. 

In 1S32 the family living of llerstmonceux in Sussex hcrame 
vacant by t)ie death of his uncle, and, his elder brother Augustus 
declining to leave the scene of his happy labours at Alton, the 
Rectory of Herstmonceux was oflered to Julius. He at once 
iiccepted the charge, though we can easily imagine the pain with 
which the Fellow of Trinity exchanjed the studies and the 
society of Cambrida;? for the active mini sti'al ion and the rutixcd 
life of a country parish. 

It Was in the imerval between the acceptance of the liviap and 
his entrance on its duties that he enjoyed a year's absence on the 
Continent, mostly with his friend and ardent adinircr, Walter Savage 
Landor, whose now celebrated ' Imaginary Conversations,' which 
contain some nf the most beautiful wriiing in the language, he had 
himself been mainly iiisirumental in introducing to the Ensllsh 
public. In the rourge of this jouriify he first visited Rome, alivays 
an epoch in the life of any man who can think and feel, more 
cBpecially to one whose Cftmhridtt'e studies hnd necessarily drattii 
him into the careful »tudy of the beginnings of Homan history, and 

bcfii a murL- pfctcxL I( so happi'iis Ihpt *'<-' had onrsclvt-s nintile opportunities of 
abaerriiif; the wurkiqg of Stiirimg','; minA ot the Umi; in qu(.«lion, unil wv are per- 
lUAtli-d itiat, as h'\& interest in his iiar&chu! irork iru intense, so hiii relufiuice ta 
abuidon LC wu Jeep iLbd uafi'i^nl. 


ArehdoOGOn Jiare, 




irliOBe love for art amminted utmost to a passion. One t'here was, 
too, then living itittie C'apitnl whose presence slirred theihoupjhls 
ami wnrmrcl die heart of many an Enn^lish travelipr, and lent an 
additiuua] tliaTin even to the glory of tlie Seven Hills and the trea- 
sarrs of the Vatican. It was the begitmiotr of his life-long 
intimacy with Bunsen ; 30 intimacy confiriacd and cemeoted 
when Lu nfter years ihe Prussian Minister took op his residence 
in the piirish of the friend, nhusc umne »Tiinds prominent nn the 
coll of tliose with which the elab< irate work ou Hippolytas and 
his Age is connected bv its illustrious author. 

One curious incident is worth recording, wliich marked hia 
stay at Home. Whilst there he preached a sermon in the ICoglish 
chapel — treatinj]; of some of the feelings with which tinvellerB 
oug^bt to be antmatcd — on the characteristic text, ' What went ye 
«at into the wilderness for to see? A prophet? yea, 1 say unto 
you, and more than a prophet.' We will give tbe aneedoto in 
hit own words :— 

* From the >)nbji*et • it came home to the hearts of a part of the con- 
gre^tiun, nnii in cumptiante with their wbh(?5 T endeavourerl to obtain 
the consent of thu Papal censor to its pubhcation at Kome, having 
received a hint that that consent would not he withheld. For 1 had 
been misuiiid->rj.[ijod — rw was naturaE enouah — in ihe pai>snge where I 
tenueil Roiiif ilih fai^y'id city, and liad b«ai snppoaed lo have caJltid it 
\!aii faitlifid city; whereupon, wiiile suuie of my Protestant hearers 
were ofTt^iifii^d by the expression, rumour was busy in reporting that a 
jwrmoii had been prcaeht at the Euglibli cliap«l speaking very favour- 
ably of RanianiHEti The inijDrtinotur which T applied fur was 

iiot refused ; hut proceeding at Rome are so dllaiory, that monilia 
pushed by, and I came away before it was obtained. PerJiups the delay 
WHS a chil substitute for a refusal.' 

He returned from Rome id the sprin|[ of 1834, bringing with 
him many cosdy works of art lo adorn his new home. One of 
these, a Madonna of RapbaErl, which he bouglit .it Florence, 
in a cLaracterlstic access of enthusiastic tenderness he in- 
sisted on carr^-iug in his owa hands over the long ascent of 
S. Gotliant. 

And now lie settled in the sphere of duty from which he never 
afterwards movcd^ and in which was afterwards associated with 
him the beloved anil honoured partner of his later years, sister of 
his friend and pupil Frederick Maurice. Let us pause for a 
moment on a scene which became so much a part of himself and 
of Kis writings, that for all who Icncw him during the last twenty 
years of his life the recoUectiuus of Herstmunceux and of 
Julius Unrc were almust insepai'able. 


Archdeacon Hare. 

On the edge of the long sweep of bjgli land which encloses the 
mar&h of Pe^ensey Level slretclics the parish of HerstinoQceux,* so 
calletj Trom the 'weald,' ^[oie&t,' or' hurst' of Anderida, which once 
coverixl the hills of K.cnt and Sussex, and frum the Norman funily 
of Mimcpaux, who first appear .is the owners of the praperty. The 
church standi ut the cilrcmitv of the parish, on an eminence 
immediately ovcrrloukiu^ tLie flat plain un whuse sbure the Coa- 
queror hmded, with the hright line of sea and ihc bluff promontory 
of Geachey Hendin theciistance. Immediately licncath the church 
are the ruins of tlerstmonceux Castle, cumuiunly saiid tu be the 
oldest brick building in England since the time of the Komanft; 
the ancient scat uf the Fioniicses, Dacrcs, and Naylors, from whom, 
in the reign of Anne, it passed by jnorriage into the bands uf 
Francis Hare, Bishop of Cliiclie&ter, well known as chaplain of 
the great Duke oL' iMarl borough, and ranked by bis contempora- 
ries on a level with Bentlcy for his critii.'al sagacity and learning.. 
The Castle was dismantled by the bishop's descendants ; in the 
last gcai;'ratii:in the property was suld ; and the i>nly connexion 
wliicli llie Hare family retainet! wiih tbe place was ihe benefice, 
which still remained in their g-ift. The llcctocy stood far removed 
from church, and castle, and village ; and in iln tranquil retreat 
Hare's remaining years were spent. Of all peculiarities of 
English life, none perhaps is bo nnicjue as an English parsonage. 
But luow peculiar even amongst English parsonages was the 
Rectory of Herstrnonccux I The very first glance at the cntrancc- 
lialS revealed tUe character of its master. It was not merely a 
house with a good library— the wliule house was .t. library. The 
vast nucleus which he brought with him from Cambridge grew 
year by year, till not only study, and drawing-room, and diuimg- 
ruom,, but passage, and antechamber, and bedrooms were overrun 
with the ever- advancing and crowded bookshelves. At the time 
of his death it had reached the number of more than 12,000 
volumes ; and it must ho further remembered th.-it these volumes 
wer'e of np ordioarv kind. Qf all libraries which it has been our 
lot to traverse, we ne^cr saw any equal lo this in the combined 
excellence of quantity and quality ; nonein which there were so few 
Worthless, so many valuable works. lis original basis was classical 
and philological; but uf later years the historical, pbilosophical^ 
and theological elements outgrew all the rest. The peculiarity 
which distinguished tlic collection probablv from any other, pri- 
vate or public, in the kingdom, was the preponderance of German 

* Every parlivular ivGpM'iin^ the liieinry nf HersUaftnctiUX has beeu carefully 
callcciiHl in n vnliinbk j^aptT in iln- Sussex Aivhitologknl Colketioh. Tol. iv, 
pp. 125-008, by Mr. V^^bUblfS, for gcvvral yt-ars tiirale of Arcfwlcawm Hnre. it 
■imbodieB man}' inlvresling bim! minute remarks of tiiu ArchileooiD tiiniEvlf. 


Archifeacpn Hart- 

Kteraturp. No work, no pamphlet of any note in the teettiing fata- 
I>(^ue$ of Ciprman booksellers escaped his uotice ; anil willi liis 
knowledge of the subjects and uf tilt* pruljable elutidntion which 
ihey would rec&ive fmtn this or that quarter, they forniptl ihem- 
MtreB in natural and harmonious groups round what already existed, 

» BO as to give Iii the library both the appearance and rcalitTj not 
of a mere acenmulELlion ot' parts, but of an organic and self-multi- 
plying' whole. And what perhaps was vet more remarkable was 
llie manner in which the centre r>f this whole was himself. With- 
out a catalo;S»iie, without assistance, he knew wh«re every book 
Kiv&s to be found, for what it was valuable, wliat relation it bore 
to the rest. The library was like a magnificent tree which be 
had himself planted, of which be hati nurtured the growth, which 
spread ils branches far nnd wide over his dwellinjir, and in the 
Ksbmie of which lie delighted, even if he was prevented for the 
^Biaoment from g;^therin^ its frt^its y.>t pruning its Luxuriant foliage. 
la the few spaces which this tapestry of literature left unoccu- 
pied were hung the noble pictures which he had brought with 
him from Italy, Tu biin they were more than mere worliLS of art ; 
they were companions anil guests ; and thev were the more re- 
markable from their contrast with the general plainness and sim- 
plii'ily o( the house and household, so urriikc tu the usual accom- 
paniments of luxury and grandeur, in which we should usually 
seek and find works of such costly beauty. 

In this home, — now bard at work with his myriad volumes 
around him at his student's desk, — now wandering- to and fro, 
book m liand, between the various rooms, or up and down the 
loDg ganlen walk overlooking the distant L«vel with its shifting 
lights anit shades, — ^he went on year by year extending the range 
and superstructure of that vast knowledge of which the solid 
basis had been laitl in the classical studies of his beloved univer- 
sity, or correcting, with an elaborate minuteness which to the 
bystanders was at times almost wearisome to behold, the long 
sucreision of proofs which, dunng the later years of his life, were 
hardly ever out of his hands. Many, tun, were the friends of 
his boyhood, and youth, and manhood, who were gathered under 
^that hospitable roof; many thcsciholars old and young who knew 
^■ihat tbey should find in that copious storehouse knowledge 
which tliey would vainly seek elsewhere on British grounci ; 
many and Inng were the evening hours in which he would read 
ah>u(l, nfter his wont, the choicest treasures of prose or poetry, 
truth or fiction, from the most ancient or the most modem sources 
of English literature. 

We have dwell on this aspect of his life, because wc l«?licve it 
[•to ha'.e been the most unlike to any other which could be named 


contcm pora.ries , • 
bejcmtl recall. But it would be to overlook a very curioHB, «« 
well as most Impurtiinl and instructive, port uf liis career, ii' we 
were -to furget to ask liow tins shriue oi lenrjiing rose and 
flourislied on wbnt uiigiht have seemeil the micong'eaial soil of 
the WetJd of Sussex-— liow tbe Cainbrid;ie &f'hular was united 
with the coualry pastor — wliat bcacCit the white- frotUed pea- 
sants or tiie aeigbbouring tler^y renped from tlie appeatiincc 
of a cbaracter or a borne amongst tliem wbich Could bardly kavc 
bcea more unlike all around it bad it been transplauled from 
another honiispbere. Tliose of our readers wbo have turned 
over tbe pages of tlie verv ioieresliug volume lately puliUsbed 
on tbe reorganisatian of tbe Civil Service, will remeniber tbe 
clever^ tbough not altogether conclusive, objection urged against 
tbe proposed reforms by tbe Uuder-Secretary of State for tbe 
Home DepartmenL :* — 

' It may bcinstrucfiveas woU Manmsingto inquire wliat wnidd be the 
effect wtre my two immorTal friends [Grate and Maeaiilay] to descend 
from the cltiud^t, and assume Jbr a few days tlie liumbltdifij^uiseof Home 
Office ckrki. I very much f«ir the public would not diacover the 
change. Tlie more exact knowiedge of tbe coraposiijon of the S|iartun 
" Mora," or tlie Macedonian pliulaux, vnuld not ptep out in a letter 
fixing tlie permanent atafi' of a regituent of militia - liie elcjquence of ihe 
great Idfitorinn of our const itulioiul liberties V'ould iiot be recogiii^d 
in a letter pointing out to a county ma<ristriii[e tbut tie Lad strained tbe 
provisions of the Vagrant Act. Tlic gods would return to Olympus 
undetected, leaving no Bto^ravraz Hofii) beliind.' 

May we venture to a$k the same question 09 to anotberof Mr. 
Wuddin^ton's former stboolfE^iiows? would he, too, have reiaraod 
undetected to his Cambridge Olympus, bad the University 
thought fit to recall the most learned of bet sons to occupy his 
(iltia™ place ainon^t her professors? or was there, even in these 
distant wilds, a sense of worth and power which tbey Would else 
bave never known ? 

An active parish priest, in tbe proper sense of the word, bo 
never was ; nut so much, perhaps, by reason of his lilcrary 
pursuits as of bis desultory habits. Constant, re^ubr, vigilant 
miuisCrattons u> the pour, were cot his wonl^ perhaps they 
were not hi* call, N<)r cau he be said as a general rule to 
have oceounnodated bis preaching to his parisbionera. Compared 
with the eborl and homely addresses of bis brother Anpisttis to 
the pwor o( Alton, bis long and elaborate dist.'ouTses will hardly 
hold their place as mudeU of parochial exhortation, even to mure 

* Pnpt'n relAting to the ReirgaDuut'ni of the Civil Serntt, p. yjl. 


ArchdmcOH Sarv. 





«nliebteaF(l rongregntiona than thosf of Herstmonceux. . But it 

would [>c u grt-at Mistake tt> measure hLs influence on hh jjariali^ 
OT liis iiitoresc in it, b^' these iniJicattons. Cuming to Heiatmoncenx 
as lie ilid— 1«) tiie scene of liis owe c&rl^ yem:s — reinemWred asA 
cbilJ by lite ulJ iuhaLiItants — hauuured as the representative of a 
iiuail^' lon^ knottii amongst tbein— he was Troni the first bouod to 
,t]iem, and they to him, by a Uak which y^-ars always rivet with 
agihot wLich both parties are often uncoiiscious till It is rent 
er. His own knowledge of tljcir history, of their abodes. 
Of their characters, pcrhups in i;i'eat me-isure from the same 
OMIKy WEI3 very remarkable; and idtlou^h his vi&its to them 
might be torn para lively fevr, yet theirs to the rectory were ccw»' 
Ct&nt, the more so because tbey Tvere always sure to receive a 
ready welrome. Whatever might be the wink in which he was 
employed, he at once laid it aside at the call of the humblest 
pari^lLiuner, to advise, lOosQle, Usten, assist. Tiiere wa^ that, 
too, in his manner, in his words^ in Ills voice and countenance, 
which cuiihl nut fad to inipre^ even the dullest ivilb a sense of 
truth, of detcrpmiatioc, of uprightue^a — -yet more, with a tcaae of 
deep religious feeling-, of abhorrence of sin. of love of goodness, 
of humble dependence on God. Sucb a feeling trnti^pircd in his 
rdinury cuiner^itiun with them ; it tran^ipiced still more in the 
'deep devotion with «vhicli he went through the various services 
of liie church. 'If you Itave never U^aril Jnllub Hare read the 
Communion service/ was the expression of one who had Leeu 
much struck, &• indeed &1] were, hy his mode of reading this 
especial portion of the Liturgy, 'you do not know what the 
words of that service contain/ And In his si^rmuns, needk-ssly 
long and provokingly inappropriate as they sotnetiinei wtre^ there 
were from time to time passages so beautiful in themselves, ^u 
CWgetiial to the time and place, that Hcrstmonceujf may well be 
proud, a* it may well be thankful, to have its name, its scenery, 
its people osiioriatfd with tliou^hts and with languagL- so just 
and so noble. Who is there that ever has seen the old church 
ol Her»tnionceux, with its yew-tree and cliurchyard and view 
ver sea atwl land, and will not leel that it has received a nteniorial 
ir ever in the touching alltiS'iona to the death ol' Phillis Hoad,* 
to Ihe ^rave of Lina DcimUng-^t to the nncient church on ibv 
ill-tup ? Who that ever heard or read the striking intr»- 
uction of the stories of Hooker's death, and of tlie warninc; of 
St. Philip Neri, in the sermons on the ' Chariots of God, '^ and tm 
the ' Close of the Year,' will not feel the power aijd IJle given to 


Archdeacon Hare^ 

the pastor of ihe humblest flock \iy his command of the vaned 
Ireasures of things new and old, instead of the commonplaces 
licli fill up BO many vacant pages of the sermons of an ordinary 
jreacher, Notseldo^m, thus, a passagcol'Scripture or anf^vent of 
sacred history was explained and hroUght home to the apprehen- 
sions of his most unlettered Iiearers, when it seemed to those 
who listened as if the windows of heaven were opened for a flood 
qf light lo cunie down ; and when the purest and most practica! 
leasona of morality were educed with surprising: force aad 

It was iniposslble but that Hcrsttnonceux Rectorv should have 
become the centre of the surrounding clergy. The inHuence 
which was g;i-aduaily fostered by the mere fact of his presence 
famongst them received its legitimate sphare when, in 1^40, be 
was appointed by Bisliop Otter to the Archdeaconry of Lewes. 
This office be discbartre*! with remarltable zeal and succeis. He 
icntcrcd upon it at a time when the arcbidiaconal office was just 
^■Bsumin;; new importance; and his interest in ils functtrms was 
lently enbancetl by the eircumstance that his rolleague at 
icUester was no less a person than Arcbdeacoo Maiming, for 
whom, amidst many differences of opinion and principle, he felt, 
and continued lo feel, the warmest admiration, and maintain il 
chise intercourse up to the moment when they were parted by his 
Colleao^ue's secession to the Church of Rome. With a remark- 
able want of regularity and punctuality in Ids fieneral habits, he 
combineil an exLraordiJiary precision and method in dealing with 
letters and papers, and hence the business that naturally might 
have seemed uncongenial to his tastes was more easily sur- 
mounted than might have been expected, and his presence was 
I Aeosibly felt throughout the portion of the dincesc placed under bis 
[superintendence. But the most tangible, certainly the most per- 
manent, result of the Archdeaconry was !o be seoa in bis Charges. 
It is not too tnuch to say that these addresses occupied, with 
the single exception of the Charges of his distinguished friend Ihe 
BisLinp of St, David's^ the first place in this field of ecclesiastical 
literature. Amongst the Charges of his ArchidjaLonal brethren 
there were none lo be named with them for the public interest 
they almost invariably attracted. They labotired indeed under 
the defects inseparable partly from his own style, jiartly from the 
circumstance that, including under their undefined range all sub- 
jects, from the pewing of a church up to the war with Russia, 
tliey were marked by a certain incongruity of tumpositioa 
amounting aEmost to grolcsqueneas. And for his audience, we can 
quite iniiiglac that their inordinate length may at times have been 
calculated to produce the effect which we once heard uscribtid to 


Archtkonvn Hare, 

them by the goml-Kumoured wit of one of our most eminent pre- 
lites,— * It 1 IiimI been one of his clcrg^y, and been c/icrffsd in that 
ly, I should have been like a gun — 1 sliould hai\e j/oiie i/ff".' But 
HtH iJl these drawbacks there was in his deliver)" and his style 
kinilltnz tire, a lruiupot-cal], which few coald hear or read 
ritliout emotion : there was in his arjjumcnts an accuracy of 
Bscarch, a cAlinness of judgment, 6 clearness of statement, which 
lade them the best resource for any one who wisbeil to know the 
Eights and wron^, ihe li^lits and shades, of the leading prartical 
ine&tions of the day. Take any of the topics which have been 
ihi* nucleus ot tlie most embittered and entangled cod trover aies, — 
the mnmag-e of a dei'eased wife's sister — Maynoolli — the manage- 
ment clauses of the Privj Council — ami the best answer to any 
questions you may lifive Ui ask cnnremiiig: them will be found in 
the Chars-es of the late Archdeacon of Lewes. Thcv for the 
most part turn do merely temporary (juestiona, but the priiiciple& 
and the spirit in which he discusses them are eternal. They relate 
chiellv, as addresses of this nature must relate, to ihe extemals 
mlber than the cssepti^ls of religion ; but no one was more aware 
of this than himself, or more carefully {e^uarded against any miscon- 
ception that might arise from, it. In this respect the last words of 
his last Charge — the more tourhinig from its evidently Knfinished 
state — may well stand as bis parting interpretation of this whole 
phue of his life. 

'It may be deemed by ^omo that I have been attaching too much 

nomeni to the ouiward means fnr extending the Ein'^doru of God. 

Cliesfl are, indeed, the Tii'eans of which I am especially called upon lo 

^|ic.ik on rbe present uecasion. But If I were to suppose that the 

KniL^oni of God Hotilcj. qome upon us in its pow(?r, as a L'un.'4;nuence 

)f the revival of Convocation, I should be under aa y;rgss a tielusion a* 

lii»e who are looking: out fur its cjomiiig, to the last new inter[ir(,'tiii:ioii 

>f die iJonk of Daniel, or of ihe Apocalypse, to what is going tin at 

I Constantinople, or on the H'tie, or on the Euphrates. To boili th(se 

[Diodes of idolatry, to the idolalrj- of outward nieutiB. and to the iiJoIatry 

irf" outward sign-t. the complete answer in cunluined in those dj^iiie 

L Words — i/m K'Hffdom of Gnd is iciljiin yotc. TJien alone will outward 

ignt^ and outward means have any power, O let us ever pray that 

Tihat Kingdom may thus come io each of us individually, am), through 

He niuUial help and labour of each, to the whole Church.* — Liut 

Charge, pp. 'J3, 24. 

U mav have been inferred from what we have said that we 
should regard, and that he himself rcRardetl, his proper sphere 
lij have been neither in the labours of a parish nor yel in the 
mnnagement of an Archdeaconrj, but in the guidance of the more 
rdcnt spirit*, of the more cultivated minds, which he had once 



jirekdeaecn Hare. 

Itnonm, anrT w>iich he alwaTS deli{;;!ited again to meet within tlie 
walls of hi? iiwn University. This spliere was not (jTrantet! to 
him ; but on iwo occasions he was pnablctl to show how deeply 
he valued the opportunity of recurring to it — how powerful th* 
rffect occasioned by even the lempomry appeorance of such s 
man in tVie Arademic world. Those who were present nt Cnm- 
brid^ in the winter of 1S39, and iIie spring of !840, will 
remember the strange apparition — as one mijbtidmost rail it — of 
the Selert Preacher of those two periods in St. Mni'v's pulpit. 
It WHS many years ^ince he had stofd in that place. A tradition 
floated in the undergraduate worKI, that on the last lime when he 
had appeared there the sermon lind rolled on its seemingly intep- 
jninable length far beyond the usual limit of Acaifcniic afternoon 
diseourses. and, what was more important, far hf-ynnd the time 
allotted to the early dinner-lmurof the great College, <e!ehrated for 
its rivalry with that to which the preacher belonged. Whether 
from ancient feud, or shear weariness of spirit, or the natural 
pangs of hun^'BF, the numerous members of this community ate 
said to have manifested their impatience by the most unseemly and 
nnequivocal si^s. and the sermon on *the Children of Lipht' fit 
Uras afterwards published atthcieqtttstof (he members of Trinity 
College) was closed amidst the audible scTapiiigs and shufflings 
of a multitude of invisible feet on all sides of the eloquent preacher. 
Very different was the srene during the delivery of the two noble 
courses of sermons on ' the Victory of Faith ' and on ' the Mission 
of the Comforter.' No doubt in the interval Academic prejudice 
bad been abated — Academic roughness softened. But there bad 
been a change in tlic preacher also : the long sonorous sentences 
Were the same, and the vast range ovet the concentric spheres of 
philosophy and religion, but there was an earnestness of purpose — 
A breadth and depth of feeling — which seemed to fill the stream 
of his discowrse with a new and Irresistible impulse; and as 
lie stood before the vast congregation— listening in breathless 
lilenrc to his impassioned appeat' — -his eyes glistening, !us voice 
deepening with the increasiiig vehemence of his emotion, it 
seemed indeed as it had been a prophet amongst thcin. 

These sermons perhaps formed the culminating point of his 

.iune. He never again appeared in so public a position before the 

'world. But he tool; an energetic part ifi all the ecclesiastical 

questions of the day, until disabled by the repeated attiicks of an 

internal disorder, which, amidst much pain and suffering patiently 

and cheerfnlly borne, brought with it the greatest of all trials to an 

active mind, the incapacity of sustained application and work. 

.Alleviated as it was by the constant care and skill of Sir Benjamin 

'Brodie,, who took a more than professltmal interest in Ids pnlicnt's 


Aixhdeacon Hare, 



recoTery, yet year by year the effort of writing; and exertion hecnme 
greater; anJ for mtintlis he was altogcllier prevented I'rojn Inking; 
any active sliare In jiaioi'liial duty. In tht? nulunin uf 1854 lie 
ilelivcrwl with ilifficulty his Jaat Clinr^e lf> tlie rierwy of !us Arch- 
dieaconry, am! on the ^(Hh of January, 1855^ lie expired at Herst- 
SBoncpux Rertory, in the arms of her wlio fnr tlie last Irn years 
had <*sl ft steady sunshine over his life. One sv^, eminently 
chantcteristir, broke the all but enlire unconsciousness uf his 
last hours. When asked to change liis position, ho answered 
nothing-, bat, pniGtitig with hii fiager ai he spoke, said, ' Up- 
wards^ upwards.'* 

On llie 30th of January his remains were conveyed to their 
resting-place in Hcrstmonceux churchyard, T'rnm the Rectory 
to the clmrch the body iifas home at the head of a mournful pro- 
cession, increased as it w<mnd nlo^nij through its three miles' 
coursp, by tlie succ<?ssive troops of parishionere and clergy who 
joined it at the severa.1 stages ai its progress. 1 1 waa a clear bright 
day, in the midst of the unusually cheerless and dreary winter of 
that period, so dark with public disaster and distress ; and the 
features of the wide landscape of plain, and sea, and distant pro- 
montory, stood out in the snnslitne as the mournful band were 
gnlliered around the a^ed yew-tree, on the verge of the rising 
gmtmd beside the ancient church. Beneath that yew-tree was the 
htimble cms* which niarke(3 the grave of Itis brother Marcus. 
The two cider of that fourfold band slept far away beyond the 
tea — Francis at Palermo, Anjfustus in the Roman cemetery 
beside the Pyramid of Costius, hallowed by so many dear and 
illustrious recollections of the English dead, Anfl now the 
last of the four brothers was laid in the dust ; and as the 
mourners stood round, many a heart must have been struck with 
the melancholy lbo'U«;ht that the last link of a long familiar story 
Was in him broken and buried. 

Hul it was not only the revered pastor of a country parish, or 
the last member of a remarkable family, that was there interred, 
Round the grave might Ir' seen rlergy of many different shades of 
religious belief from far and near, who were there to pay their 
frihate of affection and respect to one whose very differences 
brought o«1 bis union of heart and feeling with them. And not 
those only who were present, but many in various classes and 
it»g« of life, when they heanl that Archdeacon Hare was no 
more, felt that they had lost afriend, an instruclOT, a guide. 
Let OS ask what this loss has been? What place was filled in 

* For a ileUiiLcil ncrnaiil nf tii> last moawtiliL, tad fbr muijr jusi mnarki on Ms 
rlitncur.wc nifi^r tu \ht iD(vr(!sdiigcermoiu.l)f twowluikiww Iujb v«U.dtetiilv 
of which 7c hATc prvtiied lo this article. 


Arcltdeacm Mare. 

his generation by htm whose voice we ehall now bear no more 
amongst us? Wliat he bas done which may remain? Whal he 
has lej't for us to tlo ? 

To use the somewhat nntiqimted iFitiguage of the Inat century. 
Archdeacon Hare's career migli I i»e destribeil as that of anemment 
scholar and divine. It ia true that the wnrcls as applied to him 
convey an erroneous impression, Tlie two spheres iu him were so 
closely fused together, and both wery so truly the expression of 
the eiitiriQ man within, that it is difficult to consider theni apart. 
Still for convenicni^e sake we may do so, moving gradually I'rom 
the outward to the inward as our story leads us on, The 
Sfholnrship of Julius Hare wna of the kind which pf^nctraletl 
the wlude frame of his mind. Like all English schi^larship, it 
was built up on a classical basis, and the elfect of this, enlar^d 
as it was by the widest view of the ancient writers,, never It^ft 
hiiu. Greece and Rome were always prRsent to his mind ; and 
when he endeavoured to arouse the clergy of Sussex to their 
duties by the strains of Alcaeus^ it was only one instanee out of 
many ni which his <lecp deli^Lit in classical aatjc|ui(y fouml its 
vent in the common occ-usions of life. To the older school of 
Knglish elegant scholarship he hardly helonped, but in a profound 
and philosophical knowledge of the learni'd languaces he was 
probably second lo none even in the brilliant age of his Cam- . 
bridge contemporaries ; and he was one of the first examples 
that England has seen not merely of a scholar but of a ' philo^ 
loger^' of one who studied language not by isolated rules but hy 
general laws. 

This precision of seholarship showed itself in a form which is 
perhaps^ to many^ one of the chief assncialions connected with his 
name. Almost any one who has ever heard of Archdeacon Hare's 
writings has heard of his strange spelling. Kvery one knows that 
his sermons were not ' preached,' like those of ordinary mortals, 
but 'preacbt;^ tliat his books were nnt ' published' but ' pub- 
lisht.* It is but due to his memorj' to remind our readers that it 
, as moat people imagine, an nrhitrary fancy, but a deliberate 
Son founded an undoubted facts in tlie lilng'lish language, 
which dictnteil his deviation from ordinary practice. His own 
statement of his principle is contained In a valuable and inle- 
lesting essay on tlie subject in the Philological Museum ; and 
it was maintained, in the first instance, noLonly hv himself but by 
his two illustrious colleagues at Cnmbridge. But Bishop Thirl- 
wall openly abandoned il in his History of Greece, and has never 
recurred to it; and Dr. Whewell has confined it to his occa- 
sional efforts in vGrs.e. It was characteristic of the man that 
Hare alone persevered to the end ; and whether it were a hymn- 

Archdeacon Hare. 



book for his parish church or a monumental tablet, a ficrmati 
na%el r>r a gTavc discourse on the highest matters of church ami 
slate, he woulil never abandon what he considcreil the true 
standard of correct scholarship, or countenance the ascmali^^ of 
(lie popular practice. We may justly smile at the excess to 
whifik this fjertinacity was carried ; but It was an index of that 
unwearied dUiuPuce, of tlial conscientious stickling Sm truth, 
which honourably distinguished him amongst his contemporaries ; 
it was an index also, we may fairly alloTV, of that curioua dis- 
reg'ard for conjiru»ty which, more than any other single cause, 
marreil his usefulness in life. 

The scholarship nf Archdeaton Hare was rcraarkable for its 
combination with his general learning-. Learning as an acquisi- 
tion is not perhaps uncommon ; but as an available pusscssion 
it is a very rare ^ift, It is easy to accumulate knowledge; 
but it is not easy to digest, to master, U> reprcxiucc it. This, 
however, was certainly accomplished in the case of Archdeacon 
Hare; and wlicn wo think with regret of the g^iants of learning 
in former days, or of the superficial literature of our own, 
we may console ourselves by the reflection that we have had 
one at least amongst us who was sure to have consulted all 
the oracles, dend or living, within his reach, on any subject 
on which he rentored to speak. And this was the more re- 
markable from the width of his range, Al the time when he 
first appeared as a scholar, iic and his companion Thirlwall were 
probably the only Englishmen thoroughly well versed in the 
literature of fiermany ; and this pre-eminence, even in spite of 
the ever-increasing knowledge of that country in Ensland, he 
retained to the last. His acquaintance with German literature 
extended to its minutest details ; indeed, his earliest publications 
were translations of some of the German romances of La Motte 
Fouqiic and Ticck ; and many who have never read any of his 
graver works have reason to be grateful to him for the dolightl'ui 
garb in which he first introduced to them 'Sintram' and the 
' Litll'C Master.' But it was especially in theology that tlii$ 
branch of bis learning made itself felt. One other name for a 
time was more prominentiv known as the English student and 
champion of German divioitv : ' Puscv's: Answer ' Ut Mr, Rose's 
attack on <Tennan Rational isni, though now almost forgotten in 
the greaicr celebrity of its author's subsequent writings, must 
always be regarded as the first note of cortlial salutation Jnter- 
chang:ed between the theologians of England and Germany. The 
H^ebrew Professor has since drifted so far away from the position 
which be then maintained that he has long since caiscd to be 
identified with the country to which be owes so much ; and 




Archdeac<m Hart. 

though his lectures still, it is believed, breathe the atmosphere of 
his original studies at Bonil and tlalle, his published wrJtiQgs for 
the moat part point oniy to the oiore ordinary sphere ui Patristic 
or Anglican theology. Not so the Archdeacon of Lewes, What- 
ever be wrote or thought was coloured through and through with 
German research and German speculation. Schleiorciaclier and 
Nitzch, Daub atkd Liieke, wer6 as famiUai' in bis mouth &s 
Tillotaon or Seeker, Maiit or D'Oyl^'. He quoted them without 
apology ; he used them without rtserve. lou could no more be 
ignorant of their presence io bls writiflga tbsio of their b(jok» in 
his library. Whatever may be the effect of German tbcoloi^y in 
Eng;land, whether it be good or evil, ^reat or small^ there is no 
other single individua.1 who has so largely contributed to this 
■Bfult as Julius Hare. To a great extent the German laitguage, 
espectally the language of German theologians, will always ho to 
us a dead language — a tongue in which the learned will converse 
with each other, but not a imediuin of popular communication. 
This is, in some respects, a great convenience-. There afe always 
subjects ill which it is impossible Inr the mind of a whole nation, 
or of two whole nations, to be simultaneously on the same level ; 
and in such matters a separate language is the best means of 
inteicoiirse between those who are rep.lly able to form a judgment 
on the questions at issue. For this reason, we confess that we 
cnn never luok with much hope or favour on mere traaslacions of 
German works on theology or philosophy. It is iie:it to impas- 
aib1e that tliey should convey to the uneducnied Knglishman the 
impression which they received from theOei-man author. Often, 
'the mere fact of translntiiin rcuders them utterly uniatelU- 
■.• The real interpreters of German thought are those who, 
receiving it themselves, and umierslandiog by expei'lence ils 
strength and its weakness, arc able to reproduce it in an English 
garb, or rnther to develop and animate English literature by the 

Thii woiS eminently the work of Arehdeaeon Hare ; for^ though 
BO deeply versed in foreign learning, be yet never lust the feeling 
or the position of an English gentleman and an English clergy- 
man. No one of his time was less of a copyist. Few minds 
of liis titnc were more thoroughly native and original. The 
intluences of mjodern Germany were powerful upon him ; and in 

* We tt\tc\ nearly &t nrail'ftfn n stutcnfe, from sn EngUeti Teivan, of B book 

dImvutv inilL'i-i] evcQ in tW original Inug^ia^e, byt vei raulainina mucb T»lualilu 

I ihongtii. niiil cenuiiily urnkmg liite the ihipk liarkni-SB of the following remarks 

' '(NilCfh's 8)-8li'm of ChriBlvun DMlrice, ^ lO.'l): — 'CAri-nfrau ponrrn/nsj ii ilividtd 

infu two U'ldiiijf srcd'ous— /Alt of lin^ or tie tnid paTCieipatiii! in ifailt ; niid llioi 

nf ilnilh, ar thr Imd u-hick has partivipiilai tn ike sumt. Sin ami dtath ore here 



hia leiter to the editor of the * English Review/ in reply to a 
calumntuus attack upon him eoataiued ia that jouroal, he has 
himself deacnbed witli admirable distTimination the effect they 
have had, or ought to have^ gj) this geiieraliotj. But it ^»9 ■ 
loftier and broader position on which he look his stand. His 
acailcmicul youth bad been cast in a time when the finer spirits 
of liotli Universities were openiDg Iq tiie tiiftw which broke up 
the fmst o[ the la^t centurv. It waa at OKrurd the a^e of the 
Oriel acliool — of that volcanic eruption which left as its two per- 
maninit tmccs oa the history of this generation the saiiiee of 
Arnold auil of Newman. It was at Cambritt^ the a^ when 
in a higher aiul wider sphere, though with less direct and lan- 
gihle oiFerts, tbefe was the sanie yearning after a betlfr unioa 
hctween Religioo and Philosophy— between thintjs human and 
things sacred. One potent spirit swayed in this direction the 
miiiJ of Cambridge, which at Oxford was hardly known. — ^ To 
the honoured memoTy of Samuel Taylur Coleridge .... Who, 
thmugli dark and wiodLog paths of fipeculatioD, was led to the 
light, In order tliat others, by his guidance, might reach that 
light \V ithoLit passing thniugh the darkness' — Julius Hare ile- 
dtcaied in after years his chief work, as ' one of the ui^ny pupils 
Who had by his writings been helped to diaccrn The sacred con- 
cord and unity Of human uid divine truth.'* ' At the aweet 
sounds of that siu&ical voice,' as he beautifully expresses it 
elsewhere^t those who listened seemed tu '^ feel their souls teem 
and burst as beneath the breath of spring, while the life-giving 
words <'f the poet-philosopher flowed over them,' ^\'e do 
not hE^re profess lu unra\~el the strange contradictions of Cole- 
ndge's mind and character. Wc do not forget tlie muurnfut 
oblitjuity which lo all the homelier relations of life seems to 
have distorted his moral vision. \ et, in Cambridge ai- least, 
these wtirds iiardly overrate the importance of his intluence. 
Of this combining, transforming, uniting tendency. Hare wna 
nndmihtedl)* the chief represenlative ; and tlie more so because 
it fell in with a peculiarly congenial disposition : and it was the 
uiore strikingly and instructirely displa\ed in him, from the fact 
thai hia pnifeasion and station were ecclesiastical. The clergy 
in the middle nges, as is well known, represented all the better 
knowledge of their time, lii l^nglaiid, even after the Reforma- 
tion, literature and theology' were not entirelv divorced. Eut 
they giadually drifted away Irom each other. Puritan austerity 
i-n one side, ami indoleat oarrowmiodedness on the other, aram to 


• DedicalMD, df llie ' MietlOQ of tile ComfiirtM-.' 
t 'Qiti!HE!aUTnUJi,* let seriva, 3rd ed. p, 345. 

c 2 



Archdeacon Hare. 

have forbidden a clergyman, unless perhaps for the sake of edit!n|t 
a Greek play or a Grammarian, to step or even to look heyud 
the set circle of eccleaiaatical learning. Ic was as breaking 
through tliese conventional barriers — as brin^infr a large, free, 
and g^etiial nature infcfi this limited range — that Julius Hare, both 
bv prer:<?pt and example, rendered sucli good service to the 
Church of England. The great writers ol" antiquity, the poets 
and philosophers of modem times, soldiers and sailors and states- 
men, in the world of men, lia«l a charm and an authority for hira 
as genuine and as powerful as in his pnifcssion is often felt only 
for Fathers and Schoolmen among the dead, only for bifiliops 
and pastors among the living. Nor should it be forgotten that 
his dcliglit in these and like auxiliaries 1o the rause of religion 
was mainly because they brought him into tontiict with fact 
and truth. Perhaps (if we may fur the moment make a com- 
parison to render our meaning intelligible), in mere copiousness 
of illustration, a page of Jeremy Taylor abounds with more allu- 
sions than in any llieologian of our lime to the various writers 
of the Avoi'ld. Yet, without disparagement of the exuberant 
powers of that great divine, it is clear that these references 
in his hands were mere flowers of rhetoric — that he hod no care 
for the anecdotes wbich he repeated or the persons whom he 
cited, except so far as they decorated the triumphal procession 
of his stately argument. And such on a lesser scale have been 
many displays of theological learnirig in later times. But Arch- 
deactin Hare— though it may seem nimost paradoxical to say 
so of one whose fancy was so rich, and whose affections were bo 
powerful— rigidly adhered to such fact and detail as he had 
verified and appreciated for himself. He did not, it is true, follow 
out to their consequenecsmany of the investigations or arguments 
on which he entered ; but still, so far as lie went, it was for 
positive and exact truth that he sought and contended, In this 
respect there is a wholesome atmospbere per^-ading the whole 
region of his writings, that more than any direct doctrine or 
theory has had a natural tendency to elevate the mind of his 
contemporaries. ' When I turn,* so he writes, in speaking of 
Arnold, ' from the ordinary theological or religious writers of 
the day to one of his volumes, there is a feeling, as it were, of 
the fresh mountain air, after having been shut up in the inorbtd 
almn&phcre of a sjck room, or in the fufoigated vapours of an 
Italian church.'* The same in its measure, and in a somewhat 
different application, may be said of himself. To pass from 
common clerical society, however able and instructive, to Herst- 

• Pfeface to Arnold's lliini mlnme of the ' History of Rome,' p. xil. 


Archdeacon Hare. 


ntonccux. lt<>ctoTy was passing into a houBe where every window 
was fearlessly o])cneti lo receive air and light and sound /rora 
l!ic outer wurlcl, (!ven thouph for the nnyment unwelcome, da2- 
zlin^t startling^ * Children,' he says, in one of Ins apophthegms, 
• always turn to the liglil : O that grown-up men would do 
likewise ! ' 

With such influences at work, and with such a mind to l>e 
afFl^cled, he was no sooner placed in a post of practical authority 
and activity, than he found himself in a pusition, peculiar, hut 
most useful. He «as ahle, in a time when the pnnic a{ Germany 
mounted almost to monQixtaniEi in many excelleat persons, to 
prove in liis own person that a man mig'ht be deeply versed in 
German theology without being an infidel. He was able also, Id 
4M1 age of vehement party warfare, to take an active and. beneficial 
share in alE cccle&ta&tieal movements without beirif^ a partisan. 
N^o p&rlv or sect of the church could c-lnim him na exclusively 
their own. His separation from «oinc, bis agreement with others, 
of the leading members of each would really disqualify him from 
representing arty of ttiem, ^'ct he did not tljerefore hold aloof from 
juiutactiou. He did not feel, as at some periods ui bis life Arnold 
felt, that he bad no man like-minded with him; tliat bis. hand 
was Bgaiiist every one and every one's band against him. On the 
conlraryt few men of his time worked mure barmoniuuslv with 
bis brelliren, and received more sympathy from them. In his 
advocacy of Convocation be fought side by side with the almost 
proverbial impersonation of the ancient High Church school, the 
late Dr. Spry. His strenuous opposition tn the m:odern Hl^h 
Church never deterred bim from lending the whole weight of his 
support to Mr, Woodard's cotlege and school at Shoreham and 
Huistpierpoint, With equal energy he strove ftg^insl the inloler- 
ani-u of the partisans of Dr. Pusey and of the partisans of Mr. 
Gotham ; and yet he won the almost allectionate respect of men 
of all these various shades of opinion. One journal, indeed, 
long continued to assail him with the bitter personal rancour 
which givL-s it an unhappy notoriety even amon^t the parly 
organs of this country, iiind delighted to denounce bim as ' puffed 
up with crude and undigested knowledge,' as ' only to be ac(|uitled 
of the crimes of treason and perjury at the expense of his judg- 
ment and of his sense,' as ooe ' whoso spiritual slate is painfully 
hazardous.'* But this was almost the only exception; and 
theologians mny think themselves bappy if they can carry with 

• Sf* Renisrkiou the 'Record" Ntwupaptr, 1849. p. a, LO. Tlit oiJy other 

cscepuoii ifl that alreadjr alludetl io in s pericKlical, usuaLLj uf a mixlentCi- and re- 
Dikble tone, irhich has iiuce bwiQnw vxtioci. 



Archdeacon Hare, 

ih&m trt the grave as much respectful ami gi'ateful Sjmpathy as 
fell to the tot of Archdeacon Hare. 

What tlien were the special qualitiea and i-iews which ttoh 
this admiratioa? And, tirat, let us ubservc that It was not in 
his case an abstmt^cc frcnn attat-k on his oppon^'nts. It was, 
imleed, a remarkable circumstance ttmt, wltli a Iteart so kindly 
and a sympathy s« romprehensive, he ctunbined an eagerness for 
pokmica more like the old eniitrovcrsialists of the age of Salma- 
»ius or of Jerome than of divines in modem times. The attack 
on Sir William Hamilton, in the notes to the 'Mission of the 
Comforler,' and on Dr. Newman, in his 'Contest wiUi Rome,' 
are amongst the most vehement both in thoug-lit and expression 
that the literature of this generation can furnish. Neither was 
it any peculiar attractiveness of style. To the popular rf ader it 
was too abstract and elaborate; to the critical reatkr il was Jis- 
fiffured by violations of Caste almost unarcountahle in one who 
had so just an appreciation both of the cicellences and defects of 
the language of others, whether in prose or poetry. There arc, 
indeed^ pa^tsages, such as die catalogue of ihe Christian heroes 
of faith,* where the sustained and elaborate energy with which 
lie supports the greatness i;>f the subject rises into a solemn and 
dignified eloquence: there are others to which his personal 
feeling lends an exquisite patlios. But on the other hand, 
there is hardly a page in which we do not meet some quaint 
comparison, some no^cl turn of expression, which not only 
offends the eye and ear, but actually diverts the attention 
from the main argument in which the blemish occurs. 
Neither was it the estabtiiihtiient of any one great truth, or 
the victory of any one great cause, such as extort admiration even 
from the unwilling, and homage even from the dissentient. 
Hooker has. woo for himself his high place by the ' Ecclesiastical 
Polity;' Butler by the 'Analogy;' Wilberfdrce by his share in 
the abolition of the Slave Trade; Arnold by his work in 

Jnblic education. No such task fell to tije lot of Julius Hare. 
Its writings are all more or leas fragmentary. His most com- 
plete work is in the form of * Guesses ;' his most elaborate 
treatises are ' Notes ' to other works. To some of these very 
works ' Notes ' were promised nhicli never appeare<l. No 
special object which lie pursued has been carried ; no public 
caase in which be took especial interest will be identified with 
his nrune. 

But in spite of these drawbacks (o the completenew of his 
career, th<^re were charms which have secured for bim, we firmly 

' Victory of Foilh,' p. 102-199. 


AnMamemBmn. S3 

bdiere, not only « place in the affertions of his coatemponries, 
but in the iatemt of posteritj. What be was will ahrajs he 
gteAter than what he did. Eren in the comparaliTe failmc of 
his labonrs there is aosBcthit^ so mncb mme edifjinf- than moat 
men's successes, that we shall be doing' a |!ood •matk hf 
dwdling on the image of the wfat^ man whilst it is slill freah 
in the memorr of those who knew him — whilst it stiQ lends to his 
writiii^ a anity which apart frmn him thej woold be in dang^ 
of losing. 

First, there was a simplid^ of purpose and of stvle whicb 
gvre to all his writings &e charm of a per sona l presence — of a 
livii^ commnnication. He wrote as be talked: he wrote, if 
<me may thus appW Archlnsb(^ Whatelj*s celebnted test at 
good preaching, * not because he had to sav aom^hingT but be- 
came he had somediing to say.' It was no s^le pot on and off 
for the occasion, bat the man himself who was addiessinp T"** 
There needs no portrut, no biography of the writer, to tell yon 
what be was like. As long as tbe wtirks of Jnlias Hare sarrire, 
be will lire with them. The book is tbe aatbor. *Tbe cmlain* 
(as the Greek painter said), * the curtain is the picture.' 

Secxmdiy, whatever might be tbe eccentricity of his mind in 
detail, he was one of the few writers, certaialy one of the lew 
theologians, of Ais age who, in bis pnctical judgment of men 
and things, coold lay daim to the name of * wisdom.' *Tfae 
wisdom which is from above is fint pnre, then peaceable ; 
gentle, easy to be entreated, fnll of mercy and of good frmts, 
without paitlalitv and witboat hvpocrisy.' These are the words 
which are inscribed by pious gratitude on his graTestooe. In 
some points they jar against the roughnesses of fais natural 
temperament, as most alwars be the case in applications of 
absOract truth to individual characters. But in some points 
they are strikingly appropriate, and tbe general eSect well 
hanntmises with tbe parity and peace and genuineness of his 
teaching. Take his less elaborate judgments on books, on men, 
on things, as tbey are given in tbe delightful ^Guesses at Truth,' 
which, tbougb nominally by tbe two brothers, were almost entiTely 
the work of the younger ; and (xrtainly, for the justness of their 
criticisms, for the breadth and fearlessness of their news, oftoi 
for the pregnant wit and good sense of their aphorisms, may 
almost take their place beside the * Remains of Coleridge.' * 
Or pass to his more debberate treatment of general truths. 

* We cannot bat ■nggest bow gmt sn sdvsnuge voulil be conferred oa tbe 
nsiliii of fatore eilitioiis of tbew Tolomeft, if boumsUiuu id ibe «mv of an iodcx 
or tiM« of contents could be coustnicteu to lenrc u a doe through wh»t ii ebe 
Ma all bat ioettricable Isbynntli. 


Archdeacon Jlare- 

We have already spoken of tbe Charges. But what we Iiave 
said of the more immediately practical questions there discusaed 
is true also of xlic more permanent and universal topics which 
fill his other Avrilinj;s. Where, for example, shall we finJ so 
just and full an ^ward dealt out to the Fathers, or ajpiin to the 
Geniian theologians, or a^ain lo Mr, Carlvic, as in the IVolex 
to the ' Missioti of the Comforter ' ? There haa prohaltly been a 
stage in the life of everj thougrhtful student of the present genera- 
tiun in w)iich his mind has been warped by an excessive leaning, 
or, what is equally i1at)^eroiis,an excessive antipathy, lo one or other 
of the tendencies there represented. Let such an one read these 
* Notes,' and he will find words of counsel the most appropriate, 
the mo&t cheeriflja;, the nif>st salutary, because tliey are word* 
which in great measure arc the res|Jonae, yet not the iiieie echo, 
to bis own feelings. Or again, where, in ancient times or in 
modem, iias the true contrast between unity and uniformity — the 
value of tiie one, the worthlcssness of the other — been so beauli- 
fully set forth as in the deilication of his sermon on Unity 
to Archdeacon Manning:? Or (to pass to a far less pleasing 
subject), where amongst modem eontroversics has ' tbe Con- 
test wilh Rome' been more ably sustained than in ihe pio- 
lemical notes which, under that title, attack some of the nialn 
positions of Dr. Newman, not the less powerfully, or the less 
on answer ably, because they are often disfig^ured by a harshness 
of lone and a roua:lniess of e.\pre55ion, which perhaps strike us 
the more from their contrast with the exquisite grace and polish 
of tbe style of hia antagonist. 

There is yet one class of Archdeacon Hare's works which we 
have not notired, hut which are perhaps 1 he most pcculinr and 
characteristic of all. It is not the first lime that the chief celebrity 
of a scholar or divine has resteil on his vindicattun of some 
illustrious, person, dead or living-. But pnibably no one ever 
published so m^ny or so various. He use«I to say playfully that 
he should one day collect them all in one volume, under the 
title of ' Vindicifc Harianie,' or tbe ' Hare wilh many Friends/ 
They were, in fact, the natural outbursts of two of the most 
powerful springs of bis nature — his warm and genenms sympathy 
and his slron^ acnse of justice. Most of these chivalrous en- 
counters were, no doubt, to be largely ascribed to tlic former 
cause. Any attack on Luther, Niebuhr, Bunsen, Coleridge, 
would have called forth his sword from its scabbard under 
much less provocation than was actually given in the re- 
spective cases, Indceil, in some of these instances we almost 
wonder at the amount of energy an<l learning spent aj^inst 
charges which hardly seemcil suflicient, either in quaJitv or 





all bis statciDCiits by ttic Ueptli aiiU wnrmtli vl liis peiE&tmal at 
tion and reverence. But even when tbe object of attark was Ms 
(ieiiTcst fritfod, it ȴ.i5 ati <;utnigetl sense not so mutii o( private 
paxtialitv as of public ju&tice that lired tbe Iraia ; and in one 
Tcmarkablp instance he came forward on behalf of an entire 
*trBn«cr. The great Hampden controversTj which seven years 
Ago threatened to shake the Church of KngUnd to its centre, has, 
like many siFnilar daocrers, been long laid to sleep, and we may be 
quite sure will never now be revived either by its vicUm or liis 
assuilnnts. Bui, if any like tempest slioulc) again sweep over 
the >t!ccles tastical atmo&phere, we cannot loiagiiie a more salutary 
lessuQ fur tlic future agitators than to read Archdtracon Hare's 
Letter to llie Dean of Chichester on Dr. Hamjiden's appoint- 
ment tn the sec of Hereford. Kt was at tbe time ot special impor- 
tance, as tciidint;, more than any other single tausc, lo all;iy tbe 
panic occasioned by that act, and was as such gratefully recognised 
by the Minister who bad selecteil the obnoxious l^rofc-ssor for the 
at'ant bisbopric. But it was still more instructive for tbe sight 
hich it ajforded of a noble and disinterested endeavour In defend 
one whom he had never seen, whom lie knew only lbrou|Kli bia 
writings., whom be had no cause^ — cither before or alter he had 
thus stood forward in his defence — to regard wilU any petsunul 
preiideclions. Most instructive of all is it for tbe example of 
calm and dispassionate mastery o^ the subject ; the mure so fur 
ihe contra-tt — now from the distance of years even yet more evi- 
dent tban when near at hand — with the p3rtisan$bij>, in loo many 
instances, of those whom he was called to oppose. 

For tbe reasons we have mcnlioacd the Vindication of Dr. 
Hampden is perhaps entitled to the first place amongst these 
lalmurs (not of love but) of justice. But the one on which 
,its aDthgr't fame will cbieSy rest is the well-known Vindica- 
linn of Luther, first published in a Note to the 'Mission of 
the Comforter,' and now reprinted in a separate and enlarged 
form. tt was receiving hia final torrectiona when death cut 
short bis labours, and the annotations which be would have 
added are now only indicated bv the headings and names wliieh 
serve, as the editor well eitpre^es it, to ' show with what care he 
nmui^d his materials, and how many authoritiea be thought it 
his diitv tit consult, before he ventured to make any assertions 
ri'specting the character of men or tbe larts of history,' It may 
tlius be rcpardml as his latest literary work, and, in Iruib, there is 
none which so Well represents Im whole mind — none perhaps 
which be would himself have io delighted to leave as liis lost 


Arckdeaeon Hare. 

bcquesi Co the world, ' I am bound,' he used to say, ' to defend 
one to whom I owe so much.' It is true that in this, ag in otijers of 
hi» Vindications, w? cwnnot feel satisfied that he has always hit 
the main point of the objectors; we cannot avoid the convicliim, wliilst hp is in [»05si>ssJoTi of evpry single outwork, tlie cjladcl 
of the argument often remains tmconquert;*]. For example,' 
after all that he has Bsid, there will still be left an impression 
that Luther's conception of faith, when expressed in its (loplnaticid 
form, was either sometbine- very difTerent from that portrayed so 
beautifully in 'The Victory of Fnith,' or else that it wns not m 
distinctively or exclusively hia own as to entitle hiin to the 
eiilojjics heuped upon him as its champion. But, on the other 
hand, we think that no one can read Archdearon Hare's Vindi- 
cation without feeling that it Is an important step gained in 
the right underetandin^ and in the favourable understanding of 
Luther's character. The unparalleled l^nowledge displayed of 
the Reformer's writings i^ not only mnst va.luable ns a mine of 
refercncpj but is in itself a testimony to the greatnt-ss of the 
man who could inspire, at the distance of tlilec centuries, such 
a vast, such an enthusiastic research. The numeiouR csplan.iCions 
of espressions long misunderstood, and of falsehoods kffig 
believed, are amongst the most decisive triumphs of litemry 
inveslipation ttiat we have ever seen. No one can again quote 
against Luther that he called the Epiitlc of St, Jnnus an 
epistle- of straw, or ihut he tossed the Book of Esther in^> the 
Elbe. '?io one can now give to the celebrated advice, ' Esto 
percator et pecca forliter,' the tetrtble meanint; ascribed to it 
by those who a few yesrs ago reganled it 3.s one of their most 
formidable weapons against the Lutheran doctrine. And above 
all, the breadth and energy of Luther's genius, the depth and 
warmth of his heart, and the grandeur of \ns position and 
character, amidst whatever inconsistencies or imperfei-tions of 
expression, are brought out with » force and clearness which 
must often be as new to his admirers as to bis detrartors^ 

We have said that this may be considered his last bequest to 
the Utemry world ; but'we fi?el sure that amongst the letters and 
manuscript sketches which he hag left behind, enough remains 
rto form a more complete picture of what he was tlian is confain'Ml 
even in the expressive writings which we have been considering 
■ — much more than can be contained in the acantj- outline which 
we have attempted in these pages. His childlike outbursts of 
afTottion, devotion, snd faith ; his burnings admiration of good 
rwheiever seen: his indignant scorn and hatred of eril, noble 
even when misplaced or exaggerated ; his entire freedom from 
all the littlenesses of vanity, or ambition, or self-seeking, which 


Archdeacon Hart. 




often rcoc and haunt the path of autliors and of ecclesiastics — 
tlie»c are gifts bestowccl by Providence with a sparing hand. 
Let us make the- most of what remains of them ; let us not su^r 
tb« tillage uf tbein liglitlj to vanish nut of our recollection. 

* When we sec men lilte Artlidfacon Hare cue off before 
their time '' — gq WTiteg an able observer * of our ecclesiastical 
World — 'it is s natural superscilion which tempts us to look 
U|x>o their removal as a sign of roming; judgnient, utid an 
e^il omen for the Cimrch which tbey adorned.' But let us 
lake a more cheering- view. Let the eiample of such a 
career rather fill us with thartkfulfless that there is. at least 
one church in Christendom where such a career couM bo run £i» 
in its natural Held — which gives scope fur siicb a union of 
fenent piety wjtU refined culture imd masiuUoe learning, His 
course has been well compared by one who knew him well to 
that of a noble ship, with her sails wide spread^ filled by every 
£ale which blew. Where, we may ask, would so many influences 
save been couibinod to propel the bark onwards as in tlie church 

id cuuntry where hia lot was actually cast? Let us remember 
so that the divisions of which wc are always complaining as 
iala] to the peace, if not the existence, of the Church, did but 
■erve in his rase la bring- out more clearly his power of over- 
looking and overruling them to the common good. Happily in 
tlie present lidl of ecclesiastical controversy — hushed as it always 
will he hushed in the presence of the reallv great events on which 
human happiness and misery depend — his voice may be heard 
more readily than at limes when it would be more needed. Hut 
if the theological factions of a few months or years past should 
•gain revive, there would be no ' truer remedy for the evils of 
Ae age ' than if we could hear more and more appeals to the two 
contc>nding parties in the spirit of that which in such a time of 
a^latian, in the spring of 1850, was addressed by Archdeacon 
Hare to his hrt threii : — 

* With holh sides I feel that I havemuny hnnds of coinmou faith ^d 
love and duty : with both of tlieni I hLartily desire 1o work together in 
the service of our eommoii Ma«ti!r. Willi each of the two fwrlies, 
on cundrr points I difler in ujnninn more or le»s widely: but 
why should this cut 'ine off fnim lliein ? or why should it cut tht'm 
off frum me? May we not bold fket to that whereon we are agreed, 
and join hand tu haiid and hear! to heart on liiat s\vk, tJii<;htLkabte 
giDond, which cannot slip from inicler lut, and wait until God s^liall 
reveal to us what we now see dimly and dorkty ? Shall the oak eay to 
tlie elm, D^tari Jrom me — thou hant aa place in GorFs forest — 
Uiou xltalt not brealfie His air, or dritdt in his sunshine ? Or sliall Uis 


The Cireafation oftfte Blood. 

a*li say to tlie bircli, Acaunt ! than art not tmrlhy to stand hy imi/ Ji'df 
—cagf iftT/selj' dotPti and cratci awaj/, and hide thy&elf in. tome oul- 
Imiflhh thicket * O my brethren ! iht sprittg is just about to clollie 
a)l llie trees of the forest in their bright, fresh leaves, h-hich wil] shine 
and sparkle rejoicingly a»i5 thankfully iii thE? sun und rail]. Shut) it 
not also cEothe our Imurl^ anew iu bright hopeful garnienls of faith and 
love, diverse in form, in hunf, in lexliire, but blctidiiifr togetlier into a. 
beautiful, harmaciiwus unity beriL'istli \\w lifhl of the Sun of Righleous- 
pess ? . . , O, if we ivoiild let one gleam of Ilia D'tvint Love descend 
upon us, if we would (ipwi our hearts to receive it, and would let it 
glow nrid kindle there, we .should cease froni (jiiarreilinij- with our 
brethren ; ivf should cease from scowling- at them ; wfc »liould feel that 
Our highest privilege, our nio»t preciou:i ble^MJng, is to be one with 
them through Him and in Him/ * 

Art. IL — Ilistoire de la D<'couvertc de la CircttJation dn Sanff. 
Par P. Flourens, Membre de rAcudemie Fran^aiso el Secre- 
taire Perpctuel de rAcademie des Sciences (Instltut cle France), 
ProlesScur au Musc'e d'HistoIrr Naturclle ile Pails, &c. Pacia. 

IT is within our recollection, that when sotne one tnnde a 
remark in Lis pre»ente ns to the value iif bis discoveries in 
tljc decomposition of the alknlis ami enrtlis, Sir Huinphry Da\'y 
observed : ' Peiliaps yoU give me more tredlt tlian realty belongs 
to me ; otlier& had invented the voltaic battery. The lime bad 
arrived when it was to be npplied lo tlie purposes of chemistry, 
and it fcM first into Inj bands.' Something like this may be said 
as to nio&t of the great discoveries which have been made in tbe 
department of physical science, KnowIcdp;e is, for the most part, 
slow in (ts progress.. Among those who arc cnga«etl in llie pur- 
suit of iti there are few who do not add sometliin», however 
small tbe contributictn may be, lo the general stock. At la«t, 
some one cndowenl with a more comprehensive genius., taking' 
advantage of the labours of his predecessors, views tlie facts 
which they have collected in their relations to each olhor, traces 
analogies which they have overlookotl, and from thence is led 
on lo further inquiries, which open up new views 4if natural 
phenomena, and afford a deeper insight into the laws by which 
they are regolaled. 

These remaika have been sufrpested to us by the perusal of the 
work the title of whltb rs. prefixed lo the present article, in which 
a distinguished philoaopher of a neighbouring country bas been 

T 11- 

*"1 i-' 

'.-'-- T -— - 


Tlie Circulathn of th« Blood. 

of respiration was a fact too obvious to be at any time overlonlied. 
Tlie arteries which (as ive now know) are, in the livin*- body, 
always distended with blood, in the dead body are id a ^eat 
degree emptj' of blood, but in a patulous slate from tbeip elastidty, 
and coiitainiDg air. Erasisti^tus (as we learn from Galen), con- 
necting these two facts with each other, supposi^d that the air 
which entered the longs by the windpipe was roQveyed first by 
the larfje veins of the lungs (the pulmimary) to tUe k-ft cavities 
of tlie iicart, and from thence hy the large arterial trunk (the 
aorta) and Ixa innumerable ramifications to every other part uf the 
body. Tbe arteries were held lo be, like the windpipCt simply 
ttir-pnssages, and it was from the function thus hy|iothetically 
&ttiibulrd to them that they derived the name by which they arc 
still designated. 

Galen corrected this error of his pTcdccessors. He instiluted 
eyperiments wlilch proved that, in the living 'j'^yj the arteries 
contain not air but blood. He showed that the air Urau^ in by 
inspiration does not really penetrate beyond the air-cells of the 
lun^rs ; he believed that the purpose which it answered was 
simply that of cooling and rclreshing' the blood : and Uiis upiiiion 
prevailed amonw physiologisis even as late as the lime of Ualler. 
It was reserved far modern chemistry to prove that tlie air and 
the blood act mutually on racli other, nitil that in thi& way a 
change is produced in the latter wilhwut which it would be unlit 
for the maintenance of life. 

Galen bad not the means of determiuing; the real nature of the 
respiratory function % but he ascnrtaint^d tha.[ the bluod in the 
arteries is different from that in the veins, which was a consider- 
able step towards it. AUogetUcr, considering^ the point at which 
he set out, he accomplished a great deal, and may justly be con- 
sidered as having laid the foundatioa of the more correct phy- 
siologv "f the present day. 

Deriving little help from those who had preceded him, and 
with such limited means of obtaining a knowledge of anatomy 
AA the state of society then afforded, it need be no matter of sur- 
prise tijat many of bis views have proved to be erroneous. He 
believed that it was the nfbce of the veins aa well as of the arteries 
to furnish a supply of blood to the various organs of which the 
animal system js composeil ; that the latter, havinj,'- their origin 
in the left ventricle of the heart, convey a purer blood to the more 
relined and delicate organs, in which he includes the lungs ; while 
the former convey from the corresponding' cavily on the right side 
of the heart blood of an inferior quality lo I he more gross and solid 
orgnns, rnwhich he includes the liver- Atthe same time he lield 
that the venous blood could not be equal to the duties assigned to 


Tlie CxTcatatim oftite Blood. 

It 1 

it uoless eome portion af the essence or spirit contained in the 

rterial hluod was infused Into it. The <:jucgti[)n presented itself 

wliat manner t\As jqfiAsion wag »?ffected, und he at onve solved 

iie difficulty by assuming that there are openings expressly far 

'^llijs purpose in the wall or Mpiujn by which the cavities on the 

twt> Aides of the heart are separati'd froia each other. IVio such 

apevtiiTfi esi&t; yet so paramount was the authority of Galen, 

thai no one pre&iuned to contradict whnt he ha^d assorted on the 

subject ; and it was not until the middle af the sixteenth century 

that Vesalius, * the father of modern anatomy," relying on his 

own obscr^'atioQB, corrected and exposed the error, 

But Vesallus advanced no further; and it is remarliable t!jal, 

aTter sn great an anatomist hnii tailed, it should have fallen to 

llie lot of an individual who had de-ioted Lis energies nut to 

anatomy, hut to cnntroversinl tln^ulog-y, to make a f^reaCer stride 

Jan any one had made before him towards the discovery of the 

^true theory of the circulation. 

For thuse of our readers who are not conversant with these 
«ubjecta it may be well to premise that in all the higher classes 
of anlftiaU, there is a douhle circulnliun, the one for die trans- 
miasionof the blood through the lungs for the purpose of its being 
exposed to the iniluence of the air in respiniiiod ; the oilier fot 
the purpose of distributing it, after it lias received that inflnence, 
the body generally, these two circulations being wholly dis- 
inel fnun each other. 
Calvin rejected the authority of Rome. Servelus was opposed 
Calvin. With the Romiih Church CaUin wns a lieretic. 
rvetus was a beredc with Cfilvin. Whea be pnbU^betl his 
itUe on the * Restoration of Christianity ' (' C/trzsli/imsmi 
ttitiitii)') CaU'in persuaded the magistrates of Geneva that he 
it to be treated by them as himself would have been treated 
le Inriaisition if kt had had him in its power ^ and he was 
idemaed to death, and was burnt. In thci aforesaid treatise 
gave an account of tljc puhiioaary circulation, applying it in 
jme way to his peculiar opinions in theology. 
A tiipy of feervetus'* wyri, for which lie thus, through the 
instrumentality of Calvin, acquired the glory of martyrdom, 
^.ie pri*served in the Imperial library of France^* M. Flourens 
^fttoppiiges it to he the only cupy now in existence — an opinion 
^Hwhich mny well be correct^ as we Icam from Sir Henry Iillis 
^■that there is no copy of it cither in ihe British Museum or in 
May othct of the principal public libraries o£ tbU country. Tbe 

^K ■ It ie Btmc'd ihaC cbLs eopr of Seirvetuii'f moiV luut belaogei W CallBi!on, one 
^rothlf bccusers, and tliat it fau at aae iiVK rgrmcd « |tan of the library of onr 
ronulryiBBDi L>r. MeoiL 



The Cireulation of the Blood. 

ParUian copy it&elf i» in a mutilated alate, liaving been partly 
burnt, a3 if it liad been someltuw snatched frum the flames which 
were intended to consuine at once tlie heresies and the heretic. 
ForLiiimtely that part of the volume whith treats of the circula- 
tioa remnins entire, and thus M. Flourens has had the oppor- 
tunity afforiied liim uf giving an ei:act account of the opinions of 
this singular physioloi^ist. 

Tlie views of Scrvctus, when separated frum certain wild meta- 
physical speculations witli which they are mixed up, may be thu& 
brie6y explained. 

1^ The hypothesis of Galen that there is some kind of union 
of the Venous and arterial hlood, or that something is transmitted 
from one to the other, through the partition or septum which 
kcparates the cavities of the left and right side of the heart ix 
altogether n mistake. 

2. The scarlet for arterial) blood which is found in the cavities 
of tlje left side of the heart is essentially di/Terent from the dark 
coloured (or venous) blood which is found in the cavities of the 
right siile ; the former containing a spirit which is wanting in 
iJie latter, and having in t-onsequence peculiar properties by 

■which it is fitted for certain purposes in the animal ocanoiDJ 
(especially as re^rds ihe bmin and nerves) fur which the dark- 
coloured blood 13 insuAicient. 

3, The spirit on which these peculiar properties depend is 
derived from the air drawn into the lungs in the following man- 
ner; — -Tfie pulmonary artery (^ur veiiO aiterivsa, so called, be- 

tcause^ although it has Che structure of an artery, it contains dark- 

, coloured lilotjd) conveys the blood from the right side of the 

\ heart to the lungs, where it divides into a multitude of smaller 

I vessels^ which terminate in other equally small I'essels, which 

.unite t/) form the pulmonary vein, by which last the blood is 

tran^milted 1o the cavities on the left side of llic heari. It is 

i during its passage from the one system of vessels to the other 

that the bloud comes in contact with the air, assumes a si'arlet 

colour, and is pureed of its impurities, which are expelled by 

exspiration [et ersptraiione iafuHf/ine expurf/aniur). 

A modern physiologist would have added to this statement a 
'description of the chemical changes which the air undergoes from 
its contact with the blood in the air-cells of the lungs; btit 
otherwise there cm be no clearer exposition of the pulmonary 
cirLiiIation than which we have just c|uoted from Servetus. 
In other respects his physiological knowledge did not extcml 
beyond ihalof his predecessors and contemporaries. He believed 
with Galen that the process of sanguilicalioa (ur production of 
the blood) took place in the liver, to which organ the nutritive 


TJie Circvhtim of the Biood. SS 

fluid or clijle was coDveyetl bj the veins of the intestines ; and 
llial ^'hile ibe starlet blood nas distribuited througboDt the bodr 
by the arteries, the dark-colonrpd btood vas ilutribntrd in like 
manner by the veips — tlie fonaer being intended for ibe sopply 
of one class of or^ns, and the latter fur that (\i another. 

Ar this time Fadtin nas the most celebrated schml of anatomr 
in Kurope — Vesaljus, Fallopius, Fabricius d'AcquspeiMlente 
betn^, or bavins; been, numbered among its profesMrs. Six 
jcnrs after the annooncement of it br Serretns. the palnofuxT 
circulation was taught b_v Columbos, auqtber professor of thait 
university. Did be borrow it from Scr\etusV M. Flnurens is 
probably correct in answering' the question in the negative. If 
t>cr\etus, OS beLn<r an Unitarian, was held to be a heretic in 
Protestant Switzerland, he must have been held to be a ranch 
worse heretic in Catholic Italy, and it may well be supposed 
Ibat Columbus might never have seen a copy of the theological 
treatise which was condemned tn the flames with iu author^ 

After Cclumbus bad explained the pubnonai^ circulation in 
the University of Padua, it wns taught by Cesalpinns to his papits 
at Pisa, This remarkable indivictuaJ nas not less distinimisbed 
for Ills anatomical acquirements than he was for his profoEtnd know- 
ledgx? of tfiP philosophy of the ancients and his sin^lar specu- 
lations in ihcologv. He beliered that we are snTToniMled hv 
innumrrable spirits, or demons, toklir.g- an intermediate state 
between mortal and immortal beings— tLal a special demon was 
I not peculiar to Socrates, hut that one is attached to every indi- 
vidual among -us ; and in one of his treatises be describes- the 
influence which these imaginary beings exercise in heaven and on 
earth, and how the "Tenter part of the phenomena of the natorai 
world arc under their goidaoce apd cnntraL Snmethinij of the same 
imajiinative turn of mind which led him to these mysti(ii;l specu- 
bitions may be traced even in his anatomical resenrches. While 
at ime time he seems to approach verr nearly lo the disoovcrr of 
the circulation, at another time he diverges as far as jKjssible from 
it. He describes the vend cava as: pouring the blodtl into the 
heart ; but at nnother time In- st^ites thai throug^li the same vessel 
there is a reflux of the blmxl from the heart to the liver. • Namre/ 
he E.iys, 'has destined the orifices of the heart for the following 
purposes; the miia cava pours the blood into the right ventricle, 
from whence il passes inlo the Iuns;8, and thence into the left ven- 
tricle ; ' but then he adds, that • dtirini) sle*p the blood is brought 
to the right ventricle by the veins, and not hy the arteries, for 
which reason the veins swell while we are asleep, and are empty 
while we are awake/ Elsewhere he describes the office of the 
v&na portcc to be to convey the blood not to the liver, from the 

TOL. xcrrip \o. cxciti. d *ijVeft«, 


The Circulation of the Blood. 

spleen, slomacli, and intestines, but from the liver to tliese several 
organs^ attributing to that vessel the functions of an artery. 

Among the followers of Vesallus, ilurirtg- the latter pari of the 
aixteentli century, there is no one who, in the way of science, has 
Contributed more to ibe glory of the Italian States than Fabricius 
d'Acquapendente. When be died, in the year 1619, bo bad heUI 
tbe office of Professor of Anatomy at Padua during filly years. 
A \iLTge concourse of students from all jiartsof Europe listened to 
his discourses, and the Republic of Venice acknowledged tbe 
value of bis services by loading him with honours and by the 
gtimt of an annuity of 10,000 Crowns of gold. In the discovery 
of tiie valves of tbe veins he made an important step towards a 
knowledge of the circulation. But he did more than ibis; for 
Harvey waa bis pupil, nnd it wna under his instructions that the 
mind of the young Englishman became stored with that know- 
ledge, and was trained in those habits of reflection, which en- 
abled him someyears afterwards 1o arrive at results so import.-int, 
not only to science, but to the welfare of mankind. 

' When Harvey made hia ap|>eanince,' says M. Flourens, * everyfhiug 
relating: to tiie circutauou of the blooit bai.i b«eii iiidicuLei], or ut least 
sus(MKted, but nothing was estahlishnl. Thb is so ini't- that fahricius 
d'Acquajjeiidente, who followetl Cesaipinus, anii who discwverwl llie 
existence of the valves of the vein.*, was unaequaialed wilii it. Cetjil- 
pinus liimself, ivlio saw ilmt tiiere was a double circulaiion, mixes up 
with the puljuonarj' circulation the miaJake of there being an opening in 
the scjilHtn, which divides the ventricle:) of the heart : sanguis pnrlim 
permptiimn srpirim, partim per medios pttlmonea crdexlro in irim«tmtn 
ventricuium cordis travsmiitifar. Servetus says nothing of the geueral 
circulation. Culunibus repeaLs, with Galeci, thai t1ii< veiiie liavi.- their 
origin in the liver, and that they serve to distribute the blood to the 
various orjjaus.' 

. . . . ■ Harvey's Irealise is a ^hef iTrntrrs. . . . Modem 
physiologj' may ha iliLted fmra the discovery of the circulaiion of the 
blowi. It marks itie advent of physiohigista iuto die field of ^science. 
I'rev iotislly to this Llicy huci merely followed ilie aiicientaj and did not 
venture tu take an ludepenJeiit course. Harvey made plain ihc most 
bi?au1lful phenomeRon of ihe animal ecoini'iny, a. poiut at which Uie 
ancients had never arrived. The autlioriiy of the Jbriuer nlll^^^t'^s was 
disjjkced. It cea^ied to be ihe custom to swearby Aristotle and Galen, 
who were superseded by Harvey. I shall ref«r elsewhere totlie ridieulffus 
infatuation which li-id the medical taculty of Paris lo reject the doctrine 
of the circulation^Uie bad reasoning of Riolan on the suhjeet — th^ mis- 
placed pleasantries of G uy Patin. This folly, however, was cunlitied to 
llie &culty ; it did not belong to the nation. Moliere ridiculed Guy 
Patiu, and lioileau ridiculed the facultv, and Descartes, the greatt^t 
genius of the age, proclaimL>d his belief in the circulation.' 


The Ciratiation of the Blood. 36 

Dionis, who was the most (listUiguished suTjB^eoil cS tliosc times, 
taught the discovery of Harvey in bis lectures ia the Jardin da 
Roi. In his dedimlion to Louis the Fouiteentb be thus esprcsaet 
h i m self: — 

* I was appointed to detuDnstrale in the Jardin Rd^al llje cirdilatioa 
of the blood, and other new discoveriw, and I have endeavoured to 
acquit ffij^elf of the tiwk uhich I liad undertaken with that zeal and 
accuraey which are due to the ordew of your Majesty.' 

Id England it appears that the researches of Har\^ey had a 
more favourable reception than they had from tbc close corpora- 
tion rolled the * Me<.lical Faculty of Paris.' We are informed by 
Dr. Willis, in his excellent Life of Harvey, lately published by 
the Sydenliam Society, that — 

the year l(jI5, being then in the Ihiity -seventh year of his age, ht j 
Is apptiiiited tu give loctun-s uii tuiatumy and surgery at the CuUcg* 
of I'hjBiclan.", and thai it is ••(.•nerally uiiderslixMi thai in the first course 
vhich iiti delivtsrod he )jn>»enl4Nl a tletailed exposition of tijuse vieu'H a*i 
to the circulation uf the blood wEiicb have siuoe rendered hu namej 

Dr. Willis further informs ub that they cnatinued lo form one of 
the subjects of the lectures which he delivered annunlly at the 
College for many years afterwards, though it was not until the 
jrear 1628 that his treatise on the circulation was published. 

Even id his own country^ however, the innovations of Harrey 
were ni)t, in the first instancq, universally accepted. It is 
stated by Aubrey that by the vulgar he was held lo be crack- 
bmined, and that ' the physicians were ^^ainst him ;' though thia 
but obseiratioa cannot Iw literally correct, as the most ejninent 
members of that learned profession, forming the College of 
Physicians, were his patrons, and year after year were glad to 
profit by his instructions.^ On the Continent his opponents were 
more numerous, especially among ihe Italian anatomists, who-^ 
Could not, without a struggle, emancipate themselves from tfieii 
alJeg^iance to Galea, and who mig:ht, moreover (without being 
themselves conscious of it), be inAuejiced in some degree by a 
jealousy of the young^ foreigner, whose risinff penlus threatened 
U} obscure the great and well-merited rcpulalion which they had 
previously enjoved. 

The researches ol Harvey were not limited to the circulatioBi 
Rs it exists in the perfect animal ; they exiemted also to that of] 
tli« child before birth, in whom the lung^ are not uwd as the 
organ of respi ration, and in them therefore the double cirrula- 
tion IS not required. Oaten had described with sufficient accuracy 
ibe conimuoicatiops bL'tweeil the cavities and great vessels of ihu 

D 2 V^-mX. 


The Cirettlation of the Blood, 

heart which exist in tlie foetus, nnci whicli become obliterated 
afterwards. The observations of Galen hail been confirmed hy 
Veaallus, Fallopius, and other anatomists ;. but it remained for 
Haney to explain how it is that, by means of tljese rommuni-^ 
cations, the same Apparatus is adapted to a single circulation in 
the one case and a double one in tlic other. His dissections of 
some of the inferior vertebrata enabled him at once to solve this 
mystery, and thus to complete the history of the most important 
of the funclions of orgnniC life at eVery period of our cxislence. 

In science it has generally happened that one successful inves- 
tigation is the forerunner of othrrs. So it was in the present 
inatanCe, and M. FloiirctiS, having giVcn the history of one great 
discovery, proceeds to give that of another not much inferior in 
imporlantc to that which was completed by Harvey. In order 
that this may be made plain to thouc wlio are not physiologists 
some preliminary ohservationa may l>e ro<]uired. 

That 'in the blood is the Hf?,' and that the bli^oil is necessary 
not only to the nutrition of the body but to the maintenance of 
the vital powers; that the waste of the blood and of the general 
system is supplied by the food taken into the stomach and con- 
verted into chyle in the intestines ; are matters of fact too obvious 
to have been overlooked at any time, even by the most careless 
and superficial observers. The process by which the chyle is 
conveyed into the blood and assimilated with it is not equally 
obvious. Galen believed that the chyle is cdrried into the liver 
by tde veins of the intestines ; that it is in that or^ran Jhal the 
conversion of it into blood is enected ; and that from thence the 
whole mass of the blood, thus recruited bv a supply of new] 
matter, is distributed, first by the larger veins and then by their , 
ramifications, throug'hout the rest of the body. These views of ^ 
Galen were generally atloptcd by those who followed him, and it 
seems ihat more than fourteen centuries had elapsed before any 
one ventured to pronounce them to be en'oneous. ^"et Galen 
himself bad fuJTliBh(^d an extract from the now lost works of 
Krasistratus, which might well have led bim to entertain some 
doubts on the subject. Three centuries before the Christian 
lera that ancient anatomist, in the dissection of young goats, 
observed in the mesentery, besides the arteries and veins, some 
other and smaller vessels containing a while fluid. Long- after 
tliis observation of ErasJstratus, in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, Eustachiua discovered on the fore part of the spine of a 
horse, lying by the side of a large vein (the (Wrt Azt/ffos), another 
vessel which was evidently neither a vein nor an artery, as it ' 
contained not blood but a transparent fluid. Kustachius himself, 
however, did not follow up his own discovery, and it does ni>t 


Tlis Circulaiion of the Bleod. 


a|)jiear lo have much attracted the notice of tbusc who immeUi- 
Me\y followed him. Harvey bp^;an lo teach ihe clrcuiAcion of 
itc blood, according to M. Flourens, in the vear IGIS, bm, 
according to Dr. Willis, three years aooner, and ]>ublisbed bis 
treatise on. the subject in 1628. In ltj22 the white vessels 
described by Erasistradis were again Doliced by AselUus (wJio 
at that time occiipted tlie chair of Professor of Anatomy at 
Pavia) in the disseLtioii f)t'a dog. Asellius pursue*! the inquirr, 
ascertained that these vessels were sometimes emply aqd trass- 
parent, at other times opaque and containing a fluid Tesembling 
cream, and he published an account of them in the year 26S8, 
giving them tlie name of the Incteal;, He regarded them as the 
chanuels by which the nutritive fluid, etaboratcd by the sromach 
and intestines, is conveyed into the cLrculaltoD ; but hiS obseira- 
tions extended no further, and, without tracing^ theoi to their 
real termination, he came at once to ihe conclusion tliat tbey 
entered the veins of the liver, attributing to that organ the d£5c« 
i>bich had been previously atb'ibuted lo it by Galen. 

Some year* al'ier the ve-discover}' of ibe lacteak by Asellius, 
a, young French physician, Pecquet, while vet a student at 
.Monipellier, took up the inquiiy where it bad been left by his 
prBdecessor, and trared the lacleals into one larg-e vessel, which, 
lying on tlie forepart of llie spine^ extended upwards and ter- 
niinat«I in the junction of two larsje veins (the subclaWan and 
jugular) in the lower part of the neck. Tliis vessel, afterwards 
known under the name of the thoracic duct, is identical with that 
which had been described by •Euslacliius, As to the lacteal 
vessels later researches bare adde<l nothing to the discover}- of 
Pecquet ; and to him belon^rs the honour nf bavins been the first 
lo demnnstrate in what manner the nutritive fluid prepared by 
the organs of digestion is conveyed into the torrent of the cir- 

\e.t the researches of Pecquet were incomplete, and it r&-] 
inained for wtolber anatomist, bis own contemporary, lo shoW" 
that vessels similar to those whose ofBce it is to altsurb the cbyle 
from the intestines exist io other parts of the body. This ana- 
tcfiaist was ■^Thomas Bartholin, Professor of Anatomy at Copen- 
hagen. Unconnected with rhe inlestinal canal, and where there 
was no chyle to be absorbed, he discovered innumerable vessels 
having a structure similar to tliat of the lacteaJs, but containing 
not a white but a transparent fluid or lymph, talking the same 
Cnorse as the lacteiiU, and like them terminating in the thoracic 
duel : and lo Ibesc he gave the name of lymphatics. The discovery 
of IJartholin was at once confirmed Ly other anatomists, and our' 
own countrymen, William Huolcr and Cruiksbank, have worked 


77^5 Cireulaiion of the Blood, 


it out in its details, bo tbat nolbing seems to be now wanting to 
render our koowl^ge uf this part of anatomj as complete aa 

Tbese two orders of vessels, tlie lacleals and lymphatics, beiog 
similar in tbeir struclure, and having a (^jTnmon termination, have 
been generaliy described as forming together the absorbent 
system. The function of the lacteals was always sufficiently 
obvious; tliat of the lymphalifs was a problem which mere 
anatomy was unable to solve. Even as late as the early part of 
the present century it was believed tliat they were the sole agents 
in that process of absorption which 15 going on in every part of 
the body. The labours of modern pbysioiugista, esiVecially of 
M. Mag^ndie, have proved this to be a mistake. Tlie fluid con- 
tained in tbe lymphatics has been found to be of tbe Rame, or 
nearlv the same quality under all cireumslanees, and chemical 
Analysis has ascertained tbat it hilars no smalt r^^scmblance to that 
in the lacteals. These facts, taken in comblDation with others 
which mic^ht be mentioned^ justify the opintcm which is held by 
the majority of pliysiolugists at the present time, that the 
lymphatics are, like lb« lactealsj organs of nutrition ; that, while 
the minute arteries are employed in depositing new materials to 
supply the wasle of the body, th<? lymphatics are simall&neouily 
taking up that part of the old materials which admits of being 
again assimilated with the blood, and carrying it back into the 

Having described the origin and prng^ress of the two greatJ 
anatomical discoveries of the cisrulation of the blood, and of thft] 
lacteal and lymphatic vessels, M. Flourcns proceeds to discuss- 
the doctrine of vital and animal spirits as held by Galen and his- 
followers, and to show its relation to the modem theories of the 
nervous and vital forces. Our space will not allow us to follow 
him through these last- mentioned inquiries, and we pass on at 
once to the concluding i-bapters, in which we find the history of 
the Medical Faculty of Paris, such as it was in the days of 
Harvey and Pecquet, derived chiefly from the letters of one of 
ita most influential memljcrs, Guy Patin, celebrated not less as 
the author of the clever and amusing letters in question, than as 
being the Diafoims of Molicre and the object of lioileau's satire.* 
The detaib, of which we shall lay a. part before our readers^ are 
chiefly interesting as they afford some curious illnstrittions of what 
may be called the transition-state of science, when the spirit of 
independent research founded on experience and olservation, u-as 
beginning lo supersede a too implicit reliance on the authority 
of the ancients. 

T/ie Circtilatwii of the Blood. 


ThU medical Faculty was a sin^tar inatitutiaD, and i$ thus 
tlescribcd by our aatlior • — 

• I( ffoveniwi itself, it nuainlajned ilstlf. it liad made itself. It had 
fijr its fuuiiders neilJier tlie kiiig^ of Francis nor the city of Paris. , , , 
T]ie Mwlical .School of Paris was foijiii'l«l and maiij'ained at the sole 
ex(R*tise of the individunl physicians, who theniaelrc* conlribiiled what was 
witiiTing- for its building and endowment*, . , , It was a real republic, 
■which had fur its titiiens the Doctor*, and the Faculty for its aenatey 
under the directioti of a Deaii. This officer was dected for two years! 
and H-hile his reig^i tasted liad complf^te atithority. lie is die^ribed bj-J 
Guy'Puiiii as a iila^ier of the IfakcKelorK; as regulating^ th« di^ipUnft] 
of ihf ^liCwU; and as liaving the charg^e of the registers, whic 
extended backwiijd» over a periixl of 5tK) years. . . , Our little tepublipJ 
had the ^Dod and the had qualities of greater ones. It was zealous for 
its 0»"ii glory ; but it had aUo its parlies, it* division.*, its calwls. Often 
one parly condemned, and, if Ihp oocasion offered, expellcil (he olher. 
. , . Wiien we thus see tlie Faculty esiablish, mfLintain, and endow 
itself, owing- everything to ila owti inetubers and nothing to iJie Stale, 
we recoi>;nise the origin of that independence of which it was bo jealoua, 
and which the State alwBy<j respected. Our Kiiia^s had to treat and 
neg*iciatc with the Faculty. Louis XT. wished to copy a mamuicript 
of Hhasis which waa in their pot»es.sion ; but they refused to lend it 
until he had given security fur it. Kiclielieu wi^shed them to admit a» 
a I^uctor the son of a Gazetteer, one Kenaudet, for whom the Faculty 
luui ari especial hatred. The Faculty refused, ajid Richelieu gave way. 
*'Lidi»iduals," says Guy-Pfttin, "die, but corporations do not die.**) 
Canlhinl Riclielieu, he adda, was Ilie powerfid tnau of the age not 
actnully wearing a crown. Tie cauted the world to Iremhle : he frightened 
Ilomt; : he shook the King' of Spain on Iiih throne : yet he was nnable to 
compel the Faculty to receive into their lK)dy the two sons of a Gazetteer 
who were already licentiate*, and who wilt not for a long time be 

Such a spirit of independence is deserving of otir respect; but, 
unfiirtuimtcly. whatever it might have been formerly, in the time 
of Gwv-P.ilin it had little clac lo recommend it. As a body it 
wa$ aa earnest in its opposition to the innovations of science as 
in resisting (he autborily of the minister. So Hiolan, one of the 
Faculty, whom Bartholin compliments as the greatest anatomist] 
of tUc -ige, rejects the discover^' of ihe circclation, and also tbati 
of the lacteals and lympiiatics,— 

' Every one,' he says, ' tnusl now he making iliscoveriett. Pecquet! 
liBH done worse than this. Ey his new and unlieard-of d'ljclring (naniely.] 
of tike lai'teaU and tlmracic duct) he would upset both the antient and] 
niodurn sj-stem of medicine.' 

Guy-PatiD, the Dean of the Faculty, follows KioltU) In the same ' 

stmin : 



The CiiTuiatian of the Blood. 

' If IT. iDuPOiyef knew nothing more than how to lie, and the drciila- 
tioii at the blood, his kHOwleilge was linilttHt to two things, of vvliicli I 
hatfe one and do not can? for tiii? uther. Ll-L liim came to me, and I 
vrill teac^h hitu n better w&; to a. gQcA practice of medicine timn this 
protend^ circulatitin-' 

This good practice of medicine had, at any rate, tbe advautage 
of simplicity, bpin;j limited fu blecditif; and the admin is termir 
of eenno, '.Sfnna peiiornis more miiacles than all tlie druti^g of 
India." BleedinfT was proper at all apBS.^ Guy-Putin bled a 
patient tbirty-twcj times in one attack of illness. He bled. 
Iiimsclf seven times for a cold. He bled his mother-in-law, a» 
she was eighty years of ag;?, only four times ; and his wife eight 
times in tbe arm and then in tbe foot. Senna was administered on 
tlie same scale as blood-letting. — ' We snvc more patients wtlli a 
good lancet and senna than were ever saved Ijy the Arabian 
physicians with all their syrups and opiates.' The proposers 
and employers of new remedies were an ahomination. Opium was 
rejected as a poison ; the Peruvi-iO bark because it came from the 
Jesuits ; and as for antimony, it was suOieient to Hay that it was 
nroseribed bv the Faculty, Even tea was held in abhorrence as 
an impertinent innovation. The preatest nffenders, however, for 
whom there Jsno forgiveness, were those who presrrihed antimony. 
Those physicians who ventured lo think that antimony might be 
useful were tried and condemned by tbe Faculty : — 

'This broiifflit lht?m hack to their duty. If fA^ .-^hoidd be atrain 
w^mtliig ill THEIR duty. *(?(.' sliall not he vianthig^ in ouns ; but sliall 
prwoeeti summarily against them, so that they will be for ever cjipellcd 
from among us.' 

Thi? tirade from t!ie pen of Guy-Paljn will remind the reader 
of Le Sag^e of the conversation which Gil Bias held with Dr. 
Santrrado, when he visited him after hi& retirement. 

' At last,' says M. Flourens-, ' ihe Faculty perishetl, as other corpora- 
tion? and other republics perish, by an exasrfrerationof itsoivn principle. 
Its areat object had been to restore die Gretk and Latin jjyBtem of 
metliciiie. This having been aoconipli.'l)efl, it stood slill witb an oh- 
stiuaey which ua^ fatal to itself. It ceased to move onwards while all 
aruund wure making- progrtts. Discoveriea were made in eheniistry. 
anatomy, and physiology, but tiieae were all under the ban of the 

Happily tbe great monarch who then ^vemed France, infected 
as be was with the passion for poJilical aggrandisement, had also 
the more rare but more honourable ambition nl" being known to 
posterity as the promoter and palron of literature and science. 
The Faculty being^ intractable, he did not hesitate to employ 
other means for the attainment of his ohjccl : — 


The Ciretilation of the Blood. 


'The Royal Garden (.fardin Rnynl) \(a» erected or restored. The 
Fticulty, a* they said, for ^ooA and subfttatitial reasons, proscribed 
chemistry. A professors liip of chemidtry was eaiablislied in the Royal 
G&rden. Kiolaii, the profesaor of the Faculty, rejected ihe iinprove- 
meiitj ill aQalfimy and physiology. Dionia (celebrated alike lor liis 
profuund knnnlGilge of anatomy and of £urgeiy ) lectured Oxi tliem ui the 
Royiil Gardeu.' 

This was the bea^inning of a new era. The ^poA work began 
bv Louis XIV, was coni|]leted in the teign of his successor. 
He founded the Royal Aoailemy of Surgerv, to whose labours we 
are iinlebted for the most valuable collection of memoirs con- 
nected with the healinj; art erer given lo the world. The Royal 
Society of Jfedicine followed; and tbus the Facully of Medicine 
came to an end atter an existence of eight centuries. It had in 
/onner times done g;ood service bv getting rid of the farrago of 
remedies inherited from the Arabian schools, and by liberating 
thp art from the charlatancric of occult causes and the U^lu^lons 
of astrology ■ but having done ao, by its over-csii motion of itself, 
and its opposition to the advancement oi science, it had become 
ridiculous and tvorse than useless, and the resuU wa* inevitable. 

In the i-kelcii which wc have given of M, Flourcns' volume 
we hdve necessnril v omitted to notice several points which are cal- 
culated to interest the g-crieral reader as well as iho pijysicdu^isl. 
The author has shown by his other works that his mind is well 
a<Iapt(Hl for the process ol original investigation. In the present] 
instance he pretends to liule iiinie than 1o trace the steps by' 
which two tif the most important discoveries in the science* 
relsting' to or^nic life w^re gradaally accumpKshed. But this 
history affords some useful Ici^sons and much matter for reOec- 
tion, especinllvas it serves lo illustrate the progress of knowledge 
in other sciences as well as in pbyaiology. 

Art. III. — AUocuzione dcUa Santtlh di nostra Signore Pio 
PofHi /A* (/(?/ 22 Geimaio, 1855; scgtiita da tnta Esjtosisione^ 
corredaia di Dixumenti. (Reprint.^ Torino, 1855. 

'"i^HE relations of Eneland with Italy differ from those of thft 
X other Great Powers of the Rlediterranean in this funda- 
meobil characteristic^ that they are happily disengaged from all 
questions of selfish or even of separa-tc interest. Hence probably* 
in great part, the genial, free, and unsuspectiog temper of Italians 
towards Englishmen, in spite of all national reserve, and of that 
migar pride of purse, and religious narrowness, whicli have not 


Sardiniii and Rome. 

jet ceofied lo cUstLn^isli a portion at least of our numerous 
travelling fellow-countrymen. 

With Piedmont in parljqular we hare often found ourselves 
on a footing of gjeat polilital intimacy; and it would apppar 
that the remembrance of tlieso bygone periods of specifil rela- 
tions with Eng-land is cherished in the sub-Alpine kingdom, as 
they h^ive very recently been made the subject of (in historical 
treatUe by Count Sclopis, a distinguished and nccomplishcd 
Piedmonteae. Such r^collecdnns, we may faiily presume, have 
served to prepare ihe ground for the recent treaty between 
France, Kngland, and Sardinia, and for the military convention 
between the two latter of these three ^lowers. Tliis convention 
is of a character somewhat novel in its own class, inasmuch as, 
under itft 'provisions, England neither pives nor guarantees, but 
simply lends money to Sardinia which she has herself borrowed. 
It is charged at the UO remunerative rale of 3 per cent., and she 
receives from the indebted power, together with Ihe interest, a 
further payment of 1 per cent, jier annum, by wav of sinking 
fund. She has also undertaken the conveyance of the Piedmontese 
contingent to the Kast, and is in this manner, as well as by the 
pecuniary bargain, charged with n large shore of the cost of the 
armament Yet, considering the position of Sardinia in Europe-^ 
her own burdens .ind her unquestioned good faith — the arrange- 
menl is one on her part eminently public spirited and liberal. 

But it is lo other matters, for the moment teas stirring, yet 
of deeper permanent import, that we would now invite attention. 
The greatest events of history have grown up from minute and 
obscure beginnings, as Jupiter himself, according to the Greek 
mythology, once lay an infant in the wihis of Crete; and it is 
the part of true wisdom to search them out in their incpptjon and 
bcfote they have by their magnitude forced themselves on the 
general gaze. In the times wlicn the Wars of the Koses were 
mowing down the old English aristocracy, and when ne vexed 
France with our ill neighbourhood until she found her Deborah 
in Joaa of Arc, how few dreamed that there were fermenting in 
the bosom of European society the seeds of the great religious 
revolution of the sixlcenth century, which not only affected the 
dogma and discipline oi the Church, but which even now mcels 
US in politics at every turn, and which for two centuries was 
more prolific of sheer blows and bloodshed between and within 
the nations of Christendom, than the lust of personal, djUastiCf, 
or national aggrandisement in any of its forms? 

In the arena wc are about to conremplate. Piedmont and Rome 
are the two combatants, and each of them holds a position 
amongst the most singular in the worlds Owing her free con- 

Sartlinia and Home. 



slituti-dn to the turbid ftnd disastraus period of 1$48, Piedmont 
bos clasped closelv lo her bosom the child thai was bom to her 
nmitlst such dark omens ; for while the stnnns of war ra^d 
aruuml her, the very soil wais mined beneath her feet by ci»il 
dissension. The tecnpered liberty which F:Ei3ts in Piedmoat 
owes nothing to the mfTcy or forbearanco of the parties in either 
extreme. It seems, indeed, to be chamctcristic in a peculiar 
de^ee of Italian politics, that bodi those parlies^ hatieg' one 
aDotber not les» bitterly than elsewhere, hate more bitterly the 
mean that occupies the ground between theiTi, that reproaches 
by its own calmer atliliide the violenre of each, nnd that a)one 
cominaiids anr Considerable share of Englidh sympathy or respect. 
Even while t)]e country was engi^ged in war. a war which it did 
not become them at least to decry or parslvse, the democratic 
party were weakening the hands of the king and eoremment 
of Piedmont by their murmurs and their plots. What sort of 
trentment the Sardinian slate has received from the other side, 
the voice of Home herself shall tell us, Bui whatever the 
obslnrles in her pntli, Piedmont has met, and we trust that we 
may add, has overcome them. A distant view is an insecure 
one, and wc would therefore be understood to speak with caution ; 
but the general features of the case are such as can hanUy be 
mistaken. It is by no mere happy accident that Piedmont has 
gained, and still enjoys her inslttutions, while so many other 
states have lost the substance or the hope of freeflom which they 
bad previously possessed. Surrounded by alien influences, 
pressed, above all, by tliat Power which, through the medium of 
religious sympathies and caste, has its base of hostile operations 
in the very heart of every state with which it quarrels, still, 
instead of bein^ driven to desperation by her difficulties, she 
has never for a moment lost her self-command, or ceased to 
exhibit to the world the dignified deportment that peculiarly 
be6ts a free, seltleti, and temperate constitution. Remarkable, 
indeed, as havo been the results of her domestic policy, stiU 
more remarkable is the manner in which she has ntlained them. 
Through everv variety of fortune, amidst the wild and Bacchanalian 
enthusinsm of 1S48, amidst llie depression of the reaction which 
too naturaUy fttUowed in its train, wc liavc seon a king and a 
people walking hand in hand, without rashness and without fear, 
intuitivelv detecting th^ snares which anarchy or absolutism set 
thitk about their path, with an eye gel steadily on the mark of 
civil impmvemenl, and a foot never wavering in the march 
it. Their his.torj-. during these last eventful seven years, 
le in abundaacp ihc ni>irks of a national character at once 
bold and masculine, circumspect and solid ; and the inward shocks 


Sardinia and Berne. 

of those vcnrs, the iirst of ttie freeflom of Sardinia, have scarcely 
been greater llian might have attended the nrdiiiai^ ivorking of 
the oldest and best-adjusted constitutional g^ovemincat Under 
[these circumstances licr vocation has assumed not merely a 
domestic but nn Italian, and not merely an Italian but an 
European, importance; and nothing seems rccjuisite to enable 
her ti) luKi! n destinv uf no comniou elevation, but that the same 
■Bjilrii which has Iwen mouldini; so successfully her internal laws 
and institutions sln>uld in al! future emergeilCjes be strong enoug-h 
to assert ils claim to preside alike over her domestic and her 
foreit;n policy. 

On the other hand, what shall wesaV of Rome — -lier assailant? 
'It migbt be supjwsed that the advisers of the Pope would find 
enough for themselves and for him lo do at hojoc, since they 
present to u& the eitraordinaiy and perhaps uno'xompled spec- 
tacle of a soveretfrn and a government not only sustained by 
foreign firms, but without a party of a friend (except those Ira- 
medialely interested in the existing orderj among their own 
.suhjects. Tiie vain dreams that followed ihc accession of the 
rjtindly hut il!-jud<ring and unstable Pius iX. have been miserably 
rdispelled. The impossibility of associating <ivil freedom with 
[the temporal rule of the Popedom has hecn exhibited in the way 
j1 experiment. The doom of the Pope's temporal puwer is to 
ill appearance sealed, and its date can be no later than the day 
when the galling volte of foreign dominntion is removed. Even 
he fiitanrial disorders of the Kuman State are such* as, in the 
jrdinary course of things, nould insure its overthrow ; but ulher 
id more deeply seated causes are, we fear, from day to day 
celling a long account of unheeded wrongs, the settlement of 
which will only be the more sure and sweeping, in proportion as 
.it Is longer delayed. Vet the volcanic soil on whicli the court 
' «f Rome treads seems to be firm enough to afford it slniiding- 
ground from which to liurl against offenders every weapon that 
the armoury of the past can supply, except that of actual force ; 
with respect to which it can hardly be uncharitable to say, that 
Rome does not in these times use it, sinxply because she does 
not happen to possess it. 

* Afcordin^ la flares vhlcli «e have even' Tensnn to rely on. the Romau 
proatiET fibo-r^G with as. the unhappy rlii tine lion of sptmlin^ the greatur pari uf his 
'leveaut in paying th« iutpiv&t. of his di-bli anil ibi* although Jiis vtrj smnlt 
smty, tio Jar na it is anything at all, is a mere pulice. His nveuiii' appears to 
Wubaui ten millions rvf ctowus : the charge of Ihertelit nearly six. But ihf totol 
atiDoaJ expenditure seems lo I'Sceed llie firBt-iinmL'd sum by uboTu .1*) pi-r cent., 
awl, at'Ciirdiugly, In- has contrjictpil loam (iniouuling t«> iltwly ftt'tvi'n tiiilllLHi 
croH-iis sinci- hla r^itorgiioti in 1840; iliai is to say, he has defrayed from a diUi to 
s fourth of his expeoces by mcnnft of bonvnvd money. 


Sardinia and RuiM. 



There is something cbnracleristic, too, in the ratber peculiar 
QiAnner in wbicb the cnse comes before us. The Papal court 
tell its own story, in an Allocation dated the 22rnl January, 1855, 
ith a detailed Explanation, and an ample collection fif docu- 
ments appended to jt, on which of course it relies to prove its 
case. The Alh>cution, thn Exposition, antl the Documents, are 
simply reprinted in Turin, without a word of comment, under the 
eya, if not hy the care, of a Govtrnment ivhicti hits teamed to 
conflde in tKe simple glrengtti of justice, and to permit its adver- 
saries to tell its story as well as their own. 

Tho AllufUtion bcg-ins by ernploying those sounding pbmses 
descriptive of acute suffering' on the part of tbe Pope, and of the 
Cburch beneath his rule, which, to our minds at least, have lost 
much, if nut all, their dig-nity and force through rtdcntless repe- 
tition, and through their indiscriininate application to all causes, 
;|roni! natl bad. The person of the King is carefully apoTed ; but 
thi! Sardinian Government is declared to have inflicted, with an 
ever-iiitreasing malignity, amidst the cxtj'euie grief and indi^a'- 
tion of all reputable men, the most grievous wrong-s upon the 
clergy, the bishops, the religious orders, the iminuiiiLies of llie 
Church, and the Roman Sec. By iheic recent bill respecting the 
Convents, the benefices without cure,* the rifjht of lay patronage, 
and the colteg:iate churches, they havn not only violated nil right 
divine and natural, but have favoured the ejlremcst doctiines of 
Communism and Socialism. Such is the indictment, only shorn 

f most of its sesquipedalian words. Nest comes the sentence ; 
d here the Roman i*ontiff authoritatively declares all laws what- 

vcr of the Sanlinian Slate which are detrimental to religion, the 
hnrch^ or the Papal See-, to be absolutely null and void. He 

barges all those who in any manner favour or approve any of 
the&c laws to [emenil>er the canonical punishments to which they 
are liable ; and he expresses the wish that, mr^ed by this pater- 
nal admonition, they m.rty make haste to repair the wellnigh 
irremediable mischiefs they have done, and may thus save him 
from the painful necessity he will otherwise have to encounter, 
of actint; a(niinst them Avith those arms, which God bsis com- 
missioned him to wield. 

We will now endeavour, folInwiniJ: the case through tlic ej-pla- 
natory statement which the Court of Komc has appended Co the 
Allocution of the Pope, and through the mass of diu-umenls which 
make up the volume, to set forth the nature and amount of the 
grievances on the strength of which his Holiaess has been, 
iuduced to venture on this exorbitantj though very far from un- 
exampled stretch of power. 


Sardinia and Rome, 

First, then, we find tliat, even before the epoch of the SarJiniani 
conslitutjon, a law was promulgated, wbicli purptirted to establish 
t!ie lilierty of the press. Under this law, books imported from 
abroad might be admitted without the ordeal of a previous cccl©- 
siaslica] censorship; and only a licence of the civil government 
was required for the printing; of hooks and journals within the 
ifioj^duin, In what spirit tliis authority has been exercised it 
needs but a passing glanre at the Piedmontese papers, with their 
larpe freedom of opiniim and lang-uage, or at the contents of any 
book-sbtip in Turin or in Genoa, to show. On the one side, we 
have ourselves purchased there the works of Mazzini ; while the 
volume now before us affords the best proof that on equal licence 
is conceded on thp otJier. But an ecclpsiastit-al cenwirship mentis, 
in a Human Catholic coumry, simply a censorship directed under 
the supreme control of the Pope, Tn thp idcanl n free press, tliere- 
fore, it was simply a contradiction in tenns ; and to pass a law for 
a free press without aholishinEf it would li!ive been to palm a g;ross 
delusion upon the people. It is, accordin^Ely, neither more nor 
less than the establishment of a free press which constitutes the 
first Grievance of the Court of Rome. Nor is it the protection of 
tlif great verities of religion against blasphemy that the Giurt of 
Rome seems to have principally in view. No blasphemy appears 
in her eyes to ejtceed the blasphemy of Gallican sentiments : th* 
attacks which most alaL-tn her (for she probahly knows that the 
truths of relig^ion are l}esi defended in times like these by the 
Christian feeling of the people^ are, as we infer fmtn her own 
laii°;uage, those upon the Clergy and the Pope.' And here the 
point most worthy of note is, not that the Court nf Ri>me should 
disapprove of a free press, but that its views of what constitutes 
an independent sovereignty, and the legitimate province of the 
civil power, should at this era of the world'* history be so cmde 
and narrow as lo embolden it to view this exercise of a right so 
plain and elemicntary by the civil g-oi'emraent of Piwlmont as an 
excess and an outrage comtnilted against itself. Thispniceeciing, 
ei'en if it stoml alone, plainly demonstrates the hazards attendant 
upon ail dealing^s between an independent state and the Human 
Poutift; it shows that, although such a power may hold the Court 
of Rome bound, even as it would a savage, by the motives of inte- 
rest and fear, it cannot, when dealin? with matter either ecclesi- 
astical or prelend(?tl to be such, rely upon finding in thai t^ourt 
any dear or broad notions of political equity anil mutual rights, 
but on the contrary it must be preparetl to grapple with claims that 
-involve the virtual suhjhgation of the civil power to the spiritual 

Docwtt,, Nu. L3L, p, 3S3. 


SanHmia amd Bmm, 47 

as efectirelj, if not quite as directly, as the Ball Umam Samtiaat. 
Bat if these transactioDS present lo (Uacxmngiii^ an aspect wh^ 
read with reierence to the part borne in than fay the Roaua Se^ 
they are not, as we maj ventmre to remark bj anticipstitn, lew 
cheering when we consider the nndcnJaUe proof which tfacj hk»- 
wise suppl J, that a state and people of the Roman CaAolic cn^ 
munion can, even in these dajs, rmdicate ciril rights against tiwir 
most formidable eaany, in no spirit of irrelig^oo or <^ faninii, jet 
with the same eneigy and deciuon which so oAen hhI so beae- 
ficiallj marked the faistorj of our own and of otber coon tiif 
in the centuries that preceded the Reformation. 

The law on the press was made in October 1847 ; the c wnrifn- 
tion followed earlv in 1848 ; and almost immediately after, so ims 
the Roman complaint, a new injurj was inflicted on the Chnicli. 
On the 25th of April a law appeared, which set fatih that, under 
the enactments of the Statuto or Constitutioa, the prorisian ka- 
merlj in use for regulating the grant of the Ejtqmatar had becoae 
inapplicable, and proceeded to direct as follows : — 

' Instrtunents from B<Hne, vhicb, under the exisringc uuciiid a t i , or br 
established usage, require before the; can take eftct to be fbmjibed 
with the Exequatur, will cootinDe to be submitted to the le^tectiTC 
adrocate-generals of the judges of ^ipeaL' — p. 36. 

And it then describes tbe coarse in which these instmrocsda 
are lo go forward for the Ro/al sanction. It will be obserred 
that, according to tbe words of tbe law, it afiected only sncfa 
instruments as already, under concordat or established usage, 
required the exequatur. Hear tbe Roman answer : — 

*But the established usages, or, to speak more traly, the abases of 
lay authority under tliis head, have been coostanily and repeatedly coo- 
deuined hy tbe supreme authority of the Chnrcb, and are essentiaDy 

nulL'— p. 8. 

The first part of this assertion it proceeds reiy sufficiently to 
support by citing a declaration equivalent to this law poblished 
by the Senate of Turin in 1719, and followed by a Brief of 
Clement XI. in condemnation of it ; in which, with an over- 
powering copiousness of language, that Pope first declares the 
enactment to be void ab initio^ and then ad mcgorem eauteloBtt or 
in English phrase, for fear of accidents, proceeds : — 

'lUa omnia et tiingula .... damnamus, reprobamus, revocamus, 
cassamus, irritamus, annullamus, abolemus, vlribnsque et effectu penitns 
et omoino vacuamus, ac pro damnatia, repnibaUs, rerocatis, cassatis, 
irritis, nullis, invalidis, et abolitis, Tiribosque et effectu peoitos et 
omnino vacuis, eeinper habere volumus et mandamus.' 



Sardinia and Jiome. 

ca«o. AH cases of dogma, siiLTam^ents, religious vows, as well as 
the discipline aail rlLuol n£ tbe cliurcb, arc treated hy him as ex- 
clusively and incantestably belonging- to the ecclesiastical judica- 
ture ; but it is required lliat, in all cinl and criminal causes, the 
persans aiid properly of ecclesiastics sbnll be subject to the tem- 
poral judjfe, OS also all questiisna relating to patraoa^ bene- 
fii.e5, and tbe property of tLe church. His demand is sup- 
ported by an admirable atfrumcnt, ai which we gi%'e a short 
sampi c. 

^ Moreover, as eccleslasl icd jiersims, by living- in civil society, 
belong to it, eunstltute one of it^ iiitugrucing' parts, and enjoy all its 
advauUiges, why stiould they hs exempt from the jurisdictiDn ? why 
should they decline tlie; subjection comnion to all? An arraiigetiient, 
which, if it wofi originally i]jco[jg^riiou&, must undoubtedly appear much 
inr>re so in tile prcient day, when the fundamental luid uiiiieraal law of 
die realm invites aSJ to the same rig'ht^^ declares all to be equal in it^ 
own eye, witliout any sort of dfadnclion, and pennits none to be witti- 
drawn, in virtue of imy ijrivileere, from the sphere of tlie ordiiiarj' 
tribunals oT tbe land. As uutliinf^ can be more strictly ftecular llian 
propexty uiovtable or imraoveahlt; togedier with its proceeds, so itj* na- 
ture is not a wJiit changed by its being; connecied with aci ecclesiastical 
uKce through the medium of canonical erection into a beuefice.' * 

Tbe demand, bowever, was met by the Court of Rome with an 
oRer of a more restricted amingemenl, such as liad then recently 
been roocluded witli Tuscany ; and it is declm-ed in the publica- 
tion before us t<) be not only exaggerated in amount, but U» be 
' founded on false principles.' j 

Tbe men who, at this time, composed the Piedraontese minis- 
try, were bf politics eminently moderate, an'! are now considered 
to belong to the ' Rig^lit ' of tbe Leg-lslative Chambers ; but they 
found themselves compelled lo declare to the Court of Rome the 
incompatibility of the old Concordats and the new constitution. 
The Pope neetled not to have been surprised at this disco%-ery : 
fur about tJje same time he was taught by experience, in bis own 
diimlnions, that representative institutions and ecclosiaslical pre- 
ro^tivea, such as he umlerstood them, could notco-oiisl. la his 
own ci^se, the crisis, after bringinv about an expulsion ^nd a re- 
public, was decided agninst, his people by the force of foreign 
anns ; but that mode of support, alike precarious and dishonour^ 
«ble, was happily out of tlie question in the case of Piedmont, 
Still, it is a very serious matter indeed for all the Governments 
of Europe to consider, that a Power, which Ihey by their o»ti act 
«ct up in 1815, is to take upon itself thus to dictate tv such. 

AUocoi.. ficc, p. ^7, 

t AUociuiune, &e., p. 10. 


among ihem aa it may think less ablc^ from their actual circum- 
•toacft, to resent insuir, the mitinlenance witbin their i^rrttories 
of (etnpnnil reg^ulations aflecting tbc clei^v, which ar« inconipa- 
lible with tiip existing totistitulion, ami wliicEi anv goveniment, 
mad enough to make the atlpinpt, could only support, even for a 
time, at the cast of a civil vini certain, tu tcTmlnate in ibeiT 

Cut the senile was dtversj^ed by other events, Bj a law of 
Ot'toljer, 1848, public inslruction was placed under the Secretary 
of Slate, assisted bv an adminislraiive council ; religious interests 
being ]>rnvided fi>r by meaji* ol spiritoal director?, one of whom 
was to be a mcmbpc of each local council. The Apostles' Creed 
only (as it is alleged in the Papjil statement) was required ftom 
lerraJuates and others in the Universities, and the theses to be 
sustained were no longer to be submitted to the bishops. 

The expul^ioD of the Jcsuita, togetlicr with the rognale insti- 
tution ftiT women of the Dame del S/icro Ciiore^ forms the next 
item in the list of ^ievanres. Meuiliers of the Compjiny not 
subjects of the state were dismi&sed flwm the coiintry, with ait 
alluwance in money to carry Ihcm home : tu subjects a pension 
of 500 /ire was nssigned, to last until tbcy should be otherwise 
providefl for. The rest of the property of the order was applied 
to dcfraving the charge of the nationnl co!le;?es. The papai^ 
eourt protested against this measure as incompatible with the- 
rights of property, ^araateeU to all, nitbout exrcption, by the 
laws of tlie kin^om. But it founded its complaints prinripally 
on the violation which the measure invulred of the ' maxims of 
the CntUoUc church and the holy See f and proceeded lo lay down 
llie astounding doctrine, that the properties of reli;rions corpoi 
tJtms in any given country are, in fact, parts of one ^eal whoI( 
the property of the Church at large, ami are therefore not subject 
to the civil power, but to llic ecclesiastical, that is, to the Pope? 

* Retigioiis (■orporations, fciroiing a portion of the ecolesiaaiical family 
at large, are by tlieir very nature umler tite guartiiaiisljip and ainliority 
i>f tbu Chure'i; nnil coust^qnwiitly m> measures or laws cao be adopti 
with respi-'vi III theiri ese«pl by tlitf sjiirUual pi>w«r, or (hniugli ita 
ii^ucy, exjit-cially in what tmiulivi tbeir e^islence or tJieir coiitluut la 

iiislitutiori!) iu wiiiclj ijiey respeelivelv belong, 
_ Nor fiiri any otjier ruit* be reri)ji;iii»e<l even in matters that COdCem 
tliMr property. It is i" irutli, beyuixl ilis))iiie tliat tlie goods pOBeoBed 
by ecclesiastical and religious roiMirlntioii^ belntij^ lo thti ^nerol cate- 
gory of property of the Church, and coiiMitute a true and proper por- 
tion of iu Gocred patrimony, lu cnisequeucu wiiertioff aa the property 

£^ of 


Sardinia attd Some. 

ofttic CliiuR'h 1:9 of its owi) natiirc inviokbk', so in like inauner ore ihe 
jiifjssessions uf such foiindatinit;*.' * 

AntI ibc Pnpe^s minister tlien jjroceeJs to sliinv — uitlj snnie 
tinge surely of that Soiialism ivliicli the Allocution so frecl}" 
ascribes to tlie Sardmian Govcmimenl — tbat, aa llie Jesuits are 
suppressDil without the concurrence of the conipptirnt, tijat is tt> 
Bay, tlie spirilual authority, they are still Jn reulily piisscsscd of 
their nafunif rights in their property. 

We pass lightly tivftr a measure t passed for the abi)Iiliuii nf 
tithes in Sardinia, which occupies a ^ood deal of space in these 
pAges, because illustrations ol the principles at issuo may be 
abundantly drawn fuim the other discussions. Suffice it tu say^ 
that these tithes op]K'ar to liave betn chiefly appropriated to 
the support of bislmprics and prebends, while llie parishes were 
scn-ej hy vicars in a statL' of scandalous poverty : and the object 
of the inaasure seems to have been at once to Jnltigatc these gross 
inequalities, and to relieve tbe cultivators uf the suil fruui a 
serious trrLcvance, and the island from a ^rcat obstacle to improve- 
ment. But as the Chambers adopted this cliangc withoot the 
Pope's consent, Cardinal Antouelli declarod that the; iaiv they 
bad passed was null in the face of the Church, and that the obJi- 
gBlion of the people lo pay iheir tithes remained pnllre. Ac- 
cordingly, in perfect kcepin-jf with the doctrine thu3 laid down at 
bead-quarters, the Arcbblsliop ol Cngliatl took occasion, or, as 
the phrase is, ' found himself rompelled,' by the measure respect- 
ing ritbea in Sai'diniu, to issue an exrumniunication against such 
persons as should violate the rights of the Church, 

iVIoantiuie the Government had repeated their proposals for a 
new concordat without effect; and two years having elapsed. 
Count Siccardi at length presented to the Chambers a law for 
effecting the purpose of the Government witli respect lo tbe 
ecclesiastical forum — in double violation, says the papal mani- 
festo, first, of its promise to treat upon the subject (but an 
offer repelled is surely no longer a promise); and secondly, of 
the coiacortial actually in force, and always observed by the 
Roman See. Simultaneously with the introduction of the bill, 
a Note in explanation of it was addressed to Cardinal Anto- 
nelli, pro-Secrelaty of State, by the Sardinian Charge d'Afiaires 
at Rome. It represented, that the constitution of the country 
absolutely required the abolition of exceptional jurisdictions; 
that that of tlie clergy now alone remained; that the King, 
ever since 16-16, had sought the PopeV assent to its cstinc- 

♦ Doc, No, Xin.,p. 33, 

t Allocimoae, &c., pp, 11, !3. 


Sardinia and Rotrte. 



tion without avail ; and that the Government had no longer 
nn^ alternntivp, except either itseU to assume the uiltiatire, ox tu 
sec the Chamber of Deputies, without distinrtioni of party, take 
the question into its own hands. It declared that this decision, as 
it proceeded from simple necessity, wna final, but announced its 
readiness still to treat with the Cuurt of Rome, but at Turin uiily, 
and ils full lieterminiition to defend religion ug^ainst all attacks. 
Indeed ihc name of Massimo d" Azerjlio, who was the head of the 
Sardinian ministry at the time, was of itsqir rootlusive as to the 
spirit in wbicli any question of the kind would be token in 

\Vhile thp relebraied Sl'cardi bill was passing throUfib its 
staf^ea^ the old pricvance,"* the freedom of the press, was repro- 
duced. The rcspcinsibiliiy of the failure in the Cnromunltattons 
between the Ctmvts was disowned, and great stress is laid upon 
the formal character of the existing concordats: — 

* Every oiic bnows that such arratigeineiits are eoitlra(rl!», and Ijke 
these etituii cihligalions ; aud if the bund of a bargabi is to be respected 
ill private Ufe> it b sacred and inviolable ia the life of staffs, ntid it 
accordingly so Iield m (Ne jiirl«prudfcnce of civilized nations. T!ie faiih 
reciprrxwlly pleiiffed seals, in the most solemn manner, t!te obligatious 
re8]>eclively assuiuifi ; nor can one of the conrractin^ parties release 
itself from the tie wilhoul tlis consent of t lie other.' — p. 93. 

But, when the ro\al assent had been given to the measure, the tones 
ofpapnl complaint ttnxcd lou tier and more shrill than ever, and 
the Nuncio quitted Turin. The archbishop of that city i&sued 
directions to liis derp'y in contravention of the new lawj and, re- 
fusing to give bait, was ncronlinjgly arrested. Upon this a new 
rcclamatiipn, dated May 14, came from the Court of Rome, and 
lajd down, with man'ellous hardihood, the view of civil rights 
and of the conipetency of States taken id that high quarter:^ 

* Whatever may he the rcfonus wiiieh it lias been dioupht proper to 
iidupt in tlie civil le^^latioii uf the realm of Sardinia, the veiierahla 
laws vf the Church must always be paramount to them^ andsliouid' 
Buri'ly he n^e«ted in a CatJiolic kiiigduui.' f 

The Pope justifies the disobedience of the Archbishop, and' 
demands liis immediate liberation and restitution to his ("uno 
tion : riot, be it observcti, in a matter of religioUi belief, ritual, 
or discipline, but in one of privileg^es as strictly temporal In their 
character, as ihev were plainly mlious in their aspect, and inju- 
rious to the real interests of the clcrnry themselves. He mingles 
in his ]>rotest a dark threat of re&ott to ecclesiaslleal arms : and 

• Dm.. So. XVI.. p. 89. 

t Alloc,, Ac., p. 96. 




publislies lii& griefs ta the world in a paragraph of au All< 
delivcri'tl May SOj 1S50. Somewhat similar proceeilinga, of 
wbich we need not follow the detEiil, occurred iQ the case of the 
Archbishop ofSassarL 

Tlie death of ihe CaViiliier Pietro De Rossi di Santa Rou^ 
the Miiiistei^ of Agriculture iind Commercp, tarried thh tonlro-' 
versy Id its climax. It is not prelrndcd that he liad any special 
resptnisibility fur tbt- Sitcardi law, hut he was a meiiiber uf the 
administiatiuu whicli fraired and canii^d it. He was required 
to confess and repent of this act of public duty ; and, stendily 
refusing-, lie Wfis di-prived by bis parisli priesi, a rpg;u5ar iif the 
orJer of the Sci'vr. lit Maria, of ttte lust sacraments. For tljis mon- 
slruus act the pni'st and his condjutnrs were removed, and lh« 
Archbishop was carried to the prison of Fenestrelics. Upon 
this another mia^ive was launched from Rome. Fresb ^ief and 
dismay bad invaded th^ IVnttfTs mind ; and amitlier principle, 
not less destructive of order and civil life when carried to it» 
full breadth thtr specimens we have already given, whs 
amiounced, namely, that, as the affair was -une touching the ad- 
ministration of the Sacraments, none but the spiritual authorities 
could have anythin;; tu say to it. Aixonling to this rule, a 
clerg-yman might withhold the Euc!iarist from the editor of ttie 
' Phoiiefi'c Nti: * fcir his unthng^rapliital fanaticism, or fn»m Mr. W. 
Brown for recommending a decimal coinage. But did it never 
occur as matter of mere argument to the astute nianngers uf the 
Roman dijilomacy, that their doctrine is In^ricallly open tii a reply 
only less ridiculous than itself? Qucuions of the Sactamcals 
are spiritual matter, so the Sardinian Government liatl cothiag 
to say to them; well and g'ood: but on the other hand qupstiuns 
of expulsion and imprisonment are temporal matters, so the 
Popai Government could have no right to take notice of ihem. 
The true solution, however, is this. At the hoctoin of all these 
HonKUi arguments is tlie good nbl Bonifac iai] iU>i trine, that, 
without any subtle distinction between spirituals and temporals 
at all, it 13 of necessity for salvation to believe that every human 
creature is 5'y Divine law subject to the Pope of Rome. And 
the only difference in the foitn of the claim between old times 
and new is this, tljat it is now found more convenient to insert the 
thin or spiritual end of the wedge first, and to trust to its bringing 
after it whatever may be needful ; as indeed it will and must, 
if the Church and ittt world are In be governed on the principles 
of the Santa Rosn tase^ since it is plain that there is no human 
action which may not be held to partake of a moral charatter, 
and tiiuE mado a plea for excluding men from the Christian jmle 
hy refusal of the Satramenls. All things spirilnal, says the 



Sartiinia and Rome. 


Popr, are mine : and ail tliingift tempc»nil at tbelr points iif con- 
tocl witli things spiriiual.' Buc tbese puints uf cuiilact are 
iiinuiuera.ble ; and tlie ai^utuenl, as an orc^meat, is di>I one whit 
bcllcr thaa the repl^' wliicli a clvU g^overmn^nl m^v make: all 
tluiigs temporal are mine, and all itiin^ spirituul at dieir points 
til t.-4)atn(.-t with things temporal. EiJher dottrin*^, obtaiiitDg i^\- 
clusivc swav, is dMtrui-tive alike t»l rpiig'ion ajid of soclei^v : ^uul 
it is Home which, throughout mudeni history, has set the worst 
example of asserting and pusLlng' tier own cLums in tLut ei^clu- 
sive iOTiii and 9ea»e, wliirli hits beea tlie maia cause of the uioet 
riolcQt reactions against thetn. 

\Vc are next introduced, by 'Vvav of intt-rlude, U> a law whIcU 
subjected tbe Jitcjuisiuoii ol pniperlj- by corjioratioiis, wlii'tUer lay 
«r tcflesias cital, ti> the condition of the previous assent of the 
f Xecmive ; and whitji U coudeiUQed by the Court of lioine as 
another infraclicn of a aavred right of the Cburclu This minot 
tnridcnt only deser^'cs noticr, because the recital indicates the 
uuiform lupdency of tlie Court of Home to invest civil matters 
with spiritual suiictions, and to employ, and by employing' ex- 
haust, wcujHjns ULeniit ibr the dti'ifDt e of reli^lun iu iig-hting battles 
fur secular objects, 

W'c have now reocbod the middle of l&bO ; unci at this time tJae 
SubjIpiiK' Government appears to have ibought that the ground 
dtey bad occupied in the contest ou^bt lo be liefiued and fixed by 
means of a pcrmtinent record. This we find in a Dispatch from 
tbc Pnsjdent of iLe Council of .Ministers, dated June 3,| which 
we cannot too btghly commend, whether fur its sound and cum- 
prebcnsiTc reasoning, or for ite admirable feeling- towards rtdigion 
And its rcpiesotitativ^s. Those who view the ChTistisn Cburch 
as having no higher function than to be a mere organ of the 
State, and who draw from the excesses of clerical power in other 
times, otticr lands, or other communions, arguments For reducing 
the clergy among ourselves lo a species of religious slaverj', wil 
hi- ^Usappoinled if they expect to find rountciiance or support 
for SQch views from the lanffuage of the Sardinian Goveronieot, 
or bxaa the spirit with wfiieb it has conducted its recent cootron- 
vePfcirs. Tbc work which that Ciovcniment has been performin|;, 
alike lo the profit of other states and its own, is simply t<i viudi- 
imle the freedom and supTcmacy of the Slate within ila own pro- 
vince. It is Turin J and not Rome which discriuiiaates clearly 
between the secular and the spiritual pmvince — it is Rome and 
not Turin which ambltiouslv confounds them. 

• See, far «XBmplG, Doc., Nw. XLIX.^ p. 184. 

+ Dcv-.tio. xsiii., p. 103. : p-p, tor. lae. 



Sardinut and Some, 

The main point at issue is happily not much, obscured by 
dispute tis to mnltprs of fact. Tlicr*; Is, itideed, as we have inti- 
mated, a debate tn the eiirlicr part ol' tbe Coirt^spondencc between 
the two Courts upon the question, which party was responsible 
fur the fruillcssnc&s of those repeated missions that had been 
undertaken on the part of Sardinia with a view to the revision 
of the existing cnitcorilals. It is, however, avowed by th* 
Government of Piedmont that thoy had dpfined the basis by an- 
ticipation, and thai it was so wi<le as to idelucle thc^ total aboli- 
tion of the cXfreptional privilefreB nf the ecclesiastical forum in 
civil and criminal matters ; while, on t!ie part of Rome, it is 
plainly recorded that, althoufrh prepared to modify, upon cauae 
shown, she Was dot prcparcil trn nbolisli the whole of those privi- 
leges. Under these circumstances wo tan have little hesitation in 
adopting the Sardininn view ol' this piirt of the dispute. It was for 
the interest of Sardinia, which meant to carry '** pt'in% to lisve 
tlie sanction of Rome. It was for the interest of Rome, when 
she hftd dctermincil that the privilc^^es should not be nbciliBhetl 
with lier le.ive, to evade altopethtir the demaod for re-opciiing 
the rortcordats, and thus to throw upon Piedmont tlic (hxible 
responsihility, first of abolishing the privileg'os of the clergy, 
and, secyndly, of setlingr aside the formal instrument by which 
they were defined. 

In this capital respect Rome was aware of her advantage. 
The coacordat is im ai^teement between two persons, both of 
whom are temporal snjvereipns, and it therefore prosf^nts at first 
sight the aspect of an international engp;^ment. She has not 
scrupled to make use of this formidable plea, and to join it with 
another of equal or cveti hi3:her pretensions. 

* Concordars are inviolable on the side of the civil power, first he- 
c^iuse they fire of Ihe nature cf iiiternaliotiall treaties, and iievt because 
they dtal with tlie universal laws of ecctt'siastical diacipUnej wtiidi 
depend upon the Roman rontiC — p. 17. 

It is time that European sovereip-ns having; eoucordats with tlie 
Pope should bethink thenasclves of their position, wlien they arc 
tlius authoritatively told that they are bound by inteniational eo- 
(pigeinents in raattera affcctine only their own subjects ; and further 
that tbe matter of these cn*au;ement^ is in reality under the 
supreme coulru! of the Roman Pontifl',w!io,it would seomlo follow, 
inif;;bE, if he saw fit, settle it aloue. 13ut, in fad, these assertions 
inrolve the grossest abuse of languane. The meaning and upshot 
of the whole, ag the Sardinian Minister observes, is really no 
more and no less than this : — ' Is a State entitled to alter its own 
political arrangements without the consent of the Court of Rome, 


Sardinia and Rome. 


or is it not ? * (p. 104.) And if no one can venture to maintain 
nfienty a doctrine so uiunslrous, it follows lliat matters such as 
tlie privileges of the lofurti must depentl Upon tKe vanAtions of 
times and institutiiins, aod must follow those variatiuus as the 
peacp ami hpppiness ol' tiAUotu tnav scciit to them, judjiing- de- 
Uberatelv for themst'Ives, to demand. In this instance the ques- 

Ilion really was, IjaJ Sardinia a rig;ht, whether the Pope agreed to 
it or not, to declare all her subjects equal in the eye of ihe law? 
If $be had, it was a plain and immediate consequence tbat her 
tlerjry must be content to take tlieir trial in person and property 
htftire the ortllnary tnhunals of the realm, and under the coattol 
of the same Laws with tbeir fel!ow<eitizc-ns. And when she is told 
by Cardinal Antoneili " that the question has been mis-stated, and 
that it really is whether a Stale may in its ptdilical rpforins 

» impair the disciplinary rights of the Cliurch without the Pope's 
consent, we reply, he abuses the name of tiie discipline (tf the 
Church, Its spiritual discipliae has not been touched hv Picd- 
inontese letristation: but when the Church has lor ct-ntiiries 
planted itself out into the secular domain, and lias (brown the net 
of its law over cvervtbinil t|iat belongs to its miiiislers. its fabrics, 
^Land its insritutiouii, jn their civil relations wilh the Government 
^^ and thecommunitv, she cannot justly cover this huge excrescence 
with tlie name of ecclesiastical discipline. In sn doin^ she over- 

tihools her mark. Tbe effect is that, as she sets the exam pie of per- 
vertiri<j Ian;rua;j;g by widening tbe sense of the lernj in suit her 
inlcrrstsi, others, copying her. will in their turn naiTow it for 
their <iwn jiurposes. And in like manner, when she insists upon 
tbe nature of her concordats as international treaties, the Court 
of Koine should remember that there ia one not very improbable 
contingency, in which thov must, even by their own confession, 
cease to be intcniational, namely, that which will arise when 
the I'ope, in consequence of the lossof his temporal power, shall 
to represent a nation. 
The view of the Sardinian Government is not open to the 
chorg'e that it tampers with anv principle of good faith, or reduces 
concordats to a ntilHtv, It nmount^ to this, that the changes 
proposed in them, helonginf; to a subject-matler with which the 
State Is not disentitled fo deal, should aUo he snth as are justified 
and required bv llje circumstances ivbicb prompt the proposal ; 
that the Roman Pontiff should he invited to concur in them ; that 
they are to be treated as matters of the utmost gravity, with every 
guarantee against leviiy and injustice ; but that in the bst resort 
it must depend ujion the supreme civil power of each State to 

Doc, N'o. X3UV., p. 109. 



Sardinia and Rome. 

det4?nnine the temporal accidents of spiritunl things and pcr&ocs, 
sud n<it upon a duallsim of authorities, ha^in^ no umpire to 
decide between them, nor Laving stood ori^inallj' ujion an ctyual 
fooling, becBQse one of them is responsible for the pcac'e of the 
coinniunity and for tbe attamini^nC of llie primary ends ol civil 
smiety, wdile the other has no respoDsibilitj excejft fur spiritual 
things., wiucli by the very terms of ibe prnpuBition are aot 
brijuglit into question. 

And perhaps alter all tbe most olisrrvable and sipiiricant part 
of the controversy is this, the Jtuotaa Court declares not that coii- 
cordats arc abaolulelv inviolable, but tlint ibey arc so on tfi» aide 
oj' tiie civil authority. She nowliere intimales that she herself is 
of rig-lit bound bv them. On tbe conlravy, she distinctly enou^ 
g'lves us to understand the rontiaiy when she says^ thut thvy turn 
upon the laws of tCLlesiaslical dJsiiplinc, which dej)ciid upon the 
<Iisc7-etion of l/if Honitm I*oritiff. Her view, theretore, is plainly 
this,— that ibc King of Sardinia is hound by virtue of existing 
concordals in matters respecting the temporal interests of a por- 
tion 111 his own subjects to a foreign power, but that that foreign 
power is not bound lougrer than it thinks fit either to him ur lo 
them. The preambles proposed by the Court of Rome for a new 
cnacordat ate in exact conformity with this theory. They declalfe 
that the assent ol the Pojie is necessary for a change in the 
existiDn; arrangements, but assert no correlative obligation on bis 
part to seek the assvnt of the Crown uf Sardinia,* and whatever 
4uubt may be raised upon llie question, who tharpenhle wilb 
the original failure of the attempt lo arrange by mutual cim&eni the 
desii'L'd alterniioii of the conrurdat, at llic laler period of February 
lHo::i, when these preambles were framed, the matter stands clearly 
enough. For the propo&Eil of the Court of Rome uae^ lirstjy, to 
^ant, with exceptions, especiatly and itiainly tkiat of t1itr episcopal 
order, that abolitiou of privileges of the forum which Sardiaia de- 
manded without exceptions, and setumlly, to insert in the preamble 
a duclaration that the concordats rcmld not be altered without its 
consent, and ibal the Pope bad acceded to tbe reijuest of the King 
<iut of his desire to see an end put to the sufTerin:^ of the CImrck 
in Piedmont. But Sardinia, with tbe same firmness which has 
marked her wliole course of proteetJiiig, det lined to accept a boon 
which was less than the right she )ind alifady asserted by her 
law, which was elog^ged with condifions fatal to national inde- 
pftidppce, and whit;h, in fatt, condemned her own legislative 
'decisions. Nur was this an accident or a mere matter of detail 
on tbe side of Rome: it wna tbe ^reat object for whicb she con- 



«I ; BO murb sm that, whrai in tbe summer of 1851 tbe 

Mn-emuent presentecl a project of concordat fcish itspect to the 

SIS (ti Saniiuia, tbe C-uurt of Rume replied tbat it cuuiil not 

iatc at all until the priodple was adtuittetl that coucordals 

•I* absulately bindins as a^iiut the civil power.* 

At the same time it is no more than bare justice to admit that 
ip Roman dortrme rtspecliag- the oMi^tion of tbe civil powCT 
observi; a cuDcardat, as if it were an iDtexnational trenlT, is stip- 
porteil, in tbe cases here bmu^bt to our notice, by the icim of the 
instriiDient itself, whi(^b purpr>rls to Ite conttacted by pSetiipntov- 
tiaries after the veriiicatiun of their respective powers, and with 
Glials o{ the character which enter into tbe preambles oi treaiies. 
hi-s cj.n'iimstaiii-''pdups not mend tiit position ut t^-^ Courl ul R^me 
in tbe nr»U]jieiit, bc<:ause it. is not less fatal lu tbe reserred light 
^— of the Po|>c to ilepart iViim a com-ordat than to that of the other 
^kjntrttctin^ pnw-cr. But it cwn hardly be too much to *av that 
^Bte^iorm is jnconv^nient and naturally leads to misuiidentanding, 
^^■■Kase these ncgutiutions an<l their forms can appertain to the 
Pope only in his rapacity of a tfuiporal 5<]vereij;n, wherea* his 
title 1(> bo consulted at all ntlb respect tu tLu interests of the 
churcbe* and clergy of particular countries, must be derived ex- 
clusively from bis relation to tbcm in re«pect of the spiritunl 
*upr<?[nacy, which ibev think proper la acknowledge as residing 
in the cliair of St^ Peter. 

In the year 18-41 a concordat was concluded between Charles 
Albert and Gregory XVI., of which the first article ran thus : — 

' llavitig fegard lo the eircuiiistahc«-s of the times, the neeessity of 
the prompt adniiiiistralioii of jiisitce, and the wani of proper means 
iet*io in the Eishojxs' Court*, the Holy >jee will lualit no ohjeeiion to 
iriul of^ecclesias'iicj before tlie civil tribunnU for tbe higher crimiual 

In dealtno- with potentates of whom it has immediate fear, tbe 
Human (-«ur( docs not always, we believe, employ lon^ua^e of 
tiiis tluHcriplioii jo cnncordrils ; but the spirit of the pa&sage we 
Llitivc just (|uoled plainly u-nds to indicate tlial the Pope, and nut 
tiie civil Sovereign, is supreme in tbe temporal causes of eccle- 
tiastictU persons; tbnt any powers ac(|uirF(J over tiicm by tbe 
Ulatc are due to his favour ; tbat tbe iostrument containin*; such 
Bvour* binds the Power with whom it is settled, bat does not 
^ind the Pope hinifielf, »nd is revoiablc wbeoever he may tLiak 
the interests of tbe Church require it to be revoked. And attch 
Wc bflieve to be tbe established doctrine of the Roman Court 
respecting concordats. 


Sardinia and Jiome, 

But toil and trouble were now redoubled ; new grievances trod 
upon the Iieels uf old, and eacli iodividual case b^roincs almoit 
indiatino^uisliable in lUe crowd. The liberty or licence of ibe 
press — the etiforcement of the Exequatur — the withdrawal of 
peneral educiilion from the control of the clersy — 'the order of the 
Government that University degrees should be made a neressan- 
qualificntion for benefices in the Church, an order cvideiulj? 
intended, and apparently much needed, ia order toj correct lire 
exclusive and isolating tendencies of the system of separate edu- 
catio'ti in theolpgical seminaries — the Gidlican doctrines of Pr<^ 
feasor Nuytz — the abolition of the Sardinian tilhe^ — the law to 
regulate the incidents nf marriage,* which we may observe gave 
the Pope on opportunity lo declare that every inarriiiye rontracted 
between Christians olberwisi' than as a sacrament is pure <'nncu- 
biua5;et — the limitation of civil penalties f(»r%varlt nn festivals lo 
certain days — the provisions of the Sicrardi liiw — these'aiid other 
causes of quarrel were still in full vivatity ; but we cannot omit 
to let the Human monlfeslo spenk for itself in one remarkable 
passage : — 

' Jloreover there lias been offered tu ihe Catholic Church the memo- 
rable niitra'iie of seeing creeled, within its own boiioin and in iJjc two 
must disdn£!;uislied cities of the realm, temple.'; nf Prot^taiilisBi. ui 
lespite of tlie iinanimoiis oiiicry of the bishop?, who remonstrated^ and 
of the indignation of llie faithful.' 

The series of assumptions which we have seen promulgated to 
the world in the so-called complaints of the Roman See, would 
have been fitly crowned by this most nudnrious declaralJon that 
it is the business in each country, not of the civil power, but 
of the foreign authority of the Pope, to deal witli the qnesdon 
of sitnple toleration; and this, tou, with respect tn n king<lorn 
where the obqox:ioU9 liles had liecn practised, at the Icast^ for 
six or seven hundred years, and tolerated lor some ^generations. 
But one further excess yel remained. On the 5tb of April 1 854, 
Cardinal AntonelliJ sums up in a despatch liie principal griev- 
ances of the Church, Among these he enumerates (1) a tjix nf 

• Jl is vBel! worthy of remark, that tliis law appears (o w*t on the midc buKb as 
OBfoWnWiilli respect lo prohibitions. It limits tlicrin la th-e asctnding and do- 
Fi^ending' di'^rwA, the cast; of brother ami sifil^^r, luid thnt of uncle IWil niv'tv, Wil 
iJic correlB-tivf9nAcwtiv«rwones; makes iioi3iffi-reij<;t?b«lwt;tn she mo siin-s, ir 
affinity ns {•ousjmguiiait'Vi nmi EpnnoDB as I'PgilJmitCc! relationship, tvod forhttU 
pf-tisatiaas. — Etocinn., I^o. XLVl, Ikilh ihe f»rtu or this law, aud oilier purf 
t1i««v piipi-r^, apiwar to indicate iliac i\\v p«>uk' ul" 5?ardiiiia have b«(.-u wria 
■ciUHlsIiit.-d al lliu iiw made hy iIk' Pwpe uf his powtr to dispi'tist in ihf cu 
muiiafi-'s irirhin ihi! pru'lilbiti-il degrees. 

t Uocom., No. LI., p. l'J3 ; also No. LX.. p. 223. 

t Doc, No. LX. 


Sardinia cmd Rome, 61 

four per cent, laid upon all corporations, laj and derical, in lieo 
of the sacoession datj following upon death in the case of private 
property ; (2) a tax upon moTeables * common to ecclesiastics 
and laymen ; (3) a capitation tax, affecting in like nuumer the 
whole commanity. Thus eren taxes, that know no dislinctum 
between priest and flock, are, in the eye of the Pope, ecclesiastical 
matter I Nor does he, by the pen of his minister, stop short of 
the consequence, that they ought not to be paid : — 

* When in past times there was a questioo of subjectin:; eccle^asdcal 
property to rome burden ia aid of the public treasury, the august and 
pious Bovereigns of the House of Savoy made it thetr dutifiil care to 
betake themselves to tiie Holy See ; and it was in consequence of the 
communications thus established, and of the estimates made of tbe respec- 
tive exigencies of thecases, that the Holy Seedid not hesitate Xopermit 
the properties of the clei^ to come under the same impositioas that 
were charged upon tfaose of tbe lay community.' 

But, inasmuch as the taxes now imposed did not come within 
the Papal permissions, — 

*It is therefore manifest, that tbe ecclesiastical authorities of the king- 
dom, if they are to fulfil that duty of protection which they owe to the 
Church and its sacred rights, cannot with indifierence permit the clergy 
to comply with tbe imposts wbich have been enacted.' 

And upon this the Cardinal proceeds modestly to make it a subject 
of further complaint that the clergy, if they protested against these 
taxes, would run the risk of being represented as turbulent per- 
sons, and hostile to the Government! Such is tbe view that now 
prevails at Rome upon the respective rights of Csesar and of 

We do not find that tbe Sardinian Government condescended 
to enter into the onprotitable and degrading debate invited by the 
Court of Rome upon tbe questions whether it was competent to 
tax its own subjects, and to tolerate the erection of Protestant 
temples. On the contrary, it set its face steadily onwards, and 
presented from time to time Ibe new demands, which its mea- 
sures of social improvement required. 

During its later communications with Rome, the Government 
of Sardinia hod glanced at the state of the Church in tbe dominions 
of the mainland, and had thrown out the idea of a mixed Com- 
mission to ascertain their state. Having, however, accomplished 
this preliminary task by means at its own command, it submitted 
a statement and proposal to the See of Rome on the 2nd of June, 
1854. Tbe basis of tbe representation was briefly as follows : — 

* Taita mt^iliare. 

Siirdinia avd Home- 

The population of these states amounting In four millions, tljc 
ecclesiastical revenues reaclie^l fuurteen millions of francs, or ^6 
hundred and sixty thousand pounds; a proportion three times 
greater than that of France, and ciceenUiifT in a still greater degfee 
that of Belgium. In fact, upon ihe restoration in lUlS, tlje stole 
of thing's had been genprally revived wliicii prevailed upon the 
French occupation. While the aggregate of Ilie wealth of ihc 
Church was thus so ample, a larga portiuQ of the parishes were 
poor: 2500 of them averagetl but eighteen pounds a yenrj and 
one hundred more Iiad no income wlintever, A large sum, 
I amounting to 9^8,000 francs, or 37,0001., was eonsequentlj voted 
[iBnnually by tlie Chambers in aid of the Impoverished part of the 
I derg)', at a time when the fmuuces of the coualry could ill bear 
»ny unnecessary burden. Tlie proposal wsia so tu deal with the 
Church property as, wliile alienating no part of it from sacred 
uses, to supply the wanta of the poor parishes from ercliesiasticAl 
meanst and to relieve the State from its annual charge. The 
assuranre was conveyed that the adoption of these hases liy the 
Papjil Court would greatly facilitate a yeneta! and liarnionious 
armngemenl of the points debated between thetwo giivernmentt; 
fwhile, on tlie other hand, it was not to he expectcil that, after such 
a disclusurc of the wealth of ihe Church, tlie I'arliamenl would 
agree from year to year to fax the communily on iIs behalf.* 

As the finances of Sardinia are an object of inlert^st at the pre- 
sent time, witli respect both to the solidity of its general position, 
and li» its power to fulfil the slipulalions of Its recent convenlion 
with Knglandj we may perliaps do well to show in a few words, 
that, although lier taxation is heavy, and her fiovemmcnt there- 
fore is more than justi^cd in all atleiripts to relieve the treasury 
from undue charge, yet she exhibits, akin^ with other sound and 
healthy inrlieationa, that of a determination to maintain her credit, 
and. even Under considerable pressure, to bring her receipts up to 
the level of her expenditure, 

The Budget fof the eurrent Veat showed, it is true, 

An estimated expeiuliture of . . . 138,855. OCX) francs. 
And a receipt of only , , . . . 128,300,01)0 

With an appsrent deficit of . . . 1 0.552,000 

rB«t inasmuch as (he eipenditure includes four millions to he 

'laid out rcproductively in railroads, which in Piedmont are cou- 

Btructed h}- the Government, nod aiwuE eight millions mid a 

quarter to be applied to the extinction of debt, there i^ in reality 

a small surplus of revenue over expenditure. 


Doeum., No. LXVI., p. SC 5. 


Siirdiriia ami Ruvte. 


So aUo the BuJget Tor the coming year, presented a$ usual ia 
haace^ shows 

An estimated expenditure of . . . 139,000^000 fraucs. 
Audaiecfiplofonly 130,500,000 

Or an apparent deficit of 




ut this deftcit is within a fraction the nmouitt of the annual 
sinking' FudiI. We believe^ loo, that these estimates arc so con- 
strucled, that in nil ordinary ci^cuDrtstaIt<^es a result ia arrived at 
more faTOurable to the Treasury than the estimate il&ell'. 

Reluming to the iine of the namtive. we nf»w rapidly approach 
ts crisis. The application of the Sardinian Government was met 
by Komc with a counter inquiry,* whether that Oovemment was 
prepnretl to accede to its views witli respett to the privileges of 
the ecclesiastical forum and the inviolability of concordats? Sar- 
diniaf declinrd to recur to those quesliims by way of prelirainarv, 
but intimated a hope that progress miglit he made with them, if 
the Pope shouhl begin by copccding- the demand now before him ; 
apparently meaning-, that the Government wouEd then endeavotir 
to pass a bill for continuing or reviving the judicial immunities 
of the bishops, and for making the other desired inodificatioas in 
the Siccardi law, but we presume with no intention tu adopt the 
Papal view of the obligations of a concordat. At the same time 
the Pontiff was distinctly apprised that this appUeaiion to him 

as one of respect and deference, not of obligation ; that the ques- 
tion would not bear delay ; and that, if unable to obtain the cun- 
cnirence which was asked, it must proceed tf> settle iIjc question 
,by ita own means and authority. 'I'he rejoinder of the Court of 
Ilome was in the sense of its previous communicatinns; and the 
Sardinian Government replied by proposing to the Chambers a 
bill for the suppression, with certain excejjtions, of the religious 
orders, and for the improvement of the Htipenda of the poorer 
benefices, which implied the relief of the Treasury from further 
annual charge on their behalf. 

The ministerial reportjj whith was presented to the Chamber 
on the iSth of No*'ember, 1854, acknowledging: the services 
which bad been rendered in other times by the monastic establish- 
ments to Christendom, also declared that the sense of the present 
dav was radicatlv opposed to the esistrncc of numerous bodies pur- 
porting to be purely ascetic and contemplalive, and strenuously 
u*ert«d the ri;^ht of the Slate^ not to interfere with their consti- 

Djcum.. Md. LXV., p. 859. t DACum.. Nu, LXVI., p. 2S3. 

; Pwnun., So. LXVIII., p, 274. 



Sardinia and Some. 

tation or their spiritual rdatlons to the Cburcli, but to esting-uisfa, 
fur adequate cuusc, their civil jHTsonality, 

This has been well expressed by the minister RatazzI in bis 
speedi of Jaouar;^ the lUh on tbe bill ; — 

' Tiie bill does not aim at esting-uishing reUutoHS mtd monastic 
orders; it does not affect the religious nbli^ations of the monk* and the 
regularij, either of the one or of the other sei ; it urtera no impediment 
to those who desire to associate together and to live in coniinnu, subj^'t 
lo the observa>»ce of certain ruli% thai they may be pleased (o adupt. 
The pnijevt af law simply aimn at suppressing tlie civil jner^tonjiUly, or 
that fonn of le5:ilised existence ivliich the law of the land graiijs to 
certain determinate religion!) corponttious, societies, or establishmenU.' 

Tbe genernl idea of the measure was to transfer property from 
tbe bands of the ufiem ploy fd tii tliose of tin? employed members 
of tlie spirituulty, and in conformily with tljia sentiment a sclie- 
dule ivns to be publisUwI alonj^witli the measure, exrepting from 
its operation a p«)rlion of the comTnunilics devoted to public- 
education, to preadiiup, and to the care of lUe sick. We be- 
lieve that this schedule^ as it now stands, will prove to have been 
liberally framed. 

With the suppression of cunvcnts was combined a plan for the 
taxation of episcopjil, parochial, !uid other ecclesiastical benefices, 
by which some "20.000/. a-year were to be raised in aid of the 
Fund. The lax varied front 3 to 33 per cent. ; it was laid, 
however, not upon the entire incomes of the persons n^ffected bv 
itj bnl only upon the amount by which they esreeded a eertain 
minimum, which was fixed at 18,000 francs for archbishops 
and 12,0(X) for bishops. 

The dctttils t>i this measure have been the subjeet of great con- 
test ; nor are we precisely informed as to the shape they have 
linallv assumed. VV'e may venture, however, to yive an opinion 
that, the more gentle and liberal the treatment of individuals, 
whether wilh respect to their feelings or to their interests, the 
more easily, and the more cfTectually ttio, will the impni-t,int work 
in liiuid bt; ail utnplishfd. And if it be true, as we liavc seen it 
stated, that this suppression is not to be immediate in the case u( 
those persons who ivish to continue devoted to tbe life of the 
cloister, vie cannot but regard ibis as a great improvement upon 
the original frame of the BilL It has now become part of the 
law of the kingdom. 

Kven the activity and resources of our press have not yet 
reached such a point as lo put the Knglish public periodically in 
possession of the discussiops whith take piace in the Sardinian 
Chambers. But, having ourselves largely examined iheescelleot 
reports published at Turin, we can venture to give our fellow- 



irrjmen the nasurantc that their (Icbatcs arc carried an in a 
manner worthy ot the free institutions, and the intelligence, at 
once acme ant! masculine, of the Subalpin>e people; and rnay 
well bear comparison wilh those of any otijcr repreacnlBtJvP or 
deliberative assemblies. Nor does anything more strike us than 
the admirable combination they present of intellectual with 
moral elements, and of power of thought wilh practical sagacity. 
And now a few woids upon the general conduct of the Court 
of Piedmont and the Court of Rome in these prolonged and com- 
pJicated controversies- The question, wbetlier pvery detail or 
even every leading' leature of each measure adopted by Sardinia, 
was Wise and just, is not before us, and could not by possibility 
be competently judged in a country the idtosyncracies ol whose 
Laws and institutions are so tnarhed as our own. Some prin- 
ciples whtdi it is our tenilcnry and habit to exaggerate, such as 
the respect due to private and corporate rights, may, perhaps, on 
the other liniid, be somewhat under-csliinated in most of the eon- 
tintntal countries, aad it frequently happens ihcir proceedings can- 
not readily be c]ade tosfjuare with our peculiar standard. Again, 
with respect to education^ the close contact and sympatliy be- 
tween our clergy and the lay community, has made it practi- 
cable and snfe lor Kngland to leave the superintendence of popular 
instruciinn to them in a degree which may be highly unwise 
and insecure in countries, wliere they are reared liom an early 
age in secliisltin from the rest of the community, forbidden to 
contract the tie of marriage, and above all, governed by an autho- 
rity which is foreign, practically absolute, and in its spirit and 
policy but too truly anti-national. We decline, therefore, those 
minor (jue^iions, which we have not materials for duly eiamining ; 
but the great questions before us must not be touched so tenderly, 
They are tiiese : Have the ecclesiastical reforms of the Sardinian 
Government been marked as a whole by political moderation? 
Have they been conceived in a spirit of irreligion or of reckless 
innovation, or Love they e.\hibitc{l an unwavering loyalty to the 
Christian Faith and a sincere respect for other (however incon- 
venient yet in sorae sense) constituted authorities':' Has Sardinia 
finiy been doing later for herself what most other Christian 
states, indeed evety Roman Catholic state without cxccptinn 
throughout Europe, innl done long before; and above allj has 
she been dealing wilh matters lying properly within her own 
competence, and thus acting for us all as a champion of 
civil freedom against Papal encroachment, or, has sbe^ as the 
Pope alleges^ been heaping a scries of unprovoked insults and 
injartes upon the church of Christ, which ho, good sonl 1 has en- 
' TOL. XCVll. MO. CXClir. F countered 


Sardinia and Rome. 

counteretl with the ajma of a kingdom not of tbiB world, namel)', 
with the simpli? words of love and lamblike meeliness? 

Wc oannnt hesitate tu answer tlirao quesliuns in tli^ si>n&G' mnst 
favourahlo to Sardinia. In gennml, late reforms are violent ; hut 
Sardinia hns liorne tht? yoke fi the old ccclesinsticfil laws li>nE;er 
than her neislibours, nnU yet, in refurminiB- them, has sIiom ii a 
moderiition which would have done credit to any iimons: them. It 
excites, indeed, our ndmiratioti, to see how ioliii>lctely her 
measures. n.ppear to be free fr»m the fatal taint of irreligion; how 
well she has^ upun the whuSe^ tracod the line with accuracy and 
firmness, so difEcult to draw hctweett the vindication of ciril 
and the ima&lijn of sjiirituul j>uwer. 

Let Its hear fur a muincnt the manly and loyal apology of her 
own govenunent: 

' Tlie rjiinistsra of (he kin^ in conscience feel, tliat lliej- have paid no 
adulation either to popular passions or lo the enemies of the church. 
If tJiey have ever chanced to err, they have, on the other hand, proved, 
on maiiy occaaion?*, their disjwisition lo combat llie ps^^inns of |he 
masses. They have proved (heir desire (n pfotecl rehg'ion and jla 
ministers, 60 lon<^ a* tht^^iE: remain faithful to llie Ian s of the hind. 
Foremost m their ihoughts standi the (hilh of theii* fathers, llie 
reverence due to the Church and to its Head, litit they recognise, as a. 
debt of conscii^nF'e, their obligation to keep the oath they have tWOtU to 
upliold the constiitutioii and tlie laws of the realm.'* 

And sunidat the sad complications of Kuropean affairs, there is 
aotate (-omrort in lliinking, that her position, pre^attt as it is 
mlh important results, has been materinlly strengthened by the 
turn those alTaira have taken. The GovemmePt, clear in its 
Ideas and firm in its decisions, has discouraged violenrc as de- 
cidedly as it has vindirated independence, has even dissolved 
certain of the municipal councils which had cuHed for the secu- 
larisation of the properly of the Church, and 1ms seen its law 
finally adopted under the sharpest censures alike of the ultnw 
montane and the democratic leaders in the Chamber of Deputies. 
The people, aound-bcarted and united, are fully disposed to 
support their sovereij^ aoBinst Kotnan arms, and are well 
able to du it, so lont; as Roman arms shall stand alone, aad 
shall not he hacked by sympathy and intrigue from Sar- 
dinia s powerful neighbours an the north-west and east. She 
has found the secret of Uer strength ; she has broken the spell. 
She has shown, that the remedy for the assumptions of the Court 
of Home lies already in the hands of all, who have courage to use 

■ Docum., No. L., p, ivl. 


Sardinia aad Bojim. ti7 

it ; and we cannol tioiilit ibal slie is preparec) for its further 
npplicalion, to wljaTcver extrnt the mav linil it nerdliil. P!ut will 
AOtne l)p so fiir at Irast wise in time, <is to confine hcrielf 
to biu wtirtU. nnd nttlirr to incur and bear tlie cliari^e of an 
impntPTit senile cniniUty, mttier than to invite lIk* innrc serious 
lmzar(L>, v^liitii her r£S»rl Ui ulterior incagurcs itii^ljt provoke ? 
The tane hns a- dcnibtful if not a sinister aspect. On the one 
liand, lliii Pope hns not enroiira^d the clergy abs^i^lutelv to resist 
tiie |iiri»diclion ol the Iniipoi-al courts; nn the rtlhtFr, the Arcli- 
bixbttpoi Turin. iTiimickiniT the atcenls of h\s> ehicf, iias autbo^ 
rilnlitelv tleiioiineed the penaitins of the canons citcninst those 
wlm slifill cx&cute the law tmichini^ comenls, has declared it null 
and void, nnd iiaa desired the mmmunities of nuns to close their 
ilcMirft agninst the ministers of the law, and to yield only to force^ 
But BO mHi--li at lerwt we l»eli«ve to be beyond doubt as this, that 
PiediiHuit neither will nur can alter the direction of her policy, 
ami that she will fearlessly h>linw it In its legitimate results. 

But tlie question, when e:niiminie<l with refenmce to Rome her- 
self, is larger and graver still. These ''Papal nggreesions/ — in 
themselves so exorbitant and outm^eous, that it mieht bedifficult to 
gather from any single period of history and oourseof Iransaction*, 
iven in tlio pregnant aimaU of iho Church and Courl of Rome, 
f* series of claims equally astoiindiofr, and <l(i(.irii;es equally anti- 
social — are nevcrlbeleas, even in a political view, not to be reckoned 
u wholly and simply contemptible. Contemptible, indeed^ tuid 
only rontemptibje, might the altitude of the Pontiff in this coo- 
troreny he. il the civil slate of kingdoms and the equilibrium of 
Eunipe were in these limes more secure. But the sad esperience 
of l&4d Mid the following years is fresh in the memory of all ; 
■ml even the beat ordered communities, such as that of Piedmont, 
though they have nothing' )o fear from within, may have to en- 

■ counter many adverse poliHIral inBuenccs from witftout, so that, 
al piirticulB,r periods, they may have Utile strength to spare; and 
it i& at these very times, we may he sure, not at others, that the 
Court of Romewillmix in the fray. Standing; alone, it is, as Mr. 
Halltuu lina said, 'the impotent dart of Priam amidst the 
ciiu'kliog vuina of Troy.' But it can in our own day invariably 
reckon, we fear, on a commanding influence among the clergy, 
H and of a certain Ittnitrd following in the laity: so that, though 
^1 w» may nut see a Pontile of the nineteenth oentury issue the 
Deposing Bulls which were common in other times, we may 
wilness a danjicpous iolluence thrown at crltif«l nionients mto 
the scale of reactionary revolutions,, or suspended over a country 
^^ during its slrug|E;les for liberty ajid order tn such a way as greatly 
■ ' p2 to 




Sardinia end Home, 

to retard the subsiJence of Its anp^ry and distempered elements, 
and the cnnxoUdatiinn of its institutjons. 

But the religious asjiett of such claims and doctrines is a Blill 
more, and much more, serious Affair. Pulitlcal mischief, out of 
his own doiniiiions, the Pope can hsrdlv do, unleair under special 
clrcumalanccsj and therefore by way of exL-eption ; whereas the 
lone nnd policy of the Court of Home exercise a continuous 
influence, and. whether for g^ood or for evil, an immense one, upon 
the reli^jion of Western Christendom. The moat alarming cha- 
racteristic of all, and the one inrrens.inf*ly prevalent in its pro- 
ceedings of iatc years is ihis — lliat it more and more recklessly 
dissot'intes itself from that common sense and those common 
feelings of mankind, fmm those djitates of the natural conscience 
in its better moods, and from those electric trains of human 
instinct and sytnpathv, in whirh Cliriaiianity at its first promul- 
gation took so deep a root, and found such extensive and such 
sure s.upporl. Here was the standing tn'ound from which it 
waged successful war against [he Corruptions of man, and spread 
wide ils victniious influences through every joint apd every fibre 
of society, Hut in these days we see with pain a doctrine, of 
which the fathers of the Church never heard, deliberately added 
to the rode of necessary faith, by a process as subversive and 
vevoliilinnaTy in regard to the cvnstituiional organs of the Church, 
as the doctrine itself, to a common eye, appears to be dangerous 
to that upon which it is so rudely en^afted. We see miracles 
coined from time to time to stimulate Ba^gin^ fanaticism, with 
an almost ostentatious indiH^erenre to the laws of evidence, and to 
those intrinsic mora! marks, wlnrh are &o clearly legible in the 
siijns and wonders of our Lord and his apostles. In the ctinrenl 
views of Papal power and Church authority, we see the preference 
always given to those theories and to those schools wliich wind 
up the system hif^bcst and tightest, and which are least regafdful 
oi founding it upon (he clear-drawn lines of history and reason, 
or of associating it with the movement and temper of the human 
understanding, and thus neutralizing, as tar as may be, the «lan- 
gcrous lenderuiies of the age to a relaxed hold upon dogma, 
an enfeebled grasp of the idea of Divine revelation, anri a morbid 
activity in sieplical criticism. This nob]e function the See of 
Itoine seems to have abandoned. Unequal to the work and part 
of their great predecessors, the Popes of the present ilay abdicate 
the otiice of guidinir the march of Cliristian society, and arc con- 
tent to wrap themseli-es in sullen isolation, and to rail from the 
midst of ihcir Consistories at an unbelief which they might, by a 
wiser conduct, have done much to check. And now, to croirti 


Sardinia and Rome. B9 

all this, we find tliem, ^vhile tliey set in ull Christendom ia tbeir 
own States the worst, the most perilous, and the most demural> 
iking csample ot the position to which a poiernuicnt cun he de- 
gradetl, briii^iDg" down from the shelf [Jieir rusted weapons to 
check and binder the march of others towards im prove men t, by 
the propa^tion of doctripes wholly dcsrrQclive of civil sucieiy. 
Such doctrines are those which teach the right of the Church 
—meaning, hy the Church, the clergy, or rather, in the last 
resort, the Pope ot the Court of Rome alone — to forbid the 
toleration of dissidents from the eslahlished religion ; to he 
exempt from al) criticism of the press, except such as they 
think proper to :dlow ; to acquire property without limit and 
without cFieck ; to keep, by a title divine and indefeasible, 
w^hat they have acquired ; to be subject to no tax in cont- 
raon with their fellow subjects, except by the consent of q 
foreign authority ; to enforce their behests, ex'en in regard to iheir 
civil privileges, by refusal of the Sacraments to the dying; and 
to hold their own rules or canons, that is to say, the opinions and 
orders of the Court of Rome^ paramount to the laws and tribunals 
of the country, in anv subject-matter which lliat Court may think 
fit to cluim as belonging to its domain. 

Both iu the political and in the ecclesiastical sphere, the whole 
policy of Rome, at Ihe present day, seems to be summed up in 
the rule which g-overus her finance, namely, to meet the common 
eipcnsps of year after Year by contracting debt after debt. Each 
new ditBculty that she creates, she covers and surmounts by some 
new and higher claim upon her votaries; in each successive 
quarrel she takps ground higher, narrower, and more dangetoUs, 
She plays a perpetual game of double or quits; and, when the 
losing turn arrives, not she alone, but rclig^ion itself, wJilcli these , 
proceedings so fatally undermine, is the certain sufferer. Hut ^^| 
we will here avail ourselves of a remarkable passage from the ^H 

speech of Count Cavour, the able statesman now at the head of 
the Sardinian Oovemment, delivered on the 17tli of last Feb- 
ruary, with reference to the policy and proceedings of the high 
papal party z-^ 

' In truth, genlletneit, if ynu review the history of Europe during 
thpee la-et ye;irs, you will perceive lliat in tvery part of it thai party 
has adopted an aygresfivu and euuieiitiom policy, which 1 conceive to 
be absolutely at variance witli the true apirii of religion. Observe in 
England the Catholics: after iliey hail oljtained, thiough the Emanci- 
pation Aet, a full equality of civil rit^hts, you will see iheir Heads, 
iuatead of ^iieeking m cDiiciliale ptthlic opinion and to live ou good 
terms, at lea»l with the liberal part of the eouunuuity viiiich had alwaya 
fiivourcd them, put forward exorbitautproteusiions, ruuseii public opinion 



Sardinia and Rqth^. 

an«w a^inst theuiselv^, and piit in jeopardy the very lawi tliut lliey 
had spent so ]ong u limv in Miniii:)^. Thu same tliiii|; lmp)jen«d im 
Hulla.ii(l, wltere the ex,c.-essi» uf liie iilLra-Ca.tiioli<; party bruughl about 
Uie duwnfalt of a liberal ministry tliuC hud always fthou'n itself ni>ott 
favourable to tliem, and ted the u tira-Frote.'^iants bacl: into power. 
The like happened, luo^ tu almost all llic states of Genuaity. Most 
signally did it happen in the neiglibouring- slalu of Franpe. where jou 
have seen the ultra- Catholic party push reactionary ideas to the nii^t 
extravagant liciglit. If yon have tbllowed Ihe d LSifiusaEons in llie French 
Catholic juurnalH, yim will have seen that the jtarly did not conflne 
itseJf to its warfatHf wiih the pliilosoptiers uf ttie Mghte«nlh rentury (In 
whlcli, up lo a, given pi>ini, it in un ibe right f-ide), but carritd iu 
quarrel iivijn to the luminaries of tiie (naUicaii CliiLi:ch in the; «evcn- 
teeutli ceniury. Wei have ni^en, nCnuige its it may he^ certaiu uiira- 
Ctttholic wriictwat war alike wiih Urtssuei ainl Vidlairf, and c>nndeiuniiig 
the four Gallic^iu Articles iiu less tluui the Encyclupt'dic' 

All this is sad, and formidable ns well as sad, in the e^trebite. 
To Piedmont it is, as wp trust, nothinjir ni'ire than an inron- 
vCnicnefr. Bui it is formi<3nbIp In Christendom, formidable Tu 
Chris lian ity ; for Uie Pope still rules onp moiety of those who 
are signed with the cross, ami who bear tbc nam^, of Christ; 
and whatever our pole^mical difft'renccs with lilm may he, ft miKt 
ever be the wish of every ooe who has imbibed tlic spirit of 
philanthropy, even in lower forms tban that of the Gospel, that 
the great power he wields mtiy be wisely and temperately used ; 
that the doctrine of Bossuet may pre™l over that of Bellarmine, 
the ethics of Pascal beat those of Liguori, and the spirit of Gan- 
ganelli sway the counsels of the papal tbrone rather than tbat of 
a Paul III., a Pius V,, or a JJoniface VIII. And if t!ie answer 
to all this be, that, from the state of sentiment in liis own com- 
munion, the Pope is now dependent on the support of men of 
extreme opinions, and, fis be can rely on none others, is obliged 
to make their views of eccle*i»sticiil policy liis own, suth a reply 
opens a darker future thnn its worst enemy eould wish for the 
Roman church, whose history as a whole, since the Reformation 
of the sixteenth century, seems to show that when nest its ?.t^irs 
are driven to a crisis, it will be one sharper and more searcbing 
than any »hc has yet bad to uudergo. 





C 71 ) 

Aat. fV. — 1. Ohervatiom on the Site of Camnhdnmtm. Com- 
muniL'alRtl by the Rev. Henry Jenkins, B.D, ArcUEculogiu, 
vol. xxix. 1842. 

2. ColchcAtt'r Cutttte built as a Temple of CVautlius Casar. By 
the Rev. H. Jcukms, B.D. 1K52. 

3. Coichetter Castle not a Roman Temple. By the Rev. 
Kdivanl L. Cutta. 1853. 

^pWO or three centurieB, or peradvctiturt one century only, 

•'■ before the due restoration of tli« prc-Atlainite niQiifiterB in 
the gardoiis of llie Crystal Falnce, it waa considered a notable 
ad%Tincc ill sfiemc !o believe thai the fussil Tpniains of Sourlans 
and MauiiTioths v/Qve the bonrs, not of tmiiiaii giants, but of 
ordinary ptcphants. The traveller who averrod tliat he had seen 
bees as big a« bifd^, but owned tWt their hives %verc only of thi? 
ordinary size, whpn asked bow the bees could have g:ot into 
them, r^-plied cooUy, ' Let them sec to that.' But he was justly 
scouled as a vain prctendtT. While no traces could anvwhete 
be discovered of human habitations proportioned to a nice 
of decrempc'dnl men, it was impossible to persist in believing 
that the eurth pver tenauted bf a br^od of Titans. The 
enormous fossils onre ascribed to giants, were now, by an easy 
leap for a wcll-^irl philosopher, appropriated to elephants, as 
the largest of known terrestrial ajiimals. But the difhciiliy was 
only removed one step. How was the presence of these mys- 
terious n^mains to be aecou-Oled for in climes to which the 
Viimalfi in their natural state were strangers ^ Desperate were 
llie efforts made to press into the service of infant science every 
4*]eplianl ni which iiistury makc^ mention. Hannibal crossed the 
Alps with a stjimdron of Gnmtliaii monsters; and as the precise 
line of his rtiute was fortunately unknown, every piganlic fossil 
di«rovered in the valleys of Provence or Daupliiny,'in the various 
gurges of the mountains themselves, or in the plains of Upper 
Italy, Was boldly ascribed to some fallen quadruped of the great 
CarthoKintati battering train. Kvery pre-Adwiniie Iragment which 
came to light in the henri nf Europe, from the Harz to ihe Car- 
pathians, was identified in turn with the noted bea&t which 
H&routi Atra^chid sent as a present to his compeer Charlemagne, 
and which historians reported to have perished somewhere oti 
hi* long overlaiiil roiitc. Polyamus tells Us that Julius Qpsnr 
cnnsed the Thames with n Kindle eltiphant ; but this obscure 
notice was overliH>ked by the geologists, and wc are not aware 
that due advantage was ev^r taken of it for explaining fossil 
phenomena, or the course uf the great conqueror's mart-It in this 



The Romans al Colchester. 

counlry. IVot so, however, with tlie elephants of ClauUms. 
The second and more sottcssful invatler of Britain, was known, 
from the well-studied pages of Dion Cassius, to have undertaken 
to conquer us with a whole troop of these intercslia^ animals. 
To them acfordingly hiive been confidently assipried the fossils 
dUc^overed in the cliff of Wrabnrss, on thu ^outhei-n bank ol the 
eslanr;r of the Stour. Did nut Clnudius cake Caintduduoum, the 
cily of Cuuobelin, King of tl<e Trinobantes, in Essex, and found 
bis celebrated city of Colchester ? and U not Wrubnrss within 
fifteen miles of Colchester ? Such was the evidence of Iiislur^'. 
WJjo would ask for more ? *]'lic chain was complete. Camden, 
in the darkness of the sixteenth century, still llnjught that these 
remiiins were human; but Fuller, Bfcy years later, is clear tor 
the ^lepbantioe hypothesis ; Find Bishop (libson, who edited 
Camden, little more tliaa a hundred years a^o, is abundaatliy 
salisfied with this ingenious aolmion.* VVrabiiesH indeed Win 
to the north-east of Colchester, yn the road to Hiirwtcb, while 
the historians dJuiinetly show that Claudiuii crossed the Thames^ 
and entered Essex from the south-west. But were not the walls 
of Colchester built, as may be seen to this day, of the argillati-iius 
limestone of thetliffs near Harwich? and n-hat more natural thou 
that the warlike beasts of Claudius should be em|>loyed after 
the return of peace in transporting liiese masses along the tidul 
strand, till tbey sank upon the road from fati^e or increasing 
years ? 

Haviug- thus conveyed the imperial conqueror in safety from 
Rome to Camulodunum (O quails facies et quali di^na tabella)» 
we will proceed, by combining bistoricai intimalions wilii the 
evidence of existing mouuments, to pluee ilic ealablishnicnt of 
the Romans al Colchester upon a surer seat than the back of an 
elephant, or of a saurian either. The foundation of the tlagdian 
colony at Camulodunum has a peculiar interest for every English- 
man, as the first matiTial guaranlec of that eVenlful conquest 
which has brought us into the family of historiral nations. Both 
the history and the remains of ihift eolnniKatiun arc, as it happens, 
more distinct than perhaps any other facls counerted with the 
sojourn of the Uomajis in qurislandj and, slight and fragmentary 
though they are, seem to afford the surest standing point we can 
obtain for a general survc-y of the traces of our southern e-on- 
qucrors among us, >Sucb a survey indeed is a work for tt'bole 
quartos and folios, not fur a single article So a handliook like ours; 
but It may be possible within the compass of a few of these 
pages to indicate the chief poiuts of interest in the subject to 

tlie casual reader, ami perhaps to turn the attpntioii even uf the 
prufesisetl arcli^olugifit tii tlic questions which most urgently 
press ftir his solution. 

During the liuiKlred years intirral which hud elapsed between 
the invasion rif Britain h_v Julius Citsar, and that ljy Claudius, 
or rather by his legate Aulus Flaulius, a great tiliange seems lo 
hav« taken place in llie condition of the island. While the 
Romans retained no military hold of it wliatever, a.nd the 
triiQinor tribute they occasionally extorted by menaces, was often 
wholly withheld for many years together, ihc influence of con- 
tinental i<ieas and manners, more especially iho&e oi tlie ^eat 
southern conquerors, continued to advance without intermission. 

»It was thus that a few years of peaceful intercourse between the 
Hontans and the foreigner on th^ir frontier, never failed to for- 
ward their materia.1 interests and prcrpare the way, when Ihe 
mompnt arrived, for doubly rapid conquests. In Caesar's time 
the Britons were only known as a horde of painted b»rbarinns, 
and the south-east of their island was occupied by a variety of 

■ potty rlian« over whom Cassivellaunus. at the head of tlie 'I'rino- 
bnntes, in Hertford and Essca', was bcpnncnf!; to assert supremacy, 
Tiiese ambitious projects, checited by the first Roman invasion, 
leein to li;ive hceri buccessfnlly developed in the two next gene- 
ralioiis, till the whole of South Britain, from the Stour to the 

iStnern, with the exception, perhaps, of the country of the 
Dumnonii, in the farthest west, was united in submission to the 
sway of a single chief, under whom it liad been assimilated in a 
great de^ee to the social condition of iiel^ic Gauh This was 
tho empire or confederacy of the Trinobantes. North of this, 
the dominion of the Iceni, whose proper seats lay also eastward 
in Norfolk and tiuffolk,. extended in a broad bek across the 
island to tlie mountains of AV'ales ; and beyond these, n third 
rulinj;; tribe, llie Brigantes, exercised the chief authority over 
the nalions from the Humber to the Mersey. The states furthest 
removed from the continent were probably the least cultivated ; 
nevertheless, there seem to have been some bonds ol common 

■ ciTiiization nmou^ them all, for the wIhiIc island south of the 
Humber was traversed in several directions by a tomTiion system 
o( roads, leadinjgr from the Straits of Dover to the Menai, and 

»(rcaa jieaion Bay to Yarmoutli, besides many minor communira- 
tiotu. Londiniuin, the city of ships, unknown to CVaar, had 
sprung* into an emporium of commerce with Germany nnd Gaui, 
and W3S, perhaps, the only tuWii of Britain whi<.'li could take 
rank among the Urhes of tlie cnntinenN It held the same place 
in one island which Atassilia had lield two centuries earlier in 
Gaulf and was the resort of the Roman traders as Masajlio had 



The Romans at Cokhpnter. 

been of tiic Greek. Other scj-mlbtl cities, of whicli Verulamlum 
anil CamulfKlunom ahme are namptl, Tvere still oiilv oppido, oc 
paSisatlcd iiuloBuros, fitlcd wtlli ctctailiod irresTuUr huts, Imt fOn- 
Irtaining within tliem large open spaces for tlie m»intpn«ni--e of 
[.Cii-ltlc. Low as this type of civilizfitioii nppears to us, it was 
'DiJl incunsistent with considerable advance in sinnp speciftl arti. 
The court of Cunobcl inus, called by Shnkspean: Cymbeliiie, "wm 
not, perimps, really much less refined than it eppcars in the 
poet's sXr^}^^Q medley of fscl ond fancy. It was the resort, wf 
may believe^ of Italians no less tlisin of GaulR : and the chaml»r 
[•c£ the kinjg^'s daughter in.Tv wi>ll hiivc lieor adomed IVoin stories 
t>i' suuttii^ni inytholojjy, for the luinage nl the l(io« of the Trinn- 
bantcs, the onlv monument of his civilualion wc rould expect 
ti> survive, is not unworthy in style and cjtecution of a Konwn 
mint; its letters and even its lunffuage are Roman, while its 
symbijls inav seem to commenifiRite Gaulish, if not Itsiliun Uivi- 
nitin. The successor of Cassivelhiuuus, we may well believe, 
waa not a inerc wild mnn of the woimIs. divellinc in a stockmle in 
the centre of a morass. He had entlianfTPd the savage reirenl Ui 
which. Cipsar had tracked his fathers in HerlfoTtlahire for an 
ampler anil fairer residence in the enstern parts of £h«x, where 
the eatuary of the Colne afforded facilities for communication 
■with Gaul, aiui where, as sovereif»n of an active and advancing 
people, he might hold out a hand of welcome to the gallant 
lachinioB of the south. Cunobelin, however, had died during^ the 
Tpign of Caligula at Rome ; and one of hiB childr«ii, Adniiuius, a 
Cloten in disposition if not in name, had basely r«puted sorae 
fancied injury in the distribution between himself and his brothers 
of ibeir falbcr'3 Iprritories, by llirowinR Siiniself at the feel of 
the emperor, and offering him submission in the name ol his 
countrymen. This sufhceil for Caliu^ula to declare himself master 
of Britain, and he turned his legions from the lihine to the 
shores of the Channel to enforce his pretensions ; ft pmjefl, how- 
ever, from which he soon aaw reason to desist. Tiie dominions 
of Cunobelin continued unassailed, and were held, whether with 
combined or divided swav we know not, bv his other sons 
Cvractncus and To^iidumnus. But Gaul was offered as an ssylum 
for British malcontents ; demand for their extradition, such is 
the change of circumstunces between the first century and the nine- 
teenth, were treatei] with contempt, nnd tiie murmurs of the irlDnd 
lyrants were branded on the Conrinent with the names of sedition 
and revolt. The Emperor Claudius charged his legate AulU9 
Plautius with tlie lask of chastising; their insolence by the 
effectual reduction of ibe whole ruuntry. But the imperial 
historian (for Claudiu& hud wriltou ihe 'Affairs of the Etruscaiw ' 


ill mnnv books) wns himsell' iirabltmus of militoTy fami?. The 
|«*dulaiii>n of tlie spntile wa& readv la lirnp upon him all the 
iHHUMm of all hjs ]ieutenaiiU, and lie bad in<lceil alreaily 
* atmiplie^l ' nmrc than oeicc Tot the explulU ot iitHceis wIjo liaJ 
WTved under tU^ dvcorous ficCitm itf ihe 'Imperial austpices.' 
ilBut he was anxiuus lo adiievc something with his own hands to 
emulate the iame of the Lueumons and Tarquins. 'Sun. ab atiis 
bene Inctq loudari qtiam ipse aliorum tiBTmre oiDlebat.' He 
aspired to rival the great .Julius himself in the invaeioo of 

K£, to surpass him bv its conrjucsC. 

Accordiiig-ly, it 'nas the ttutj of Plaiitiufr to prepare tbe way 
for the mi^litifff pcrsonai^e whit was to follow hini upon the 
tto^. A i-uiulter tii.) less than a (^enerdl, it was bis aim to 
bring the quarry to the giound for his master to step up and 
give rt ihe poup de fjrace. His ftrst carnpai^n, we thtnk, after 
wvi|;liing the dllTiculcies on oUber side, was confioed to the 
couniifs nearest lo ilie Channel, and tin* broad river upon which 
the Britons re-lied to arrest hia propress whs, we conceive^ the 
Medway rather than thp Severn. He opened his second cam- 
paign by the pasaa^ of llie Thftmes, somewhere netir its highest 
tidal point, and defeated nod slew Togodumnus in the neighbour- 
hood perhaps of Londinium, though we do uot hold by the 
opinion that the Isle of I)o^ derives from that circumstance lis 
usnvourv appellation. Caractncus retireil with the bra.yc3t of 
is people into the west, and events were now ripe for the arrival 
of the binperor, who ot th^ eummons of his legate crossed over 
from Boulogne in the year 44, and joined the lejrlnns, with all 
his elephants, at their encampments beyond the Thames. He 
marched with nn ovenvhelming force to Camuludunum, which he 
entered with lillle resistance^ The Trinobantcs gave him their 
«ubuii«&ion, the army sainted him with the title of I mperator, and 
after a. campai^it nf only &Lxt^n days, he returned to exhibit (he 
li|»et ta(.-lc of (t lurenulne triumph in Rome. With little 4oil or 
bloodshed lie had completed tiiesubju^tion of the (^eat kiitgdtnn 
of S:iiith Britain; hut his Hntlerers declared that he had imposed 
his yoke upon tlif Dru;»ntes, and odded even the Orkneys lo his 
empire. No one iiinijnilips his conquests so much as the Christian 
istoriati Orosius, Ijoth for their extent and their promptitude, 
*illii the slranpe object of conttasling- tlic successes of Claudius, 
under whom the Gospel was first preached in Italy, with the 
failnre of the great prince gf Paganism, Julius Crrsar, The fact 
oi J\>cer and Paul preaching at this |K;riod cu Koine i>rought, he 
ys, such manifest toki^ns of the Divine favour to the sputwliich 
heir presence illumiilateil. 
The hiBlurians Irum whom we have derived these accounts 


The Romans at Colchester. 

have left us no ilirect means of ascertaining tbe site of Cainul*- 
dunutn. From a passage, indeed, oH Tacilus, U> whicb we kIibU 
presently refer more particularly, we msy be certain llvat U lay 
near to the sea-coast ; and as, in ttie ninlli Iter of Antoninus, it 
13 mentioned as a stniion on the road from Vcnta uf lUt.* Iceni, or 
Norwicl], and marked as fifty-two miles from Londiniuin, its sili^ 
cannut rerisunably be placed elsewhere tlian at Colchester or in 
its immediate vicinity. The other places, however, specified in 
this Iter give us no help on lUis point, for there is no certainty 
about the Locality of any one of tbem, and indeed it is essential 
to ascertain the place of CamulcHlunum in the 6rsl. instance, 
before We isin approximate to the sites of CarsntomagUfi, Ad 
Ansain, and Sitomu^us. The notion, however, advanced by 
Camden, and adopted from him by Horsley, that Cainulodunum 
i» to be found at Maldon, is now very gencriiUy abandoned. It 
can only be reconciled with llie Itinerary by supposing a 
monstrous sinuosity in the Roman road from London; and it 
was suggested probably nn no other ground than the occurrence 
of the name spelt Catnaludimum on a laptdnry inscription,, which 
is opposed generally to ttic MSS. and to the uniform authority 
of coins, the orthography of wliich is far more deserving of our 

• -confidence. 

If, however, fifty-two Roman miles may be taken o» nearly 

.equivalent to forty-nine English, the measurement of the Itine- 
rary will bring us not quite so far as Colchester, hut leave us at 
the ancient village of Leaden, about Iwo miles short of it, on the 
direct road from London to Norwich, From the elevation on 
which it stands it may be said to overlook the sea, or at least the 
tidal waters of tlje Colne wJiicIi must have flowed at its feet. 
Mr. Jenkins^ indeed, the ingenious author of two of the tracts 
now before us^a gentlemno whose enlbusiasm in the oiusc of 
British anticjuity speaks nut less strongly thau liis name fur his 
genuine Briliiih extraction — derives the name of Lexden itself 
(Lessendena in Doraoaday) from that of the 'iVinobantinc capital. 
Ca, he teils us, is 'castle' in Welsh; mu or mui signities 'new' 
or '• additional ;' llt/i is ' royal,* and din ' a residence ;* thus 
makini; altogether CamuUi/sdiit, ' tlie new castle or fortificalion 
of the king's cily.' From one end of Europe to the other— from 
Newcastle in county Limerick to .leni Kale, on the Straits of 
Kertch — such la the poverty of human invention in the matter of 
proper names, that the former part of this combination conti- 
nually recurs, and we may suggest that the ' new ramparts ' would 
Ije peculiarly appropriate as a dcsi^rnation of Cunobelin's city, if 
we may suppose the residence of the Trinobantine tnonarchs to 
have been removed, after Cjesar's attack, from Verulamium to 


^frmulodunum. We cannot, however, venture our9<?!v*3 to dive 
jto the mysteries of WeUb etyraolo^j-. It may be sufficient to 
•mnrk how frerjuentlv the syllable cam or ramh (== ramu) 
rc'Urs as a prefix to nritish names, na in Cainbonlum, Cnnibre- 
tonium, ami CambrJa itself. The or<linnr\- (leiivatlon of Camulo- 
dunum, from Cnmulus, the Mars of the GauU, seems at least 
devoid of analogjf ; for tlic names of the Celtic dirinities d« not 
occur. a5 far as we can trace theoi, in the appellations cif their 
towns^ ihoi]gh it is by no metms improbablp that l!ie Gaulish or 

||tntinn nrti*[s Cunohelin would ('inpltiv to conihict his Mint may 
have adopted such a nieaninE ot tbc nnme, and typifiwl it by the 
figure of an armed warrior, which is seen on many of the Trino^ 
hantine coins, wilfi tb* legend ' Camu,' ' CaHiulo/ or ' Cp4nulo- 
duno.' on the reverse. 

kThat Lpxden, however, sthnd&on the site of ttie chief Britislici^" 
ff this part t'f the i&land is rendered further probable by the fact 
lint, from ihis point, or nearly so, three British roads seem to bare 
fivprojed, in the diieclion of London by Cbel msftird, of VeniUm 
by Dunmow, and of Cambridsre l>y Hiiverhill and Linton. When 

■we picture to ourselves also what a British oppidum was, a wide 
Ijpace enclosed willitn mounds or slotkades, or more commonly 
flanlied on two nr three sides by woods or morasses, and de- 
fendf'd in front by a rude rampart, we shall be struck witli the 
perfect correspond enrc* of Lexden wirh such a position. To the 
north of it Uuws the Colne. in n dtwp and what mast in those 
days have been a marshy %'allcy, while on the south it is flanked 
by a smaller stream still called the Bcman river, which probably 
made it j way lhrnuf?h dense forests. These two streams meeting 
the eatuary of tlie Colne, enclose on three sides, the peninsula 
m the neck of whirti Le;«len stands, and across this neck of 
land, nr such part of it as was unoccupied by marsh or wood, two 
for perhaps three parallel lines of rampart may P(jw be traced for 
[two or more miles, aupposetl to be British, from the Hint cells 
rich have been found about them. These wc take to have 
the now ramparts of the royal city, and in the spacr within 
th&m, amounting to abi)ut twenty square miles, inaccessible on 
the north, south, and east, and strongly defended on i he west, 
the Trinohantes could retire fur security with all their flock* and 
•herds. What was the nature of the buildings they erected ehere 
we can hardly coniecture; but near the centre of these lines a 
conspicuous mound still exists, which we would [jUdly believe to 
he the sepulchre of Ihe jpreni Cunobelin. A small Koman camp, 
•or more probably a castellum, is still well preserved at no great 
iislnni'e from the south-west angle of this British fortification, 
tut the prompt submissioti of the Trinohantes relieved ihe ron- 


The Bi'mans at Culcheitfr. 

quei"ur fram the ijecpssity nf ronstructinn; peimanftnt works to 
rerain the place in subjection, and when he returned Iiinis-elf to 
Italy he dispatehod probnbly the wliulc force of fmir legions 
'"whicU Plautius had brought with him, to pursue the Ifjss trsrlahle 
of thp Britona into their fastnesses, and complete the Bubjugaliyit 
of the islnnd. 

For sixteen rears the process of conquest and organization was 
carried on without intermission, \cspasian. tlie future emperor, 
reduced the Bc-lgtc, ami perhaps the IJumnoiaiJ, in the snoth, 
after enpao;in{; them in tw«-aDi]-tlikrty battles, Ostorius crossed 
the Severn, and overcame the brave Caiaclarus after a nine years' 
slrug-glo. The Iceni, who had held ahjof during; the r^^Mstance of 
the Trinohantea, ajid even cimrtcd t!ic alliance of Rome, flew to 
arras when their own Indeprndence was menaced hy the fortresflcs 
erecled bv Suetonius nn the Severn and Avon," To overawe the 
disaffected, and show to the more submissive an ima(;e of Roman 
civil i nation, it was determined to estohlish a colony of veterans 
in the capital of the tonquered Trinobantes, with an ample 
assignment of their confiscated lands. The colony of Camulo- 
duniimwasdieuifiedwith the name of Claudion, from the Emperor 
himself, or V'iclncensja, from the ccncjuest tj( which it was the 
symbol, which was also typified by a statue of Victory erected in 
its principal place. Takinji; hia stand in the centre of the terri- 
tory whicli was to be allotted to the new cuionists, the Augur, 
according- to the old Etruscan rile, drew imag'tnary lines with his 
staff athwart the face of the heavens, one horizontal frf^m left to 
ri^bt, another vertical from head to foot, and the agrimensor or 
surveyor, fixing his quadrant on the spot, divided the district by 
two bmad paths, caHed the cardo and decumanus, the one fmm 
north to soutli, tlie other from west to east. He then prnceeiled 
to mark off the whole area bv limttcs or balks, into the required 
number of rectan^lar spaces, which the Homans railed oeniuntB, 
hut to which wo should give the less elegant appellation of hfocJu 
of land. Each Colmnist received one or more of tiie^e lote accord- 
ing to his military rank, and their size varied acconling' to cir- 
cumstances, though in the imperial times it was fjenerally much 
greater than the two jugers or a single acre which was deemed 
ample reward for the soldiers of the early republic. The whole 
territory, however, assigned as the ager of the colony, was not in 
all c^^es given exclusively to the colonists; portions of it wet6 

• Swpporing itw toeni to 'be wnfintd to E«rt Anf^lift, the crmtraentKtors have 
ctioun in ehitifcO llie Aufnna (Avonk orTncilui into Antotis {Nen): tC ii iimlHlile, 
li«we»eT, ihol tbe aullinriij- of the leeni, like diat of ihe Trinobantes, exicndcd far 
[0 tliL- west See Mr. Btale posi's 'Briiannic KeKarcbes,' a aeriloriotu work, 
Ihongli ill put togvlhvr, aod not alwg.js jndiciona, 


T/ie Romans at Cokhed$rf, 


T«iSi?rve<I for the iiwjt& fftvoofcd of tlie dispossessed aalivea: but 
in Camuluctununi, Tntilui udlg us, the rapacity of thi; intrtid?rs 
waa mnre tlian usualJv oinnivnrous. nnd they spared hut a ft'w 
Cnmbs of llie tc'tui to tlie iiolortiinnte Trijioliant^s, 

InsUiUod tiy the righl of tlir awiircl in their ill-frotttii p(>s9CB- 
sons, the colonists prdcft'drd to acttlf tlic t'orms of their civil 
sdininislrntion. Tlie pylity of llie Komaii colony was torrnefl 
not sn much upnn tlic inodol nf tlic parent cUy itseli' ns nccurtl- 
ing to the coinmoa typt^ of Italian municipal orpiinization. It 
cuiisisted of .1 supri'ine magislrai y "f two, frcnerally nampd frrjin 
that rinruiiibtanrc 'duiiiiuit-K,' assisted by ii stmate, tlie mombrrs 
of which, a Imndred in nitinljer, were stylpd (it is not well knovrn 
why) 'decurions.' This administrative council was seleclcd fn'in 
tlic colonists alnnr^ wlio constituted the rtiltng caste ninun^ the 
iiihatiitants ; froni hi?ncR all the chi'ef local olficers, the <rdiles, 
(luu'&lurs, and cjuintjuennalefr, or censors, were taken; it befsmc, 
^ ke the st-nalr ol' the Uoman cnmmonwefiltli. a self-appointed 
der, and* with certiin rcstrictioas of ogc and fortune, was vitw 
tuolly hereditary. It was allowed lo manflK^ all the common 
^^^airs of the colony, hut its proceedins-s were liable to be quaxhpd 
^■by the empemr or the governor of the province. Neit to the 
^nenate ranked^tfae order o[ the Aufrustales, whose fancrtions were 
H inure limited, being, as we should say, parochial rather than 
■nunicipal ; and among thezn none was so popular as tliat of 
protiditij;;, alter x\iv maiiner of our churehwar<iens. fur the due 
lemnizntion of the moat niitiomil nod universal worship of the 
todf that of tbp emperors themselves, whether dead or alive, 
ivea the mtKle&t Augustus had allowed himself to be deiJied In 
liP provinies while still alive; though in Home he would not 
aulft-r himseU' to be reputed more than liiiman. In Gaul he had 
eatahlisticd bis awn slirine and altar at Ln^dunum. the seat of 
j^tVLTUHifnt, aud hacl soujfht, not uiisnccessfidly, to sup]>lant in 
hia own peranti the popular veneration for the demons uJorcd by 
^L lira bitter eacmics the Druids. Claudius, who had rarrirMl stilt 
^^/utther the policy of enfmiichising the Gaulish people, and 
^Bfistrartsin^ iheir deities, who had furbitldon the prartire of 
^iDnitdii'aL riles un tlje C'oulim-nt, and had driven thpm in Hrilnin 
tti their Ia*[ retroat beyond the Meniii Straits, di-termiued to 
^^infonn the minds of his remotest suhjccls^ on the iirticlr of bit 
^■own divinity. He directed the colonists Kif Camu!in!unum to 
^H cansecmle to him a tontpte, and appoint from amou^ themselves 
^m an nnlrr of prie&ts lo m'mister therein. Limds and revenues were 
II tu be ussi^ed for their special maintenance : the reluctant 
natives were required to show their zeal for the honour of ihoir 
conqueror by repeated atid ruinous rontributions for the sroetinn 




Tft^ liomans at C&lcheSler. 


and maintenance of a fabric in which they beheld a symbol of 
the monil supremacy of Roman civilization.* 

No sooner were the invaders settled in their new abodes 
than tliev set to work with their usufil industry to connerl 
their British rnpital with its more distant dependenries. There 
can l>e no doubt that the south of the island was alrpady pos- 
sessed of nti extensii'e avstcna of coinmtinications, thoug^li llie 
questioD of the origin of the roads of Britain is vn? of the 
inrdcst problems of antiquity. The use of chariols, which even 
Cn-sar, disparagino^ as his view of our ancestors 19, admits, 
seems to imply thp existence of befiten trncks, Piolemy, again, 
■writing only fifty years nftor the conquest of Britain, enumerates 
by tlictr British nanies as many aa fifty-six places, whioh he 
di^iiies by the title of cities; and as few probably of ihese 
owe(\ their (irigin to the Romans, it wmdd seem to I'olloiv that 
there must have been roails in the pre-Roman period to connect 
"diem. A system of roads, of very g-real antiquity, has indeed 
heeti traced, travfrainj- Britain from shore to shore, or rather 
from anffle (o an'rle' i»f the ffreat pnraJlph'gram conI;itli'r'd Im^ 
tweon the Straits of Dovei' and Menai, the Humber and Seatiin 
Bay. These roods are only partly coincident with the Roman 
military ways, The Itineraries make only a pnrliftl reference to 
tbem. They belong, we imagine, to an earlier period, when, 

, however, the soutliem portion of the i5]imLl must have been, in 
Bome social and political, or at least religious, respects, an 
integral community. The difficulty, therefore, is to conceive 
how,, in tlie pre-Homan period, the British tribes — mere bar- 
barians, aa tliey arc described to us — can have liad any common 
interest in maintaining a general system of intercommunication. 

The first, however, of our Roman military ways was doubtless 
that wtiich secured the cwmmunication between HutupiiP, the 
ordinary place of landing from Gaul, and Londiniutn, at the 
lowest pnssagt; of the Thames, This way, running through 
Canlcrbury and Rochester, was probably constructed npon an 
older British line ; for the same line, continued north-west 

^«lpns the Watling'Street. must have been the ordinary route of 
le I>rui<ls and their volnries from the Channel to the sacred 
isle of Mona. Having crossed the Thames, the conquerors 
would naturally adopt the road alrrady in nse In Camulotluaum, 
and this seems to have been that of the present high-road. 
From Lrxdcn some ancient earthworks may s|i1| be sevn slnl\ing 
off, both in a northerly and southerly direction, and these arc 

* T^dCus, Annals, xiv. 31, Del«1i tacerdoln »[>«;» religlonb oinn» (brtaras 



pposed by Mr. Jenkins tn lie vestiges ni' Roman ro»ds; Wt 
eir real origin does not seem clear^ and Monuit, the historian 
of Esses, writing a century ago^ when their traces were much 
more distinct, was under the impression that they were Tortifica- 
tions of 5omi> unknown date. There is not enoug-h, perhaps, 
left of them now fnr the most experienced aaliquary to decide 
upon their qrigjnal design. From the pates, however, of the 
entrenthments ol' Camulodunum, the Romans * built' their ways 
upon the British tracks towards the west, along- which their 
legioDs advanceil to the Severn and the Dee, to the coDquest of 
the Dnhoni, the Silures, and the Ordovit-es ; so that Lexden may 
be considered as the common point of departure for the first Ro- 
oian as well as foe the original British ways. But. while the hrst 
colonists constructed these roads rather for convenience of military 
operations than fur peaceful intercommunication, they felt so fully 
persuaded of the security of their conquest as to neglect the ordinary 
precaution of I'orlifving their settlement. They erected themselves 
houses in the midst ol the huts of the Britons at Camulodunuin, or 
established themselves in insulated villas on Che pleasant slopes 
of the Colne, but neither surrounded their abodes with a con- 
tinuous wall nor constructed a fortified camp to defend thorn 
igjunct a sudden attack,* Meanwhile the proprxtur or military 
governor of the province led the presidiary teg^iaiis to distant 
parts of the islnnd or c[uartered ihem on the frontiers ; and the 
procurator or iolendant of the finances collected the revenues at 
the chief ports and cities under the guard of a detachment of 
only a few hundred soldiers. Lapped in this fatal security, the 
lonists of Camulodunum were totally unprepared for the storm 
which was about to fall upon them. The wrong? of Boailicea, the 
injured Queen of the Iceni, kindled the confla^tion for which 
the train had been laid by the insolence of Roman leg-tonartes, 
the extortion of officials, anil, alas ! the rapi^city uf the smooth- 
tongued philosopher Seneca, who had suddenly called in the 
large sums he had Invested in the k'nst solvent of British 

At this period, the year 02 of our era. Britain, subdued as far 
as the Wash and the Mersey, was held by the four legions which 
Plautilis had brought over— the t>ecund, tlic Ninth, the Four- 
teenth, and the Twentieth. Of these, the Second, commanded 
by Fipnius Posthutrus, was charged, we may suppose, with the 
contrcl of the south- western states, including; South Wales and 
Dutnnonia, and would have its head-quarters at Isca of the 

* Ttil* la the slaUment of TbCiIus: N^ Ardiiain vi[l«b)itur (MsCind^re c;otaijia.m 
^Bnltis mniiiinenlis KpCam; <]uixl ducibus Doilrii pariuni pravisum ernC, itum El^la^■ 
Dtud prine qnam luui conEuliiur.—Aunnl. xiv. 31. 


The Romant at Colchester. 

SUares (Caerleon),* at Glevam (Gloucester), or Coriaium 
(CiTenceBter). Tlie FourleCTith was engaged under tbe Lmme' 
dife.l6 command of the propnrtnr, Suetoniu» PaulliQus^ in the 
subjugation of North Wale^, and had just contpleted the de^ 
stmction of ttie Druids in the gloom}' recesses of tbe Isle of 
Aofetlespjr, The Ninth, the legatiu of which was Pctiliu* 
Cerialis, scrnti to have bcea placed in guard over tbe Iceni, 
wbon^ territories had been recently surrendered 1o Rome by tbe 
last will of their liin^, Prasutngus, and defended their nortbeni 
frontier against the inroads of the Brigaales ; wbile tbeTweatieth, 
if stationed, as ive ennjecturc, at Deva or Chester, might furnish 
support to each of these bodies upoo an ctnefgeQcy. It u evi- 
dent at least that the whole of the southeast of Britain was 
alitio&t totally denuded of troops. At this juncture the Iceni 
auddcroly rose in & muss, and rolled southwards.*^ The estuaries 
of the Stour and Colne, with their intervening furastx and 
marches, mig^ht protect Cainulodunam on the east, but on the 
north the road was open to the insurants, the rivers were easily 
forded, and no defensible positions were held by the Romans in 
advance. Great was the exeitemetit that prevailed both in the 
palaces and cabin* of the Roman colony. Women wailed, borves 
neighed ; the theatre ^fur the Romans tiad raised a theatre there 
— possibly the BRmiclrcuIar eacloture north-west of Lexdeii, 
vulgarly called Kin^ Coel's Kitchen) had resoonded with uo- 
Aiccastomed noises; the buildings of the city had been seen 
reflected Qpside-down in the wst^'rs of tlie estuary ;t and, on 
the retreat of the tJdc, tbe ghaetly remains of human bodies 
had been discovered in the ooz.c. The Romans mnst have 
had very guilty consciences, to be alarmed at such simple 
portents as these; but they were aware that tbey were totally 
without defence, and moreover the statue they had erected to 
their patron goddess Victory bad been turned conipletely round, 
and showed her back to the advancing enemy. The propnttor 
was far away, and the pructiratgr, Catus X^ecianus, who was also 
absent, cither could not or would not send them more than two 
hundred legionariei. They betliought themselves of hastily 

* Ooe tegipn miuc liDve lK«a spprvprUted lo ihe ci'acjiiest at tliU mr( tf Brit^o, 
which had iMeri cfFcEli'd by Ve«puiijn, aud thnt lliis ii-^ion vjis the semud may be 
infrrred from ihe fact whiclh is prored by inscfitiiiinis. ihai Cocflwia became thi; 
ponDBQeDt ftBlioD of tbii diriiion of ihv armj of BritAiD. 

t Tbe lo&ni. si wb i!al| ihim, were pro^i^rly. we l>t!k»«. ILSoi; compure the 
local Dam>)!S Icklcton, [okin/bain, Ickwonh. Istrorlh> on the line of the Icknield 
street which funs through Ihe cmtre of iheir terrilory. 

\ TaciluK vnVB, 'in lie t'Miiarj of ihe Thata**,' Tb^ipmitlioof iheColn^.Blieli- 
wftwr, and TliaiDe« nil )ii? tic(w<^n the Nflze and the North ForeJand, whkh mny 
Iw t>k.« tu in extended tenu ai itu limitt of tbe eatuarj of tbe gralcW of tfaoK 


The Romans at Cotehesta: 

fbrtifyia;^ the Temple uf Claudius, the most solid edifice they 
possessed ; bat the natives obsHncted and delayed their operations 
by 8ssiirin«; tlieui tbftt (here waj do reaJ danger ; and when at 
length the Blorm broke in thunder over them^ and the Trino- 
bantes joined esgerlj with the Iceni iti the «rork of dt-struttion 
(nd massacre, they were incapable of making an^ effectual 


^ TTte last asylum of the wrelehed colonists wa* carried by tfce 
infuriate Britons in two days, and every one pat to the sword, 
while their houses were sacked aod burnt.* Cerialis had hastened 
in pur&uit of the horde of avengers, but be bad been unable to 
outstrip them, and when ot last he crossed the Stour and met 

tthem already RusLed with triumph he was cumplelelj routed 
bj their overwhelming numbers, and cocnpelleil to dr&w off 
Ills shattered horse to the shelter of their lin?>, with the total 
dcstrurtion of bis infantry. The great mound of Worming^ford, 
which has been fouod to cover a vast assortment of Roman urns, 
•eenis to attest the site of this battle, and nos raised, we imagine, 
by the legiooaries, over tbe ashes of their fallen comrades, after 

»recoveriiia; posiession of the countr}-.t 
Consternation now reigned throughout the province. Deci- 
tntLS the procurator packed up his books and papers, and fled 
from the jslaiod, P^nius Posthumu* refused to stir from his 

» distant encampments in the west. It was impossiblf;, while 
Still any hope remoincd oi saving; the province, to withdraw 
every battalion from the north and leave the road open to the 
Bri^antes. Accordingly, Suetonius, wbo was already on his 

■ * Sp«>lung cf RocDf Ramui rcmalas discovered iu (lie localilj of Le^drn, Hr. 
Jeakias tBf a, ' Tht- moGt exlroordiuiiry relic, bo«i^>i.T, •'ut 'hi' I'lf-t^U'lvci of » tntu 
witli bia hc*d deamWitTdj, uA b p&iera iKBide him. . . . ^rom the 4-nil>Iciii of bil 
ttkat, aad ibc marml KTcnico wilb which ihv Ikitoii'i re^nled lh« ^hesu of 
QasdiUI^ we mnj sliniMl imagioE lliia skrlrton Ig bave b«xa Ifami of 3^ prit^it. who, 
ia bis atWiBpi; to eKspe Uuring the inturreetWDt bad been u;i2cd by cbe Uriions 
■ad buried alite.' — Jebliin«, AfciiaeX. Obtfrv, p. II. 

f 'A Iwpmoand \a Ibr purbli of Wartniciglbrd' (on the Stour, ne&r Xa^lud, 
•bgnlMVcn iniics N.N.W. of CutehcsiLT) ' «ra« rcniovt-d about hk jr»nam (j. a. 
iHSfi] diat the 'Cltrtii miglit be iprpnd oicr tbv lower port of th? field, ana Unnj 
hat^wdt et UTta wrre then discovered, placed in jnrullel row*, lik? rtrreis; this 
eiMBuaunee maali l»d ui lo imuitine that tbejr were the remaica of Ihe Niaih 

Ptegion, who wen; advancing from iIk' tceoi la »u)iporI (beir COiiul^men in lb£Lr 
daneeF, ajiil nere cut iiff Sj Ihe Hritnus at thf passage of the Sbiur Their bodies 
mi^bt haTB bean ewlbeted aad bum! by the Itomsat a* aoo" aa dn-y bid rFconrriMi 
tbctr do niiuiori.'— Jenkins. Afchaol. Ohsnv, p. 10. We an an wa well niUfied 
Willi the idcutificAiitin ol' Piicblnirj, l;rinf u it dees fr^riiiwii 1>mJ«i> and Worm- 
iQlrford, witli th* c».mp \t> which (jfTjalis took rtfugc ; Wc are disptBfd, liowever, to 
bdicve. thai it i^ the Ad**,, lo wbicL tbe ni^nsio or iiri dt pom, ad Aoauin, rv(i>Tt. 
Tliis eooBtruciion with the' preifociiion secna lo impl/ the pmitnity \t( a road- 
Kation ht tome puiut of imporcaJic^, a hnlf Ln'^idi^ the loutc, like the tiompDelarure 
tO'wMeh our rsilwa^ ^kteia bas gitau riae, — 'Walliugfiiiid ICoad,' 'Fariuj^don 

G 2 relum. 


Tke Romans at Colc/iester, 

return from Anglesey with the victorious soldiers of tVie Tour- 
itecnth, drafted from the Twentieth legion only the VesiUarii, the 
1 tuicked men or grenadier companies of the brigade, and with this 
'reinforcement held on his way direct for L^jntUnium, which, 
«ince the loss of Camulodunum, was t^je mo&t important point to 
secure. The wliolle of Essex and Hertford was now in the Lands 
of the insurgents, who were spread over the country in search of 
booty, and destroyed every v*;sti^e ol Roman occupalion. They 
were, however, loo busily employed in this Work to intercept 
tie ailvance uf the Fourteenth legion, which broke through their 
scattered cantonmenls and renclied Londinium nnassailed. Sue- 
tonius was a noble savage. With admirable constnOCy and re- 
morseless resolution be determined neither to quit the island nor 
to shrink from any sacrifiee to maintain it. It was necessary to 
secure a place of retreat in which to await the sure efTects of un- 
expected success in breaking up the league of the enemy ; but 
Londinium itself was unprovided with fortifications, and he was 
not prepared to offfr battle in its defence on the heights of 
Hampstead oT Hig^hgate, or before his camp, if existing remains 
there be his, at Islington. In the absence of any distimt intima- 
tions of his course in the historians, it lias been commonly sup- 
posed, with the idea that he was ansious to quit the island, that 
te crossed the Thames and retired towards the coast of Kent or 
Sussex. But he wuuld hardly, wc think, have abandoned the 
defensible line of a broad river, and the authorities would 
scarcely have failed to tell us if the Brilons in pursuit had actu- 
ally crossed that important barrier. Besides, by taking this 
direction, he would have abandoned the Roman outposts which 
were still occupied on the line of communication with Camulo- 
dunum, and the camp of Cerialis beyond tlie StouTj which the 
enemy had hitherto left unmolested, preferring the devastation 
of the open country tq an attack on places of defence. To have 
sought, on the other hand, to effect a junctioii with Prpnius in 
the west would have been to remove still further from the eastern 
Coast, and the means of communication with the continent. 
Under these circumstances the object, we believe, of the gallant 
Roman was to evade the Britons by a flank movement from 
Londinium, and throw himself uilhin the lines of CnniuIodunurn» 
which they had abandoned, when fjnrged with blood and booty, 
to spread themselves westwanl. Within the ample enclo:sure 
behind these works, with a marsh and forest on Iiis right and 
left, imd the sea m his rear, though sheltered by no regular forti- 
fication, a resolute general with ten thimsand men might main- 
tain himself against any superiority of undisciplined numbci-s. 
This was the Torres Vedras o( Suetonius Paullinns, from which 


77ie Romang at Cotchexter. 


lie waa sure no British force could cxpeL him, and here be mi^ht 
securely Await ibe arrival of the Tcqulred reinforcements. 
Abuadloning LntidinLuin without siTupIc, as hi? had alreadv 
abandoned Verulajnium, to certain deslructioriv and collecting a 
few outlying battalions, he took, we hctieve, the road through 
Kss'ex, while tin? tiames of the devoted city sprang behind him 
|.int» tlie air The British hordes, iD(]ia;naj)t at tlie prospect of 
fliis cAcape, pressed eajjcrly on his rear, or throhgeit about his 
flank, slrivin;^ to enter Carnulodunum before him i — 

' Sic anibo atl inuros r^pidi toloque feruntur 
Agmine, iiec loiigis inter se paribus absuot,' 

The Human had arrived wltliin a few miles of the shelter he 
required, and had perhaps secured thn means of access, when, 
iindiog hims^U in a favoLiiablc position fur defence, be no longer 
jpj'used to accept biutlc ; possibly he was overtaken and coin- 
polled, to fight, but this at least the pride of the historian docs 
Jiot allow. We cannot but esteem it rash to 6i definitely upon 
a site for the great battle that ensued, the locality of which is 
only indicated by Tacilus as 'a narrow g;orge,' Hanked perhaps 
by woods, with a wood alsq tn the rear &ntl an open plain in 

nt It is sufficient to say that this does nut nec-egsarilv imply 
a ravine between steep bills,* though considerable inequalities 
«f ground may be found In the neiglibourbomi to which we have 
thus brouifhl the Romans. If tbe reasons given for supposing 
them to iiave made for Cainulodunum be correct, it muy he 
fairSy conjectured that the battle was fought in tlie vicinity of 
Messing, a village between Alaldon and Colchester, where oia 
Essex aotiquary Mr. Jenkins unhesilatingly places it, Consl- 
derB,hle mUiiary works are now to be seen in that locality, and, 
h we place litde reliance on the Welsh derivation which 

ij be assig'nod to tl«j place itself, the tradition of an engage- 
ment there may have been cauglit by the Saxons and per- 
petuated by tbem in the appellation of Harburgh, the army 
rvmpsrts, close by." 

With this great battle, in which the Britons were utterly 
routed and the power of Rome restored, the history of the 
Romans in South Britain may be said to close. The Fourteenth 


" • WhoererTisiu the camp ol Unyncs Gwen' fuMrihe village of Messingl, 
' bsfing previoiisl^ rt-sJ tht 3-ith ctksptcr of ihr Hlh IkwIi oi He AnnsJs. -will be 
afnick with the r«MmbUnG« it twara la ibc po^iti'ifi lalcMi up Iit Sutiotiius before 
his baltle with Boslicra. . . . Two large imoiila, l*od'sWnnd and [^ayer- Ham^j 
Wood, "sMin to form the narrow gorgu in from of the camp which T«dtDS mea- 
tioniZ—Jptikins, Arrliifai. Ottnere. p. 12, Tac. Ann. xiv. 34. ' Deli git locum 
srelis faodhua -et a t«rgo xj'lvA olaufuin,' whkh Gurdail in hii triLBslittiOa repre-' 
Kal> U a ' nvine betvevD pre«ipiluu» bankt,' ut words u that effecL 


7iw Romans at Cotchefler. 

ks^on acquired tbe title ofOQinilwesBritanniJE, orConquerois of 
~trilaia^ and, though resistance sfill IJn^eretl in parts, we bare no 

ler record of the process of final subjugation, whicb ws*r 
speedily efFected, and from thenceforth placidly endured. We 
may suppose, however, that when the victors revisited the site 
of their late flourishing; colony, l!ie smouldering ruins forcibly 
linded them of tbe perils with which they were surrounded, 

warned ihem not a^in to neglect due precautions against a 
sudden outbreak. Accnrdlnfjly, from this period date, fiJ we 
ima^'ine, the walls of Colchester.' Of the vast enclosure of the 
old British lines one comer was amply sufficient for a Roman 
fortified town. The site was chosen at the eastern extremity of 
that area, where the clerate<l plain of Lesden terminates in a 
Bpit of land projecting between the vallev of the Oilne on the 
one side and a dry ravine on the other, till it falls with a rapiiJ 
descent into the river below. Upon this spot a space was marked 
out abn-Dt a thousand yards in length from east to west, and sis 
hundred in width from north to south, which was divided after 
the manner of a military camp by two main streets crossing each 
other near the centre. The direction of these avenues has been 
fte&rly, though not precisely, presprvcd to the present day ; the 
Hi^h Street of Colchester, like the Corso of Rome, for no reason 
I Aat can he traced, deflects slightly from the original Kne, and is 
no longer flush with the Freetorian or front gate in the western 
fiice of the walls, though it still presen'cs its original exit at the 
opposite side. Of the walls which surrounded this city ample 
remains still exist. They may be traced on the west, north, and 
east sides almost without interniption, and through far the 
greater part of that extent they stjll rise many feet above the 
ground, showing, by the perfect uniformity of their construction, 
four courses of cut stone (seplaria) alternating with four coorse* 
of brick, that the wbolc was executed together, and has at no 
time undergone any considerable repair. On the south side, 
Tvhere these walls have been pierced for the progressive exten- 
sion of the town, the remains of the original structure are far 
less distinct, On the whole, however, the walls of ColrfieatM 
may he adAiiuitagcously compared with any other remains of the 

* This place rpoeict^Ll iaiUiicritninati>>lj the imme or CoIodib^ Cvmulnd^mtim, or 
■nmecini*?* Colt>tila rBtnuMaDiua. WLpp great precision ?ra* inwoJed ilit two 
&aiiie£ vtre a p propria led, perhaps tbe one Lo the tiW nf r.alckettir. the ntht-r fiMO- 
Tally to die old Brili&ti endosuiv. Thiui, while in Uin. ix., OLEnaliidtuum is aid 
to W twcDtr milec from L't^Eftroaiagus, (he discstice (vf C<fl')nk from ihnt pLm U 
nnde in Irio. v, Hffniv-fimr. The two nic^Enn'mmts cnnnol. indewi* lie l»Mh 
Miuily correct, but we are a«l tare enotighaf the mt« of CeMromsguS bidetenuine 
wnieh lo prefer. 


Tiw Ritmcaia at Coichnt«r. 

kind in this island, or perbapa even on the Continent." The 
gaaiscs of Roman vlain« imd brickwork which surround tlio 
encSnsures of Caistor, Richborougfi, and Burgh Castle are hardly 
i^ore perfect; nor do lliey properly belonfi lo tlie game class of 
remains, lor these places were merely mililary stations, never 
occupied by the habirations of civil life-, nor tenatited pi^rhap* at 
all by man since the fifth or sixth century. Several of our towns, 
such as Exeter, Linixiln, ami partii:uUrly Chester, hare walls 
erected undoubtedly upon Koman foimdntiuns, but none of them, 
we believe, preseires more than the mo9t trlflijlg: rentains of 
g^ennine Roman masonry. 

These noble- specimens of Roman architecture ronititute the 
chief object of interest to the explorer of the antifjuilics of Col- 
chester. Wiien the old British site waa abandoned, and the 
Colony of Camulodunum confined to the locality of the present 
town, the roatls which before terminated at the British rampart 
W«re carried on to the walls of ihe new fortifi cation. The Roman 
■WaT from Londinium may now be traced to ihe Pr»rorian gate, 
which it strikes at a considerable angle, and from the left Prin- 
cipal gate in the southern wall anolfier line is supposed to have 
beeik discovered directed due south to the isle of Mersea on the 
csnasl. Remains of a villa of some pretensions have been found 
here, which the local antiquaries have pronounced the residence 
of the pr»tor of thf> ]>rovince. So broad were the swamps of the 
Colnc in those days, such the denseness of the forests beyond it, 
that itmav be doubted whether any road led eastwarfl from the 
Decuman gate. In the peninsula east of Colchester no Roman 
remains, it is said, have ei-er been discovered^ unless at some 
places near tile coast, as St. Osyth and Wa3ton, which are both 
ancient sites, the latter, if we may jud^e from a coin of Cunobelin. 
vUdi bu been found then;, probably British. The Via Strata^ 
which CKMted the Stout into Suffolk at StratfonI, St Mary's, 
may hare had its exit from the nurtb side of Colchester, at the 
ri^l Priocipal ^te.t The 

* Wc quaU a ootc from p. ii\ of Ur. Reach Smith's ' AntiqniliH of Iticfa- 
Iwrougti. &c.,' lo t'xploin the n&ture njid luaioriBls nf this nrucnre. ' Tlif se 
ttftfl*^ (cnlltd nrptarin) irrrr fonntd in Ibe Ijondon clsy. t^iej oOCar IB that 
dopant at inlrmli, and in horizontal lovt nr layers, like the fliati \a thr chalk 
finuatKXL They or« (ompaHtl gf argillQ-calGar«oiis nia.tier, aggregated by mnuiB 
of chemical slSmly, lad aftenrards coacreted inW tolerably hard swae, Th« 
grsaiir portioii nf the clifik ab the Ecwx coast. kdU in ibi:; uk- of Shepjiy, is msi- 
•Med Of U»id(ni cLa; ; and tha action of the tfo., bjr emmliliag dowu Ihe difis, 
ABS lilKraict! 'W seplarin, am) tlKreby jidbrdetl gogd building inalvriaJa. . , . 
Dredging for tlieav suvcs otf Harwich aod Walton has been prtcli^tl for miuy 
jean. . . - Thr^ jtant^s not ooly taxm one of tii^ (?hicf maieriats of th(! Romas 
waDi of Colchester and of the Castle, but tbty ha-re alio been eiteortvely nurd 
■r tbe vatU of Dunierna* Tillage rhurches in. thi^ district,' 

t We have called the we^tem eniraoce of Colctiesier the Pnctorisn, the eait«n> 



77j« Romans at Colchester. 

The Roman remHin^ of Colchester, besides its walU, consist 
prmripally of vast qunntilies of l^atnian ware, anil nlso itf rings, 
ijaifpiiis, and niher articles of persDnal decoration, found for the 
most part alon^ the sides of the Roman road to London, where 
was evidently the public rpmeterj^ of the rity for hundreds of 
year*. The coins alat) of the emperors down to ihc last niomenl 
of their sway in Biitaln have been fuund there in nbiindance, and 
we have ourselves seen a collection ot' forty or fifty made by a 
sin|g;1e inquii'er by casnnl purchases from workmen within a 
period of only six or seven years. A small marble figure of a 
•phynx, with a human head between its paws, consideretl to Ix? 
an emblem of l!ie great riddle Death, is preserved in the Col- 
chester and Kssex Hospital, near wliich it was discovered : and 
there too may be seen an nmloubled head nf Calig-ula, a minia- 
ture in marble.^ also, which must have been one of the earliest 
works of art imparled into Britain ; for surely no rolonist from 
Italy Would have brought with him a figure of the detested 
emperor after the death, at lates^t, of his uncle who succeeded 
him. AV'e are tempted, indeed, to believe tliat none but Claudius 
would have paid such honour to the hateful bust, and that it was, 
in fart, a family heirloom of the imperial conqueror himself. Of 
inscriptions, however, the paueity is remarkable. Not more 
than two, we believe, are known to have been discovered, both 
funereal, and neither of any importance. It would seem that in 
a country destitute of stone such monuments were an expensive 
Juxory but rarely intEulged in, or rather perhaps that they were 
i«adily broken up for buiklui)^ or still baser purposes. Jtut 
within the walls of Colchester and in the country round the 
remain* of numerous villas have Come to light, with their baths, 
and bypocausls, and tesselated pavements, fully attesting the fact 
already well known, that wherever the Roman inhabited be 
carried wilh him the comforts and luxuries of his own country^ 
and scorned to descend to the ruder habits of bis subjects. 

The long- flat Roman tile, as mijrht be expected, is found here 
in many places built into walls of much later date. A church,, 
lledica.ted to the Trinity, the architecture of which belongs in 
Epart to the Saxon period, abounds in Roman materials. In some 
isea frnrrrneiits of the well-known Roman mortar, formed by the 
lixture ot pounded brick with lime, adhere to these tiles, and 
present a strona;, if not a conclusive, evidence of their genuine- 
ness. \i seems, however, that niorlar of this kind is sometimes 
found combined with undoubted Norman masonry, and we mutt 

the Di-cmniuL gate. Some anUquiinc« reverse these appellntioiu, vhich tvne ouily 
to mark rtrspccliTvly the front aad rear or ;l Cflsireiuio cncloflure. The west gQK, 
wc couoeivu in tbU tasc, wu that which was suppoMd to fate ihe vatmy. 


not therefore tn axi\ case rely with absolute confidence upon it as 
a proof of an earlier antiquity. Manj of these tiles, with some 
fmgTucnts of tiiia mortar, are to be seen imbcJded in tbe walls of 
tlie castle of Colchester, and disposed in some pliices witii cod- 

. siilerable regularity in imilation of tlie bonding courses of brick 

' which <lislin*uiah real titimaQ wotk, though more commonly 
thrown indiscriminiitely amont; the masses of atone. This was 
probafdy the circumstance which first suggested to various inde- 
pendent inquirers the notion that the casib is itself a Roman 
structure, Fosbrooke suggested that it was a work of the third 

' or fourth century, erected as a fortress for the defence of the 
Saxon shore ; Evelyn mentions the noliaa in his time that it was 
built by the Empress Helena: but General Roy, whose posthu- 
mous folio on the military antiquities of the Romans in Britain 
is, for its time, a lare specimen of scientific archamlogy, believed 
it to be the Temple of Clauiliua itself.* The recent revival of 
this latter hypothesis, and its defence with great ardour by Mr. 
Jenkins, a (lergymati of the neigh l>ourhoodl, has led to the con- 
troversy which has famished us with the headings for the present 

■ We consider Mr. Jenkins a tnan of penius, and not only g"!** 

''idm credit for havinjj been mainly instrumental in the creation of 
an arrhBRoio^cal spirit in his coUnly, hut think that he has done 
direct service tt> archcPolo^ical science by bis examtnalioii of the 
Roman remains about Colchester, and by the historical connexion 

I jn which he has placed ihetn. On these points we have seen 
reason to adopt many of his conclusions, and we have no hesita- 
tion in pronouncing' an opinion of his merits. But when his 
enthusiasm carries him on to declare that the castle of Colchester 
is niiEhin^ less than the actual Temple ut Claudius, with certain 
tmnsmntations, which the Britons took, but failed from its vnst- 
ness and solidity to destroVi wc can no more accept his ingenious 
and ehH^uent ar|:;;umenls than the vn^uc surmise of (ienernl Roy. 
In the first place, no such theory is required to account either for 
the Roman features which occur in its construction, or for the 
pT'CuliarltiPS of its plan. Both one and the other may be paral- 

' leled, a& Mr. Cutis has fully shown, in works of undoubted Nor- 
man origin ; and though there is no distinct account or tradition 
of the Norman erection of this castle, there seems no reason to 
(|UMtion the opinion commonly receiived, that it is due to Eudo^ 
the seneschal or dapifer of the Conqueror William. Colchester 
Castle is indeed the largest Xurman Keep in this country, being 


TAe Romans at Colchester, 

double the Bue of the White Tower of London,* Its soHdtly u 
nlio extraordinary, the whole of tlie grouad-atorey, and two of its 
four angular towers up to the second storey, beins: perfectly solid; 
and it is diffirult to imagine why auch superior labour shoald 
have been bestowed upon ihis position above any otlicr. We 
must remember, however, a& Mr. Cutta opportunely reminds la, 
that we have but few remains of the eleven hundred Nonnaa 
castles of the reign of Stephen, and it may well be tliat many of 
them, long; since ntterly destroyed, equalled the great castle of 
Colchester, or even exceeded it. 

That the castle of b!udo is raised, however, Dpon the site of 
Bome Roman building of importance, whether n tower or a temple, 
that in this very central poKilimn may have E^tood, for instance, 
the curia of tlie Koraan colony, nnsw<'Ting; to the prfftorium of a 
military encampment, seems far from improbnblie. Foundations 
hare been discovered in the immediate vicinity, apparently Ro- 
mMi, exhibiting it is said a,n exact parAllcllBm, which cannot be 
accidental, with the lines of Ibe castle wait, and we may indulge 
a hope that if ever more extensive excavations are effected, some 
decisive indicatinna may present themselves uf the earlier history 
of the cite. With respect, however, to the temple of Claudius, 
we have, for our part, no czpectalinn of its ever lieing* tmced to 
t^is locality. We have already pointed out a more western posi- 
tion, such tis Lexden, as tbe probable centre of the old Biittsb 
habitations, and au^^ested that it was there rather than at Col- 
chester that the first Roman colonists eslabluhed themselves,— 
there that ihcy erected the temple of their patron saint, wbicb 
Was taken and overthrown by Boadicea.t 

Hut if the Colonic of the Homan^, rebuilt and fqrt}fie<f on the 
aite of the modem Colchester, is thus, ns we have represented tt, 

* Ur. JciikUi» giTCB ttie fijlttiwiiig mcAsureiueiiw : — 

■Co1<'!ierter CsFile . . . 
Norwich K«p . . . 
CanUTbury Kvc^ . , 
Koct)es<«r K^i'p - , - 
NnrcHtle K«ep . . . 
EuuD^hsn Keep > > • 
~i|r. Cam addB tliAi of cb« 

WlkLhiTow^T 116 X Sfi = 11.13G 

t in the third It«' of Iticbard of CLrencatcr, the temple of Claudius ii referred 
' to lis a sCiLi existing tdifirc Id tbe- lat^r Colonic, Mr. Bertram, tW iogt-'nionJ 
farger, k ve moet rv^rd liiin, of the work id question, has hven carefiil >g ^** 
■B rir of 'PTumnbLsBce to l)is Action tiy pruning all hiEtorie^l dftts ioto his semu. 
He has frci^o^'nlly re ffirtd to circumslaiices meiilioiicii li j Tacilus; liut Only id Ibcve 
portions of liis wriliii^ wliich we now possess, lH.'iny -i-vLdemlj afraid of itivtnliog 
tacti which UwdiKO^er? pfwme of his ioit btnkc migbi wte day dicprc^'c. 

a difTcrciA 

Sq,u»" Ki*!, 

168 X 

I2fi = 21,169 

m X 

93 - 9,1 U 

SB X. 

80 = 7fl*0 

rs X 

72 = 5, -inn 

fiG X 

ea = 4.0M 

fi9 X 

6S >= 4.1)30 



m diffpr^nt spot from tW oti|nna1 CaRtulocliinaEn of the Britoda, 
what, it may be Bskcd, bss become of the remains, the foundations 
ftt I«ist, of the g^at temple they erected at their earlier seat, 
which was raised, as we are reminded by Mr. Jenkins, hs » sym- 
bol of the eternity of the [{omaD dominion?' At Lcxden nn- 
doubteilly no traces of it have- been dJsrovered, If it once stood 
there, as wc imi^ine it <litl. all vestiges of Lt have disappeared^ — 
even its ruins have perished. We arc far from thinking it pro- 
bnble that any further research would di^w avail to di&inter tbem. 
What then has become of them? 

In the first plare. we must remark that Tacitus, in raiting this 
temple 'a ciladei as if tt-ere of eternal dominion,' is sppftking 
metaphorically, not literally. The size of the Roman temples 
down to the lime of Claudius was ^enerHlIy very diminutive; 
few (if tliem probably equalled the dimensions of onr ordinary 
parish churches ; and a boildin^ creeled like this in the course 
of a very few years, by rude workmen, and in a country destitute 
of stone, was not likely til be ampler in its proporlions, or grander 
in its design, than the temples of ^(xU and demi-gods »t Home 
itself. The significance of the symbol lay not in the size or 
■trcnglh of the material object, bnt in the presiiined divinity of 
the conqueror to which it was dedicated. It was used as s pig 
aihr for defence, but it was not constructed ivith any view of the 
kind, *nd it tamed out » very feeble fortificTtion. The ruins 
then which we have lost sigiit ol wcrp but small. The victonooB 
Britons did not pause, we may suppose, in the work of destruc- 
tion, till tbcy had levelled this hatetl monument to the ground. 
It wai not, however, we allow «o easy for them to root out its 
foundations. They retained possession of the spot only for a 
few monlhs or weeks, and during that time were intent on plunder 
aad devaslntion all around. Content with the overthrow of the 
symbol of Roman domination, it is not to be supposed that they 
applied themselves with patient industry to annihilate every trace 
of it, even below the surface of the soil. A surer ag'ent nf de- 
vtruction was, v« beli^^ve, the haste of the Romitns tbemielvet in 
crecrin^ a new ci()', after tb^ir return to tbe spot, in the vicimty 
eS the abandonetl Camulodiinum. Colonia was destined to be 
their chief defence aafainst a future attack of the Iceni, and if WU 
necessary to construct it, in its full strength and dimensions, 
irithont delay. They would be glad, therefore, to avail ihem- 

" TTie wfwdB of TbciWs «r»(Aiinal, xiT. 31;; Ad bne tenplain D. Clandranm- 
■titnlum titiati nrx neteniK dominationis B^iriebalur. Tbus paraphrved b; Mr. 
Joikin*: *' Td Oi« tv^Atx of the nL-W'Tunncd town a Umple whb built, acotlier 
letBplwl CapUol. nt it were, of whith CUtidin* rnw, like p secocid Jove, the guar- 
dian dcii«. * Symbol of Rome's etenul domiDion oTRrlbe conqacred Briioni.' 



The Rotnans at Colchester, 

selves for this purpose of tlie cut and squared stones wliicli 
foraied the debris of this ruined temple, »nJ when these were 
exhausted, lo dig up even its solid foundations, and apply the 
n)nteria)$ to the complt^tion of their work. But the tetnvery nf 
tbn site find the fartitiL'atiion of Colonia did not take place till 
near the close ot' Nero's reign, and the diviniiy of one emperar 
«ag Beklofn respected hv his successor, Vcspasiao, at least, who 
soon ascended the disputed throne, bad no inierest in resloring^ a 
temple of Claudius. We know how successful he wn.s in effacinig 
the nionuin>eiitg of bis predecessor's prido and ostentation. Of 
all lliat vast pnlace, Nero's Golden House, which embraced a 

■ fourtli part of the area of Rome, within the sweep of ilsilSimilable 
arcades, a few doubtful substructions alone now remain in iitu. 
The stones of that enormous pile have been relaid in the omphi- 
iheaire of the Flavian Colosseum ; the cheapest work nf its kind 
perhaps ever constructed, for the materials had been provided 
by Nero, and the labour was supplied by the captives ot Judea, 
We believe, therefore, that the creation of the new city at 
Colonia under Vespasian would suffice to account for the uUer 
disappearance of every trace of the ruined temple of Claudius at 
CamulodLinum. But far wider is the general question of the 
causes which have cunduced U) the obliteration of the monuments 
>f antif^uity. How many ages and generations of digging and 

^Jtuilding mortals have passed away, and left scarcely a vestige of 

■'their handiwork upon the surfare of the earth they cumbered ! 

[■The Pyramids stand alone, mysterious remnants of a civilization 
of a thousand j.ears, and of the life and interests of counUess 
myriads nf beings like ourselves. A few ranges of walls elabo- 
Kktelv sculptured reveal to us all we knuw of the onticjuity of 
Cenlral America, coeval perhaps with the Pyramids themselves. 

I We have no visible traces of the people who trod our own soil, 
■owed our fields and eatlierod of our harvests, for centuries before 
the Christian era, but a few questionable mounds of earth, and a 
few disputed atones. And of the Romans themselves, the apostles 
of mechanical civilization, the men who built as they boasted for 
eternity, and seem scarcely to have admitted into their minds our 
pnny notions of ])tnv3ding for our own day^ and our personal 
requirements, — of the Romans themselves hnw little actually 
remains in this island, where tbcy lived and ruled for near four 
hundred years, — such a space as sufficed for the erection of all 
our cathedrals but one, such n perlcid as intervened between tbe 
buroiu^ of the wooden Rome by the Gauls^ and its completion in 

jnarble by Augustus I What remains above ground of all the 

'•olid masonry which sheltered them, but the ruined shell of some 
half dozen forlificatiuns, preserved perhaps by the accident that 



The Rmxaax at Colchester. 93 

no rilifft have risen in their vicinity to make the transpoi't of 
their hewn materiaU more cheap awJ expediiious than the quarrj- 
iag <jf new 1 Wherever modern towns have been erected ni^h to 
tbc site of Human works, the new ljuililing;s have swallowed up 
tlieolci. The extent to wliich this appiopriation of materials has 
been carried is almost incredible. In tlie middle of the last ccn- 
tory General Roy discovered tJiroe or four Roman milestones in 
a secluded distriet uf the Cheviot hills, and these, with a very 
few more columns in South Wales and elsewhere, which he 
thought miphl also be mtlliBry, were the sole survivors of the 
hundreds wiUi which the Roman Ways were once garnished 
throuf^h tljc Icng'lh and breadth of the island. AH over the Con- 
Itaent thf" Roman jnllestones have disappeared, vtith a few rare 
exceptions, in like manner; converted no douht to every sort 
of use, and often broken up to repair the roads themselves by 
which tliey stood. 

But more tlinn this : the Romans were accustomed to mark 
utit th<^ boundaries of estates and fields with stones, dppi or 
termini, instiibcd with letters and synaholic devices, and coiv- 
secrnted Injr the security of property with relipious observances. 
Not in Italy only, but itjroughout the provinces, particularly 
those of the west, did they carry out this practice ; it formed a 
paTt of their system and science of mensuration, and upon ihis 
basis the fabric of the iiaperial taxation was in a great inensure 
founded. This actual demarcation of the land was InmHierred 
to charts on brass or IJnen, and registered in the archivee of 
the ej(cbcquer. The whole s-ystem has perished — brass, slones, 
and all ; no such thing as a tenninal stone exists throughout the 
vast space over which went forth the decree of Caesar Aug-ustus, 
that ■ all the world ' should be taxed. Fifteen or sixteen ceolurios 
at;o there must have beon millions of them. All have perished. 
Mr. Hallani, wc believe, lias remarked, that * the oldest things 
in Ensjiaiid nre the hedjjes/ Straxipe to sav, these tliraay barriers 
of sod and brusliwood, wbich cattle trample down, and wlierc 
boy* • break throagh and steal,' which require repair and restora- 
tion almost from year to year, hsve outlived the solid landmarks 
of the steadfast Terminus ! Such utier ruin hat; swcptover the face 
of ancient civilization in respect to the must fixed and cherished 
of )t» fc;itHres. The pledges of the estates of amillionnnire have 
everywhere been broken up to save, perhaps^ a few halfpence in 
cnrtini; of »tones< 

Again, the surface of this island was covered with a network 
of Kutnun roads, the cnostriiction of which, thoii)2^h not generally, 
u in halv, ui' at least In the neigh bourho(Kl of Rome iUelf. of 




Z74C Romans of Colchester. 

lolid m&Bonry laid u|M]in strata of gravel and cement, was never- 
th«)eie reniBrkable for iti cntnpart solidity, 1q the boltonu 
between liills^ or in tbe vicinity of towns, wbere the soil waa 
softest or the traflic greatest, these roada;, even in a distant pn^ 
vince, SDch as Britain, were probably built of squared fttone*, 
as we see at the present day in the royal routes of France. Yet 
tbere i* certainly no vestige left of the pftvemcot of a Roman 
way in Britain.* Even in Italy »ucb traces are exceedingly 
lare ; throughout the prnvinces they are probably obliternted 
altogellier. But this obliteration ts not to be ascribed sJmplj to 
the wear and tear of tratbc. They became impassable from tlia- 
> repair long before they were worn away. Partly from tlds cir- 
cumstance, and partly from the general decline of livilization, 
wheel-carriagefi fell into disuse, and gave place to travelling oa 
foot or horseback, which did not require so smooth or hard a 
surface. The rough impracticable roads were gradually abait- 
doned for tnickin|E;s in the 6elds on cither side, and thus deserted, 
the remains of tlieir materials were speedily appropriated by the 
corporntiops of the towns and tlic lords of feudal fprtresscs-f 

Amidst such wholesale destruction of all solid materials that 
lay ready at hand, we can the less wonder at the tos^ of almost 
every lapidary monument uf t^je founders of so important a placfc 
as Culunia Camuludunum. Colonies, if we may credit inscrip- 
tiods, as in the case of Gloucester, Vork, and Cbester,| and the 
DDlices uf late and questionable authorities, as in those of London, 
Lincoln, and possibly some others, were subsequently founded 
in several other British sites. Each of the five provinces had 
its own centre of adminislraiion, and Colchester, which g^ve 
way to London in the south, to Caerlcon or Gloucester in tbe 
West, and to York in the north, was not the capital of »ny one 
of them. This may partly account for the paucity of Koman 
inscripliooB found here ; two only, we believe, have ever revealed 
themselves, tind one of those has been unaccountably lost. Tbe 
district round Colchester is very destitute of stone, and le- 

* Id dig^Dg foundations hy the sidu of the Lczdoi road, a iiuie way mit of 
Colchester, rhf workruea eame Inielj- upon tracci of iht Roman way irhich croswd 
iL The pavemout hod Tanisbcd, but <i\tr: ■limtun) upon which il wma ori^ioallT 
buih is 8 TUBu of caucrete, or ijiilurMieil gravel, upon vfatcib tlu^r tools could widi 
difficulty mali« uu imprenioii. 

t Thi* process of iittto'doniacnt may tse observed on a flroslt scale ifl ihe 
'Side Iracki which pedestrkns have trodden over some of the loweF |iIiEfie5 of 
tllk« Al|«, wherever cbe uarrow paveuieni for mules Ilu Iwcqiiib incunveuieBilr 

1 Colon. Gle Col. Eborac. Horelcy, Brit. Rom. Col. DeU. leg. xz. on a 

60iB of GeU^ Stilluigfieet, Amiti. Brit. CtnotAtt, 



mains arc generally most numerous in Localities where there liaa 
been the least tr-mptalion to appropriate tbcm to baser uses. 
But while Horslc^ has collected se^'cral hundred Romau ioscrip- 
lions througUout the counties of England, and this aumber bos 
been v^iy considerably augmented by modern researche*, it is 
reonarkable how little liglit tUey throw upon tiie municipal 
organization of (he province. A sijigle inscription, we believe, 
exists to commemorate the sepulture of a decurioo of the 
colony of Gloucester ;* wliilc we have a hundred references to 
military, there is no othc^r whatever to any civil officer. It 
teejnt impossible to suppose that this can be merely accidontal. 
Other countries teem with Dottccs of duumvirs, dccurions, ijuia- 
qaennales, auguslules, and fluuiens, but Britain is literally all 
but destitute of them. The solution seems lo be forred upon 
Qj, lliougli we i'UB preteod to no hisCurical evidence in support 
of it,, that (he government oi* tbe Roman tovtm in Britain waa 
generally purely military. 

Some light, perhaps, may be thrown upon tliia remarkable 
circunialaiice by ajiotber jx^culiatity We observe in the Roman 
towtiB in Britaia. All places of undoubted Roman origin among 
us were distinguished by the Saxons by the appellation of 
Chester, or Castrum; and tliese tuwu& have a special type in 
common, to which, we believe^ there is notbing^ similar iu the 
Boman provinces on the continent. They are all more or less 
square or oblong areas, intersected by two principal streets at 
right angles, such as we 6nd to be the case at Colchester, 
Chester, Exeter, Chichester, Gloucester, and, in fact, in every 
town among us which is reputed to stand upon Roman founds^ 
tions. It is commonly supposed ibat all these places were 
originally legionary encampments, in which, after the reduction 
of the country, colonies were planted, or civic establish meatc 
gradually grew up. Against tMs supposition, however, the size 
of these enclosures seem* strongly to militate. Xhe walls of 
Chester are said to be two miles in circumference ; those of 
Cirencester, as measured by Stukeley, a titiic moie ; those of 
Colchester about 3200 yanls ; those of Exeter 3000 ; and without 
haring obtained special information about others, we believe 
they generally range from 3000 lo 4000 yaTds.f Now, accord- 

' Bonity, Brit. Som. Aatbicriptioa found id s volt in Baih., V*t: Cohn.Oiw. 
vii. 411, . . Camtlen givet on inKtiplion frtXU Ynrk, M. Veri^uuiltiS Dioec-ncS 
SoTir Cal. £itwr., qq ii Euvoptin^* now lost, GearicL, Practedinga iif' YoTkiho't 
Pkilci. Soeitlt/. 

f Thi; vxisiiuf; walls of Cb'icbestfr, as far bb thr^ can be tracciJ, an> no longer 
neiangulBr, but iWinaiii ttTMbuncasurc^Mal 7AU}'Snlj«acb in tc^ngth. CbicbnUr 
(BCEBBin, or die cspiial of tk« Hsgni) wu timost otrtainly tin mt of a ■]«• 


Tite Jtffmitns at Colchester. 

mg to the measurements of General Roy, a camp of 1000 x 600 
^anis wnultl conlain, (in the Polybian scheme, 26,000 men, and 
on (he Hyg'inian full 50^000 ; the first number would esce&ii 
two legiions, and ihe second would not fall sliort of four. But 
the Polybiaii was t^le camp of Sdpio; the changes infroduceii 
by Marius shoiik the discipline and morale of the legions, and it 
is far from probable that, at least after the time of Julius Capsar, 
tbe soldiers could be induced to devote to the con§lruclion of 
tlieir (Ifiily encampmL-nts the vast amount of labour required of 
them by the great captains of the republic, Hya;)nu5 details 
the practice of the time of Trajan, when the $arne extent of 
earthwork was made to hold twice as many men as at the earlier 
epoch ; but this was only thirty years after Nern, and we see no 
renson to suppose any great change had taken place in that brief 
interval. If we were to press this ar^ment, therefore, it would 
show that the supposed camps of C()lchester, and Cirencester, 
and Chester, were constructed for armiics of 50,000 or 60,000 
men. But it is doubtful whether there were ever more than 
four legions in Britain together, at least before the tijne of 
Severus, whose armies, according to Dion, were very numerous, 
and in the highest degree improbable that such a force was ever 
ioliected at the same time in one place. If, on tbe other hand* 
it be asserted that these enclosures were constructed not for 
temporary, but for stative camps, that is, for the permanent 
inuintenance of a Roman garrison, wc may point to the places 
which are known lo have been established with this view ; the 
stations of Cai&lor, Bear Norwich, of Burg^h Castle, Hichborough, 
Rc'culver, and Lymue, and show that these places are each not 
more than two or three hundred yards square.,,* 

p«n<)et]l kidgdoiD, nwi Devvr offiifiied by & legionary farre aC all. Ra<-heiter. we 
hmie be«n informt-ij, is a rectangle of 490 X '.i'ifi = ralber mare than 29 acres, 
Twiiuty-fire acret ii>nil a.tiairiE ib-c areii foru single kgion, iKicordicg to ihodimcn- 
6L01IS Te^uirffd tiy Pol^^bius | but tho area of CifCccesctr Is mid lo be 24tj acres, or 
nearly fen times Ihaf eslent. 

" Thosp, with 1b« walla of Colchester, arc the mosl p*rfi?pt miliury remsint of 
the Bonians la Bnialn ; sod it is nut n Llldii rcu&rkaljlc liiat they all lii^ on die 
Boutli-eBsierii coast, the Llciis Saxoiikum, ithicli n Epecial n&ttt tm- n|r|<ointeil to 
dffenil agalBM the ibf ursLoiis of tbe tmieilicrii pimtcB. Stllicbo was the lai-t of the- 
RomnjiB who put thtr iiiland mto an efficj«[it state of der«niM ; and posKitly Hmf-' 
plitces owv llit.'lr pres«Dt fgnnidablc appearance to his bands: — 

Mc ijunque viciois pereuntcm gcntibus, ioi^Eih, 
MuBifit Bfiiicho. totarn cLm ScoIlis Icroen 
Movit et iiLfefetoEpunia^it remise Tetbys. 
niiuc 'cffecciun curU ne telu tintcrcm 
Scotica. ne Pidum tremei-em, oeu liiore toto 
Prospicereui itiibiis ¥valuruni Suoaa venlia. 

Tbe coins, bov^fer, of n much earlier date, whicli have been diteovcred it them, 
fijrtiid as 10 aEcribe iheir first creauoa to thii period. 


The Romam at Cahheslei: 

Rejecting therefore the notion that the cities we have spuken 
of were orig-innlly tlic encampments of the conquering armies, we 
conceive that the Homans, wliea the^' {ir^t laid down theii' plnn 
for the civil achninistratinn of the conquered teirilories, finding' in 
Britain no groups of habitable ilweilings like those of our poUier 
neighbours in Gaul, proceeded lu construct towns for lUem^Lves, 
and nttnicl or oimpcl into tlicm ihoir salvage subjects. It was 
nerfssary to fortify these towns, and Ln default of nalural fcainrtrs 
in the I[>c»litv adapted for di^fence, for we have none of those 
abrupt bills, easily scarped into rocks, on which the Etruscans 
and Latins perched their windj fortifications, they marked out 
the required area accordin? to the familiar type of the military 
camp. They drew their \ ia Frjptoria and Principalis intersect- 
ing each other for the main streets ; established in tlie centre tbe 
residence or tribunal of their chief officer, clustered nearest to 
it the dwellings of the Roman colonists, and closer to the walla 
those of the natives admitted to coipDmuion with tbem ; and 
Anally, if we are not mistaken, still carrying on the analogy of 
the camp, placed the city under a military rather tban a municipal 
govemment. It is remarkable that in Gaul tbe native cities 
became generally under Roman rule the places of assembly foi' 
the states to n-Mch they belonged. Tbe government oi thai 
province was in fact not merely municipal but lerriloclal. So 
completely was each city recotjuized as the centre and metropolis 
of its own people, that the name of the place was gradually lo3t 
in that of the nation. Thus Samarobrlva became Ambiani 
(Amiens), Lutctia I'arisii (Paris), Durocurturnm Remi (Rheims), 
and similarly in a hundrc^l instances. Such is the ttunsmutatiort 
which prevails ia the centre, the west» and the north of Gaul ; 
in tbe south under the military org-anization of the Province, and 
sinong the frontier garrisons of the Rhine, as might be cxjiected, 
wc rarely meet with it. Nuw tbrouglioul Britain there is no 
instance of the name of a city being thui> merg^cd in that of a 
state, Venla never berime Iceni, nor Lindum Coritani, nor 
Eboracum Briganlcs: the only apparent exception we can call 
to mind, that of Canterbury, Cantwara^byrig, is a. Soxoii, not a 
native designation. From this striking discrepancy between the 
two countries we draw the conclusion that the general govern- 
ment in Britain allowetl far less of national ilevclopmcnt, possibly 
it fnun<l less avuilable matoriials for it than Mas the case in Gaul, 
ami that its colonial and municipal organization was fiu' more 
rig'iilly military. 

Tbe pressure of tihis direct contrul of the sword upon the 
British people was of course unfavourable to their intellectual 
developmeni. Juvenal has a i^ourish about lbt> British advocates 

VOL. xc^it. KO, cxuii. 11 imbibing 


Tlus Roman* at Cokhester. 

imbibing science frnm the Gauls ; but while the raaks of aDcient 
literature are lull ol Gallic names^ not one, aa far as we le- 
mepiber, ctin be proiluceJ from Britain before the time of 
Pelagius, Hence also the Oiscoiira^pinent whlcb Cliristianily 
evitlenlly eipericnred auiting the Britons. The remains of 
Ruman antiquity amun^ us furnish very rare iDdicati(.»n* of 
Christian usa^s and symbols, Tbe listol bish[>]>a whti attetidtni 
the council of Ailes, a.d. 314, presents only three from tliis 
isLanil ; and Lbi>u|^h it is easy to say witli uur zifakusa I'rotpstan Is, 
that many more may have been absent, the proportion seems too 
sititill to make that excuse valid,* In Gaul the limits of the 
ecclesiastical dioceses, from time immemoria! down to the revt- 
iuticm, were gf'nerally, it is aaid, com mens urate with the old 
natiuual divisions of the Roman period, when the organization 
of tbe church waa deveJoped according lo the analogy of ihe 
civil polity. But in Britain, if, as we suppose, tbe civil organi- 
aatiun was so imperfect, tbe proper ground and standing paint 
for the ecclesiastical was wanting, and tbe church languished 
because t!ie province was under drill, Tbe result was striking. 
In Gaul the authority and wisdom, not lo say tlie piety "f the 
church, saved tiie cities from the fust fury of the harbaiJana, 
brought the foe under moral and sotia) discipUne, and Anally 
recovered bim lo Christianity : ta Hrilnin the church was power- 
less, the invaders insolent and unabashed ; they swept tbe wbole. 
people into slavery, and planted Thor and Woden in the shrines 
of Alban and Helena. It was only a mission from abroad that 
eventually gained them to the faith. It required the zeal of an 
Aii)!ustine to repair the fatal policy of the Cicsars ; the chiu'cbes 
of a second Pauiinus replaced the barracks of tbe first. 

It is remarkable that long after Catnuloflunum had ceased (o 
be the chief city of the province — for Londinimn and Eboracuin 
soon robbetl it uf iia political imjiortance, the one as the preat 
eniporiuni of cominerce, the other as the headquarters ol the 
military force — It still remained the centre round which the 
legend* and traditions of the island were {jrouped. The earliest 
traditions of Christianity in Britain are derived probably from 
native rather than Koinan sources. The Britons seem to have 
long clung to the flattering notion that the city of Cunnhelin 
still continued to be the seat of a native monarch, and banded 

■ ' Some pret«>D4 lo give a more puuctuul and exact accioiitit uf tbe kuIidjj of 
onr thnrirli-giiveriiOlif'iir here, viz,, thai <liere were lueul^-cight cities aiticiiig Ihe 
old BritDuc ; thftt in theB« then.' Wfira Xtimtj-^xa flamt^as, and three nrcli-llemt'iis. 
in whofte placn, npun Uie coa^utM^D of tlie lutiaii by King Lmiufr. ^<in >r«« > 
like namlKr of bisat^H aud archbiitiope here tppolut*^.' — &tiliiagd««t, AiUiq, of 
the Britiih Cftttniiirt, cK S. 


The Romans at Colehc-iler. 



the UsC of clti^ftaiDS who 

sijH ^^t auvLTCifjiitv over 

flown from gcnerattmi to 
were rcpatcd to liovc still t 
their people. Frum Cuni^WliOf accurJiu^ to Lliesc UuUiiiuas, 
were tlescended an Arvira^us, a Marius, a Coillua, aad a 
Lucius, the la»t of whom, as king of Britain, invited Toj^e 
Rleutherius Id sfnd over missionaries tci instruct himseEf and his 
sulijectfi i» the Chmtiau lalth, unless indei^d he had lit-cti him- 
self previously' converted hv the te^icbing of the monks uf 
CftmlJrid^e. The isLand, aftei- the usurpatii>a of Camusiiia and 
his successors, was suiTcndcied to the Romans by Cotl, styled 
Duke of Kaeccolvin, or Colchester, iu retym for which service 
he was allowcsd to retain the iioruiual sorereigntjt' in iiritain, and 
tiiis hecome rewjwiied as the 'old King Cole of jHijiuJar son^. 
On Lis drin.^ sunn afterwards, the British legends went on to de- 
clare that Consiantius the senator," the repreaenlativeof the Roman 
power in the island, received his ltuho, hut untv iu virtue uf 
majriage with bis daughter Helena, and Cokhealer has hence 
«QJuyetl the reputation of giving birth to Conslantitiet the first 
Christian eQlpeix>i', 

There is no tracc^ however, of Constantius haviat; been in 
Britain at all beibrr tlie year 2^)6, nt ^^diich time his sua wai 
Iwentv-four years old,' and the most tredihle ivriters assert thai 
his ronsorj was not a Briton but a liithyniiui. VV'e leiivt ih* 
food citizens of Colche&teir ii) ]>c>58essioU of their arms^ * a cross' 
inragted,' as Camden has it, ^ between four crowns^' in token ni' 
Helena's Invention uf t)ie Cross of Christ; but we cannut allofr 
that tlit'V hnve auj histi^ncal title Ut them. TJje value of sucti 
traditions as those we have noticed, which have no iuundaliua 
in urertainc'd fart, is in the e^ idence they furnish o( the rcut 
importance CaJnul[>dunum muat have once possessed from the 
bofil it so long- retained upo'Q the popular ixuaginatton. A elaii 
itide«d, has been advanced iui Coleheiter, in still laler timea, 
be one uf the three episcopul sees of Britain iu the fourth ecu* 
tury. The ^ruuml upon which it is made is at least nut ut^' 
Worthy oi altenliun. The British subscriptions to the council of 
Alios run thu^ : Ebonus de civilate Eborttcen&i ; l^gtitutus d«t 
(dvitntc Limdinenei ; Adelhus dc civitale culouia Londinc-nsium. 
Now Ihe third of thest is tiearly corrupt, nor is the emcndalion 
lemlly proposed, Lindinensiiini, gatisliictory. Liiiduiu (Lin-. 
ulin), to which it is meant lo refer, is entided ft cuIud^ only bjJ 
the Anooymous Kavcnnas, a doubtful authority of the seventt 

* TUt potivri llrnt Co"*URtin« wt» at 1m*i Ixmi in Bniain has been cotiDtenaiiceAl 
t-jTMiacduliioue cxpretifeioiu iu liic PiuurgyrUu ; but all sober crilto Mt-rtheivJ 
not to bu binh. but 10 bU uiunplMa of tu« purple in ant iilaad. Oa xhe oAl 
faiuid. ihere is t«pruss ttrsUmoiiy to Ills Urtli ai Nui^^us, in t'pper Mcteis-, 

It 2 cimVva'j, 


TTu Romaus at Colchester. 

oenturf). and the name woald be LiDdensiuin, not Linclinenaiuiii. 

Aoolher sug'gestion, Colonia Leg, II. or Lfgionensium, i.e. Caer- 
leoD, ts only recommended hy its giving a representative to each 
of the three supposed provin<es of Britain. SeMfn and Spelman 
concurred in thinking we should read I-odunonsium, referring to 
the well-known colony of Camulodmiuni, and this we arc 
ourselves inclined to consider the most plausihle correction. 

We rannol, however, seriously countenance the opinion thalthe 
first British Christian was a princess of Camulodunum. The piety 
and virtues of the ladies of Colchester are too well known to 
require any such illnstratioa When our early Ret'ormers were 
seeking in all quarters for arms a^^i'ainst the pretensions of th& 
Papacy they seized cag^erly any indication of the existence of 
Christianity in 4bese islands before the mission of Augustine. 
They were struck with the curious coincidence of the names of a 
Pudens and a Claudia occurring among the salutations of St, Paul, 
and a^n in a nuptial epigram of Martial, wlio had elsewhere 
stated that his Claudia was of British extraction. The dates of 
these two writings, so difTcrent in subject, and connected by so 
slight a tie, were undoubtedly nearly the same. How natural the 
surmise that they referred to the same pair! Many native chiefs, 
especially of the Trinobantes, enrolled themselves, we may pre- 
sume, in the clicntpla of the Emperor, and in the Claudtan Gens. 
The first British Christian might well bo a daughter of one of these- 
Colcestrian nobles. Ahove all, Caractacus himself, and with him 
the remnant of the royal race of Camulodunum, ivould probably, 
We may allow, be induced to accept this distinction,* The child 
who followed with hira tlie conqueror's car of triumph would 
hence receive the name of Claudia, and bred at Rome, under 
the patronage of the Eniperor, might she not have embrace*! the 
doctrines of the apostle when the Gospel was preached in the 
first circles of the capital ? Upon such shadowy foundations 
people will build or not, according to their temper or prejudices. 
Farher Parsons and the RoraAnists scouted the conjecture as 
frivolous; but Usher and Camden, Fuller and Stillingfleet, all 
th<-> more stoutly defended it] and it remained to amuse the 
curious and interest the sanguine, williout obtaining n place 
among the facts or prcsumpltons of sober history. 

About the year 1720, however, an inscription was discovered 
at Chichester, which might fairly revive attention to this subject. 

" Dion may be miituk^n ; bu1 hi» expreM assertion that Caractacos was one of 
the tons of Caootielir Ig not W be lighOy rejecWi. Wt lire aware thai lomc 
nuom liAve been advanced for qui'^tLonin^ the correctnes of his rtatenieat, npc- 
cinlly by Archdc&eon Williami la bis veiy ingeniotui dissert&tioa on ClAadia and 


Th« Romans at Cokheittr, 


It purports lo commemorate the erection of a temple to Neptune 
Minerva, by the guild oX carpentt^rg at the place, with thftj 

icUun of Tiberius Claudius Cugidubnus. king and legate d^ j 
the Emperor, upon a. site presenled by Pudeiis, tbe son 

Xiiw we know from Tacitus that in the time of IVero therff! 
was a iiative prince named Cogidubnus, who was permitted tp 
retain possession of bis kingUum in dependence upon tUe Human 
authorities. Here wo discover that his kingdom was Sussex ; 
and his capital, we may presume, Chichester. We learn that, 
as we mi^tit have expected, tliis prince adopted from bis imperial 
patron i\\e name nf Tiberius Claudius ; and^ \f ^^ /""^ <^ daur/hierf 
she wuuld u( cuursc be kni^wn amung^ the Romans as a Claudia. 
Miireover, we find in close connexion with biin a Pudens^ — some 
young officer, we may suppose, attending u|>on ^im as an adju- ' 
tant, for a tributary sovereign would not bave been insulted bjr 
the presence of a Roman legion in his capital — who, having been 
nearlv shipwrecked in his passage from Caraculinum, or Havre^ 
purchases a piece of land to consecrate to the gods his preservers, 
anti engages the carpenters — i.e. the ship- builders- — of the port 
of Chichester to buihl thereon, with the rojal permission, a 
iemple to their patrons, NepluHe the god of the sea, ajid Minerva 
the goddess of handicrafts. f And now, if we please, wo may 
picture to ourselves the circumstances of this heathen consecra- 
tion ; the fair Claudia leading a procession of Sus&cx maidens to 
celebrate the strange but fascinating rites of gallant Italy, and 
admitting to her breast an untopscioui admiration (or the devout 
and inlerestiag foreigner : — 

' She lovM hitu foF the dangers he had pass'd, 
Attd he lov'd her that she did pity them/ 

The scene now changes to Home, The father, anxioua tot 
Introduce his child to the splendours c(f the great metropolis, has 
•entrusted her * bringing out ^ lu Pomponia, the wife ai his old 

• Tie inKcripiion, with iht nit! of coDJecture, may be rend ■» Wknn ;^ 
.Vleplaai ot Minurva U'lupluia 

Mrfi.octorittl[f 7Ti] CJaud. 
Cutgidubai r. Leg. sag. in Brit. 
Oom^uja fabror. et aoi in eo 
a laait} lunt i. ■. d. aonante areun 
t^urflente Pudenlini ai. 
' The tlsb of fjey Susae* marble upoB which it ii cut was found under (Lb 
cumn-litMiSti of ^t. Mutliu'e Laue, oa tht oonb tide, as it coto-a iaio North l^lreet.' 
Cole, in Phil. Trans, vol. xxxii. p. 391-299, It it now kepL id a fiiuniner- house ia 
the gardem at Goodtrood. 

t Compare Virgil: lostar moBtii niaum divima Paliadia arte. 



Tfic Jtonuiiis at Coieht 

friend mid allv, Aulas Plnulius, the Inte commnTideT m Britain. 
Tlic Romans allowed ihcir wolnrn no prtpnonteii, find vibrn the 
Uauehtcr of Cogidubnua came to Ifcilj she hail no 3j)«:ial appel- 
lation to (listingnish her from tiie Immircds who bore the nomfn 
of Claudia. Her new frien<]s would liastcii to fit her with a 
corjntimen^ a fasbitmable apfwnda^e as nprcssnn' to her appear- 
aiii^c in tbe liij^lier eircl^rs of the rapibil as the newest artirle in the 
mttndus muJiebris. If Pomponia was a Rufa {and the Rufi were 
one of l!ie chief branches ol the P^imponian house), they would 
naturally n^ea to enll her protegee Rufina, and this is precisely 
the dpsignalioD which Martial g:ives her. But there was probably 
mort? than one Pnmpnnia Rufa inovinii in '■l'*^ same sphere, and 
on this acroiitit perhaps ttie wife of Plaulius was rompliinenled 
hy her ncquaiiitance with (lie nppfllntion of Onrcina. As 
Pom|Miiiins, tht friend of Cicero, acquired for his love for 
Athens wid the Athenians the sobriquet nf Atticus, so P<im- 
ponia, we may suniiis<', was knnwn amnn^ her assat-iates as the 
Orot-ifto, for her devotion to tin* fashionable leaders of taste and 
philnsflpbv who were just then turning Rh-jIup into a * Grecian 
city.' Tliis sunnise ia mit wholly gratuittms, Pomponiaj we 
read in Tncitus, had been denounced hs addicted to a ' foreig^i 
ntj>erstition.' This, it will be remembered, was (he ciomtnt 
when Christianity was first mnking head in Rome. Like e»cry 
other novelty, the doctrine of the fios]wl was imported into the 
capital of tlie world by Grecks^hy men, at least, whose tankage 
and manners were Greek (the names of the believers there whom 
Pt. Pnul a.'duti's are mostiv Oreek), He had beanl of its 9ac<"esB 
there before his own arrival. When he came in person, ihoii^ 
in bonds, the fame of his inspired eloquence noised it stilt more 
abroad, ami the Gospel penetrated, as. wc know, within the walls of 
the palace. Regarded as an emanation nf Hellenic inlcUigencc, it 
sbtsEneil the ear even of the Roman literati — of such a man, we 

Itnaj- believe, as Seneca himst-lf, who would hnve turned from it 
"with contempt had they known of it only as the doctrine of 
Syrians, or Gauls, or Africans. Bill oft tliis very account the 
pr'cjudicea of the vulgar revolled against it: the Emperor was- 
assailed with complaints of the exotic impiety which threatened 
'to sap the foimdations nf the nntinnal betier. It was denuuticefl 

("u a ' foreign superstition/ nml great was the triiunph of the 

i;j;nnranl: and illiberal when they prevailed on the govemmeut to 

SatTlfice to llicir blind passion a personage uf mor^ than ord'uiary 

istinctiun. Henoe the char^jc a^inst Pomponia: hot Nero, 

rho is his early days was all things to all men, screened her from 

I'lhe risk and scandal of a piihlic trial, while he required licr 

fliusband to take cognizance of her oScnce, more mafomm^ in 


jT/te Romans at Cali:Itctter. 



pft^iile. Pompotlia, linwercr, ha*! the ingenuity or the good 
fortune to repel tbc accusation. Tiie grave seniors of the Plauttao 
and Pomponian hotwrs who sat in jiuiement upan her could 
make nuthlna ol* bcr defence, and acquitted ber in a paroxysm trf] 
pprplexity, Tlic followers of tlie new opinions were not to be 
aiwiiys *o fo^rttiiuite. A few years loiter tde emperor yieUletl to 
thf- popular tmtcTY, and divi^rtod thi; suspicicm of aa atrorioua 
crime from himself 1>t conslgninj^ tiic obnoxious Chmtiaas to 
thie flames or th^ be&sis, 

Pomponifi, we are told, p.isseil l!ie rest of hfr lunp life in 
baljiiuid melancholy, which memis perhaps tliat she renoimced 
X\\f pomps and raJAities of her statiiin in the ^rst mnlts of heathen 
society, and devoted herself to relifi;i(>us meditation and tlie 
goruj worics which shim notoriety. Meanwhile h.^r prottgte, the: 
mnid nf Susses, to whom Greek* and Romans were alike strangers, i 
with niv aspirations after pliiEosophy^ and no hankerings after] 
fashion, but with a heart already tempered to religious impres-| 
s)on$ by the mild influence of a ptire burnan love, listened, nej 
may imagine, with all the fervour of devntion to the blessed] 
truths which formed the solace of her friend's privacy. The' 
npiJstV himself, released fmm his captivity, was absent from 
Rome at the moment of persecution. Heluming shortly after- 
wards he found bis scarol and scattered flock once more Teunitc?d, 
and amon^ those who were now added to bis circle, and who re- 
meinl>ered with re^nl his own cherished friend Ttmothcus, was 
Cla^iftia and tbc youth she led into his presence and bade kneal 
for liis Iwnediction. ' Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia,' writes 
the npnstle to Timothy, ' salnte thee,' 

ijiich is the outline nf the romance, ns it mig'Hl dow be Wftttetl, 
of Pudens and Claudia, in which the daughter of Cug^iflubnuBi 
must be allowed, we suppose, to supplant the daughter of Carac-' 
tacUE. Oilchester must surrender In Chichester (he palm of 
protn-Christinnity. We do not pretend to calculate Low many 
possibilities po to make a prolwibiliiy, but it will be necessary 
at least for cur author to show that his story is not inconsistent 
with any known facts. As regiirds dates, those awkward ob- 
stTuctiotis which upset fio many trains of well-coupled presomp- 
tinns, this, we think, be may successfully demonstrate. The 
latest possible date of the Second Kpistle to Timothy is tlic last 
yearof Nero, and this is precisely the earliest that i»,n he assigned 
to any of Martial's pi«*es ; for the apostle was martyred and the 
p(tet csrno to liome in the same year. If then Manial eelehrate* 
tli«! nupti;ds of the Clifiatian Claudia and Pudens, it is crrtaia 
titnl ihey were not united at the period when St. Paul mentions 
then. Now this fact, curiously enoogh, seems to be dearly 



Tfu! Jtomam at Colcheater. 

impUed by the insertion of a third name, that of Linus, between 
theirs in the epistle to Timothy. Surely the apostle would not 
have Bunclcreil Imsband and wife on such an ocrasion. Nor, on 
the other hand, ts it a fatal objeclion that the epigram referred to 
comes as late as the fourth book in our rollettiun. Nothing is 
more unciTtain than the order of toniposilifin of fugitive pieces 
such as MailLa-l's. EpigTams referring lo the same subject are 
found somtvtimes scattered up attd down several of his books. It 
is quite possible that an early effusion m.iy have escaped the 
rummaging- of his portfolio for his first publication, and appear 
for the first time in a later volume. 

liut what arc" the t(?rms in which the poet announces the happy 
termination of tins long; wooing? 

* The strange^ Claudia, rny Rufus, weds my good friend Pudens; 
B* propitiou*!, O Hymen, with ihy iiuptkl tureh,' 

What, it may be asked, is the meaning of this heathen invoca- 
tion? What have Hymen ami his torches to do with the marriage 
of Cliristians, cscept in the inetaphoriral niaiseries of the Morniag 
Post? Arc they, in the languajje of Martial, mere fi{;;iires of 
speech ? Or are we to believe that his friends were really united 
with ail the Pagan ceremonies appropriated to palricinu nuptials? 
Such, WG think, was probably the case;* and yet wo would not 
have our supposed autlior despair of his hypothesis that the 
parties were actually Christians. It is a remarkable fact that 
there is no allusion lo the use of Christian marriage rites for the 
first three or four ceiituries,t and yet, when such a ceremonial 
first appears, it is full of the symbolism of the Roman. The 
espousals, the ring, the veil, the mutual presents and tokens, the 
joming of bands, the witnesses, (he gruoniismen and bridesmadds, 
the lighted tapers, the ministry of the priest, were all taken from 
the form of Conf;»rreation , We cannot doubt tliat the later 
Christians inhmted them from the heathen practices with which, 
ill order to secure a legal sancticm to iheir unianis, their fathers 
and mothers had actually complied; although, as Christians in 
the hig^lier ranks of Roman society were few, the rilca of Confai- 
reation were not often adopted, and the marriaje of the lower 
or<ler» and of slaves was a far less solemn aSair.} The first 


• TTiis if, in &ct, implied by Martial's cpitbcl: " Di bene f[iioil aaneto p*pcrit 
fi-^unila marilo.' Siinclity :iidu)i(^' tlie Homuis won, like the righteoiuntt* of the 
Je^s, the observpnce "f prwiwr riios ai pmper syasous. 

t Biii^ttixca maintninuil t.\ii ci^utrarj- against Hj^ldcn ; but tb« passages lie briog* 
from ftlhers or the ihrCe ficsi ce^nturii'S refcr only Co llit episcdpal sauCtiOQ wbicL, 
it is nllowed. wag snpcraditcd to the bcntbcn <;«rvm<inial, crxci-piiug one from Ter- 
tnltinrt, irhicfa ii clearly mc'iajihnrii^al. 

I The Boston tnw rocpgnised the cQDEtani cobabhntion of a siugiU year as a 


The Sonuiru at Colchester. 


believers winkeJ barJ at the ofTerings made to Jupiter anJ Juno, 
and shut tlieir ears to the festive invocadon toHyniFn; but theyi 
were careful to obtain the sanction of their own church also, and' 
to this cml solicited the license of the bishop, together wUli his 
blessing, before (lemnrnHn^ the ministratj'uns of the ilnmen. 
And the blessing of Lmus, the successor of the apostle, was not' 
in this rase inelTectual, The reader of our itiiao;^ixiary ^ novel 
founded on fai*t' may close the volume with the pleasing elssut- 
ance that the heroine becainG the mother yf at least three sons,' 
and perhaps some daughters also. Stie was a pattern of all 
Tirtues lo the Roman matrons, and never wished, in her heart 
of hearts, fur anj* other husband. So Martisil vouches for her. 
Pos^iblv a sly idlusion is intended to the Ptiilhellenism of her 
inaidrn years in the poet's condescending' assurance that, thougfc^ 
a Briton, and the ofTspring of painted barbarinnB, the w'omcn of 
Rome mi^hl btlicve that she wsis a genuine Roman, those of 
Greece that she was purely Greek : — 

' liomanani credere matres 
ItaliiJes po»«int, Atthides esi^e j^tutni-' 

But whatever distrust, in sober reason, may still hang over 
these airy speculations, the just claims of Colchester to the inte- 
rest of the archaeologist are ia no way affected by it. Wbere 
else in Britain can be find more abundant traces of Roman life 
and maimers? Which of our towns besides presents sucb »' 
monument of Roman fortltinition? What other spot in our island 
is BO connected with tho rerords of Roman history ? About M'hat 
other locality, Wc may add, do so many traditions of our primi- 
Uve Christianity cluster? Unfortunately it is but recently that 
the attention of her own residents has been drawn to these striking | 
charftcteristics, and that means have been devised, by the estab^j 
llshment of a local in&titute, projected at least, wc believe, if oc 
yet accomplished, for making her antiquities more widely appre»-* 
ciated. Her soU still retains, we may be 3SSored, unnumbered 
treasures in its bosom, and these, we trust, as tbey are successivelj 
brought to light, will not henceforth be broken up and scattered, ' 
but honourably enshrined in her museum for the study of her 
future historians. 

■rtlUl anioB) tnd sTerlial promise vas probnlity «uffii7ii;iit, ultb the bivhop'tspil 
probuiion, lo tklisfy the conieuBw of Christiaiu iti Lhwe duKS. ' 


( 1»6 ) 

Am. v.— 1. A Mntioir of the Hev. Sydnerj Smith. By his 
Daiio;hrpr, Lafly Holland. With a srlectintl frnm his Lt-ttcrs, 
edited by Mrs. Austin. 2 vols. London. ]8.')5. 

2. The iVorhs i;f ihe Hex:. Sycineij Smith. London. 1850. 

3. Ehmentary Shtdn's of Mora} Fhi'hsnph}/, UelU'-ervd at the Nor/al 
Snstitiaim, in the years 1804, 1805, and 1806. By thp fate 
Rev, Sydney Smith, M. A, Second edition. London. 1850. 

' T^HE Smiths,' said Svdnfy to an lieraldiL- ■ccmpilcT, 'never 
-'■ Itad any arms, and liave ip\ariably »calt!d their Intter^ 
witli their tliiJinhs/ This was a jesting exa;;geration, for his 
father was a gentleman with a moderate independence, but the 
inn was justly proud of having wnrk.c.*d his own way to dis- 
tinrfion, anti loved lu repeat the saying of the low-bum Marsha] 
Juiiot, ' I am rnvsclf an ancestor.' His Tnother Was a Miss Oiler, 
the granddaughler of a French refugee, who was driven to 
Kn;;land by the revocation of the Edit! nf Nantes, and Sydrev 
Iwlii'vcd that he had dorivcrl from the 'gay, spriphtiv land of 
mirth ^ a {lortion of his own hilariDy of disposition. Both nations 
were ivel] reprrsented in him. The sturdiness of the Engrlish 
tharncler Was animated by the livacity of t!ie French, and (be 
result was a jovial, boisterous, perennial humour of whieb few 
examples fouJil b? found in eitlier Enjjlancl or Frant-e, 

He was Ijom at VVuiJilford in Essex in 1771, and was the 
secfim! of four brothers. At sis years of a^e he wa.'; sent to a 
school at Southampt<in, kept hy Mr. Marsh, a elergifman, and 
from thence he was removed ta the Fmindatinn at Winchester, 
which was then presided over by the celebrated Dr. Joseph 
WsTtori. To be a IpsrOed and aCColnplished man, and to impart 
knowletl^e to ignorant Iwys, are different things. The whole 
system was Jeseribeil by Sydney as one of abuse, neglect, and 
vice. Kven the fr«id was coarse and insn flicient, and he often 
suffered from absolulc hunger. His j-ouoger hrolher Courlenay 
twice ran awav to escape ttie miseries he endured. Youths in 
those dnvs were less dejK-ndent than at present ti)»nn the assidiiitr 
of the master. It was a remark i}{ l^ean Swift that labour was 
pain, .ind that none of his family had ever liked pain, from bis 
great-grandmother downwants. But laWur is not so painful as 
bluing' floggwl, and to avoid the greater grief a boy sut^ittcd To 
the less. A well-read scholar, who mighl otherwise be careless 
of his pupils, was seldom tolerant of iiaif-leamt lessons, and 
the cane and the birch, by stimulating 1o self-exertion, proved 
escellcnt instructors. Our forefathcrB may have been too libera! 
in the use of this compendious method, but a generatiua which is 


MkmotJt (f Sydttftf Smith. 


bent upon coaxin<; tun's inlo toil ami ficlf-denial will do well to 
n'memlier how many famous invn hare ascrilwt! aJI tlieir acquire^ 
Dir^ats l« ibc opposite system, Everv one 13 f.<invinced of the 
atinantacTPs of imlustiy. What is wanted is a mi^tive sufllicJenllv 
ptpii'CTful (o subdue the pr<>].>ensil_v t« idloness. This the majority 
of iTi;istfr5— rorporal punislimfm nlijurcd' — -have not tlie skill or 
ll]*' application to sitpply ; and if fL'wcr siripes are inflicleff, less 
Iramiag is imbibe?^. A cliance and trivial incident proved 
anotJjer simng incentive to Sydney. A gentleman, who found 
him during p5ay-hiars rendinj; V^irgil under a tree, jjave bim a 
eliittin^, saying, ' CScver boy ! clever boy ! that is thp way to con- 
qiin the world.* The praise roused his ambiiion and mnde him 
rn|ior fur knowledge. He rose to be the captain of the school, and 
once the bf>y5 addressed a round-robin to Dr Wnrtfin, in which 
ihey declared tliat they woutd contend no longer for die college 
prizes if the Smiths wore competitors, 'as they always ^uined 

To the rlo«e of hi« life Svdn?v Smith continued his clusica 
reading, but he nefcr looked wiih favour on the system whirl 
hnil rendered him s scholar. ' 1 believe," he was accustomed to 
fcay, *lhat I made whilst at school above ten thoasand Latin 
verses, and no mna in his senses ^vould dream in after-life of 
ever making another. So much for life and time wasted,' In a 
Welt-known article in the 'Kdinbargh IleTiew' he advanced the 
nme opinion with his usual power; but we think the doctrine 
more specious than solid. The art of oomposina; Lallti vprses 
i&, us an end, a useless accompUshment, l>ut not so the increased 
pcnrptiim of the beanties of the langna^, the more intimate 
knoivieflij^e of it3 harmonv and construction, the keener teliah for 
th'- master-pieces of classic song. H*' admitted, iiHlecd^ that the 
Greek and Ivjtin were anperior to nil other toHLTies, that in thenai 
were to be found (ho models of taile and style, that the pcyfecl 
mastCT-y of their grammars was Ihe key to those of modem 
nationa, that their vocabularies liad supplied the njots of tta 
ciionnwus nomhpr of current words, that their difficulties were 
adrnimbh^ disL'lpline for the youthful miml, that they ina red 
student to exertion, perseverance, and sccumry. His ol>- 
jeetion was that the pursuit was carrioil too far, Iljat we aimed at 
n superfluous nicety of knowledi^*, and that the time might he 
better bestowed upon more pressing needs. But the advantages 
are rabservjent to the completeness of tkip ttudv. In the minute 
Bfcumcv lies most of the Itencfit of the training which is to teach 
IftlKjriousness am! pTectsitm, and to become the staiidar<) for 
futute nltainments. It is imly, a^^in, in the diligreiit investigatiua 
of every refinement of plirasenlogy that the understanding can 



JHemmrs c/f S^dttsy Smith. 

become familiameil with that inlimatc structure and those 
felicities of idiom so ditltcult to apprehend in a de^ lauguag;e, 
and upon which su much of its grammaticaJl and literary value 
depends. The very permanence of the acquisition is in a groat 
dc^ee conditiunal upon the thoruugh mEistcry of the subject. 
'Small Laliit and less Greek' are soon forgotten in the business 
of life, and to the ten thousand verses that Sydney made in his 
youth hd probably owed the rclisli which he retained for classical 
studies in his flge. Tbt- depth of lore which is to tell upon 
every subsequent pursuit is worth purthssiDjj at the cost of a 
little additional variety of knowledge, even if the hours which 
could he g^ained hy a less pxai'ting <;ruditioQ were carefully 
bu:sbsnded, which would rarely be the cisc. 

His father accustomed him to the habit of immediately 
hunting out information upon 3^ny point which arose, 'Never 
submit,' said Sydney when repeating this circumstance of his 
early training;, and expressing his gratitude fur it — ' never 
Submit to be ignumnt when you Ijave knowledge at your elbow.' 
Tfet he always set his face against what he called ' the foppery 
of universality,' *The mmiem prec<^pt of education," he remaiks 
in his Sketches of Moral Philosophy, ' very often is, Take the 
Admirable Cricliton for your model ; I would have you ignoiant 
of nothing I Now mt/ advice on the contrary is to have the 
couraye to be ig'norant of a great number of things, in order to 
avohl the calamity of bcinij ignorant of everything,' So too when 
Somebody, in eulogising a (listjnguislied member of one of our 
Universities, observed that 'science was his ^'urt*;,' Sydney re- 
torled, ' and omniscience his foible.' Nevertlieless it must be 
remcmbereil that many illustrious men have l^een conspicuous for 
the wide sweep of their intelligence, and that they have cleared 
a lar^r tract of ground than others, not by skimming it more 
lightly, but by mining forward at a more rapid pace, and loitering 
less ujwn the way. Even ihose whose powers are compara- 
tively limited must always find an advantage in diversifying their 
pursuits. If the main occupation of life is like the substantial 
shaft of the column, the casual acquisitions serve the purpose of 
the capital which adorns jt, It is not partial knowledge of sulv 
sidiary subjects which renders men ridiculous, but false pre- 
tension, and the habit of pronouncing upon topics of which ihey 
are ignorant. 

The young Smiths employed their information in disputing 
with one anothej-. 'The result,' says Sydney, ' Was to make us 
ibe most inh>ler3ble and overbeariag set of l>oys that can Vre]\ be 
imagined, till later in life we found our level in the world.' 
Franklin relates that he bad contracted !u youth the same liti- 

jpoMi habit bv readmg the Controversial hooks on religion wbich 
formed his fathers Utile librarv. ' Persnns,' lie niUls^ *of good 
sense, 1 have since observeil, selJom fall into i(, except lawj'ers, 
university men, and generally men, of all saris who have been 
bred at Edinburg'h/ It would, perljaps, ba%-e been juster ti> sav 
th»t petsftns of eotnl sense, like himself and Sydney Smith, sogn 
disi'dVfr that the practice is displeaaing. and lay it aside. 

Soon ofler qtiiltinjff U'lncbester, Svdoey was sent bv his father 
for six months to IVIitnt Villiors in Normandy, to perfpct himself 
in French, which he ever afterwards spoke with fluency. He 
wfti nfxt removed to New Colletje^ Oxford, where he successively 
became Scholar and FclJuw by right of the position he had gained 
at Winchester. The year in which he entered the Universily i» 
not stated by Lady Holland, but we presume that his residence 
must have covered the periml of Jeffrey's brief stay of nine 
months, which commenced in October, 1791. The future ra//a- 
bortttettrs were of different colleges, and never met. ' Except 
praying; and drinkins,' wrotf? Jeffrey to a friend, * I see nothing 
else iViat it is passible to acquire in this place.' The grave and 
reverend signinrs ihroughouf the land sel the example of these 
convivial excesses, which were inevitably adopted by their 
juniors in the heyday ui youtii and animal enjoyment. !u a 
short paper, entitled ' Mntlern Changes,' written at the age of 
seventy- three, Sydney states thai, when he started in life, 'one- 
third, at least, of the g-entlemen, even in the best society, were 
always drunk.* He wag preserved from the prevailing vice, if 
not by natural taste, by the smallnc&s of his allowance, which 
did not permit him to ^ive bacchanalian entertainments. What 
studies he pursued, what friendships he formetl, what impres- 
sions he brought away with him, arc unknown to his biographer ; 
and it is not a little sing^hvr that he should never have reverted, 
in his conversation with his family, to his reminiscences of a 
period whicli with most men has a jvowcrful hold upon the 
memory. He appears^ nevertheless, to have liked the place, 
for, baring revisited it in 1803, during- a contested election, he 
wrote to Jeffrey, * 1 was so delighted with Oxford, after my long 
absence, thai I almost resolved 1o pass the long vacation there 
with my family, amid the shades ot the trees and die silence of 
the monaslcries.' That his intellectual characteristics were thus 
early developed is evident from an observation of one of his 
college fricads, who, in allusion to his stnnly frame, which 
nflerwards expanded into surh portly dimensions, sfti'rl, 'Sydney, 
your sense, wit, and clumsiness always give me the idea of au 
Athenian carter.' 

His own inclination was for the bar. His father, who had 



Memoirs of isydney Smith. 

be^n at coDsitlorable e^pt^P^e m li'StaliHsliing three other sons in 
xXm wurld, pressed tiim 1u liike tiie ttieaper cuDTse oi entering 
the fliurth. There is a constant nrglet-t ai ilates throughout the 
Memoir, but it must have bcfn abuul the ea<I uf 17'J4 that he be- 
came curate uf Ameshury, a smal] parish Lii tlif midst of Siilisburv 
PlaiD. !n this wildemt's^ lie waioj'tcn reduLtd to ditiL- off potato^ 
flavoured wilh ketchup, betaii^e meat was bruught to the village 
only anee a wce]i. His mental tare, arcordiii^ ki Liidy HfjUand, 
was scantier stil3, he Ijelnjj; "^ too poor/ she ^ys, '1o comiuaiid 
books.' The judicious outlay, however, of five poun^is will 
furnish reading for many months to a serious student who ohfws 
BJid digests as well 3$ luster ; and as Sydney s fellowship brought 
hiin a hundred pounds a yrar, exclusive of the protveds of Lis 
curacy, a single m.-m, in a retired district, with no other ci]irnfie 
than foud, clutbe&, lire, candles, and lodjiiin^, need not have 
suScred much from the unsatisfied hunger tor Icnowlcdge. For 
society he was limited to the squire of the pjirish, Mr, Beach, 
who appreciated his sdiularship and information nu less than Ida 
humour and social qualilies, and at the t^nd of two yL-ars pre> 
vailed upon him 1u become tutor to his cl(lc?stso», This en^^ge- 
ment vim productive of Important cuusequcnces both to Sydney 
Smith and to the world. 

U was intended thai Sydney should take Lis pupil to the 
University of VVoimar in Sasony, The war in Germany obliged 
them to turn Ijack, and they went to the Univcrsitv of EdinUiigh 
instead, where they settled in 1797. Among thecailiestartjuaint- 
ances nf the newly-arrived tutor were Brouj^hara, Jeffrey, and 
Murray, to whom were soon added Horner, Dr. Tlu.mas Brown, 
Playfuir, and others who rose to celebrity. In nfter days he aseil 
to speak of his rare fortune in fulling in with these eminent 
persona as the pecoliar felicity of life, holding it tor a constant 
maxim that the * one earthly good worth atrufigiing for waa 
the love and esteem of many good and great men.' That 
withgut interest or reputation he should have been immediately 
wclromcd inlo such a circle is an evidence of itself how im- 
mediately he made his jxjwers felt. • My two English friends, 
the Rev. Sydney Smith and Lord Webb Seymour,' writes Homer 
in his Journal of October, ITHy, 'are again come to Edinlvurfih 
for the winter, and 1 promise ni>self much pltasurc and much 
instruclioq from tlieir conversation. 1 cannot but learn candour, 
liberality, and a thirst for accurate opinions and general informa- 
tion from men who possess In 50 remarkable a de^ee these 
raluable dispositions.' Eighteen montlis later he again enume- 
rates Smith am(m!: the associates of whom he says, ' I cannot 
hesitate to decide that I have derived more intellectual imjHove- 


Memoirt of Sydney Smith. 


fmcnt from them than from all the books I hare tamed over.' 
llu Irutb, so maay remarkable persons had ae*-er befote been 
[IiicaU*(l together cut of London, oiid in the winter uf 1801 the 
ItWouffht happily struck Sydney that they tnig'ht take advantage 
' this assemblage of talent to start a ReWew. He vommunirated. 
till? idea to Homer' and Jeffrey, and, un their approving the 
Scheme, it Was cBiivas&ed and arranged with the rest of the 
fmlernity. The pnyectitrs pledged themselves lo the book- 
seller, who bnre the risk of the publication, to furnish four 
iiambers gratuituusly, and during this probatiooary year the 
priacipal associates seem all to have taken a part in the manage- 
meul. But a head is necessary even in a republic, and Sydney 
Smith was the original president, ' I was appointed editor/ he 
says in llie preface which be wrote tn his collected articles in 
1 1839, * and remained long enough in Editthury;h tu edit the first 
^■number/ He rcinaintd in fact till August^ 1^03, when the 
Hfuur stipulated numbers had appeared, though after the opening 
^Bliuitiber the leading sliare in the conduct of the jotimal appeon 
' to have devolved upon Jeffrey. 

A brief experieiiee showed the necessity of an editor who 
should assume the entire rcs|>onsibililv and control, and beftife 
Sydney left Edinburgh he recommended the publishers to open 
the second year with allowing Jeffrey, who by general agreement 
was installeil in the oJBce, 50/. a number, Another evil, which 
had nearly stilled tlie Review in its birth, was the promise of the 
tontributurs to supply the articles fur a twelvemonth without 
rcuiuneration. It was with the utmost difficulty, after the 
immediate flush uf novelty was past, that the requisite quantity 

rof good material was got together, and except the able add 

rolific pen of Brougham had been ready on every emergency, 

here is little doubt that the Journal would have been dropped. 

he publishers accordingly consented to pay the writers for the 

future ten guineas a sheet. ' The gentlemen,' Sydney wrote to 

Constable, 'who first engaged in this Kcvieiv will find it Joo 

laborious for pleasure ; as labour I am sure they will not meddle 

with it for a less valuable offer.' This, however, was three 

imes as much as had ever been given before for the same kind 

if Work. *The terms,' said Mr, Longman, 'are without jjre- 

ccdent ;' but 'the success of the work is not less so,' adds 

JctTrey. The sale was then 3500 copies, which was small in 

.Comparison with what it speedily becotne. 



* Sfdovj, Bpe^in^ fmm. mutDor; totrorik iliv Hosv of LLx lift.', Kays Brou^Attm 
and Jeffrey; but Uonwr'f oc'X'um, wniuo lU tixu diuv, Uiuwi that this is a 



Memoin of SydHerf Smith. 

The Irifliag sum wltich was ptiltl at the oataet to the editor is 
a prfxjf whftt an inadequate notion prcvaileil of the nature of hii 
duties. The task hsd usually been performed I>y tbe bookseller 
hiinselft or by aome dependant who did bis bidding as submissively 
as till' sbopiit^q or the purter. There had lx;en little change in 
this respect since tbe days when Mr, and Mrs. Griffiths corrected. 
tbe articles of Oliver Goidsmith. A larg;e part of the value of a 
review to the proprietor was that he made it the cliannel for 
rccommendinf^ his own publications and depreciating' those of 
his rivals. The bookseller who originally undertcwjk to bring out 
the ' Edinburgh Review ' withdrew after some of the sheets Lad 
been printed, because he could not, be said, think oi being con- 
nGcte<l with a journal which condemned two works in which h& 
had an interest. The majority of the writers under such a system 
were of necessity either illiterate drudges nv needy men of intellectt 
whose hasty effusions were hardly wottli more than the pittance 
which was paid for tliem. An ambitious young author now and 
then sent an able article, as Jeffrey had done himself, to the 
' Mnntlily Review,' but the general character of sUch publtcat>on& 
was that tbey were dull and vapid, devoid of talent, tasic, or 
candour, So discreditably bad they been conducted, and so low 
had tbey sunk in tbe public estimation, that Jeffrey, who wa» 
recently marriedj and could with difficulty subsist, hesitated To 
accept the proffered editorship, with its tempting; bribe, for fear of 
being degraded. His scruples were overcome by the consideration 
that be had commenced the work with associates whose character 
and situation in life must command respect, and that though from 
an honorary be became a salaried commander, be would still be 
surrounded by the same brilliant staff. 

Nothing, therefore, could present a preater contrast thttn the 
then existing critical journals and the ' Edinburgh Review,' and no 
one who makes the comparison caii wonder .it the success which 
attended the expenment. Amid so much that was excellent, two 
nrlicles by Jeffrey in tbe first number— one on the influence of 
the philosophers on tbe French Revolution, the other on Southey's 
Tli;ilaba — were especially distinguished, and contributed largely 
to establish the character of the journal. Horner, writing before 
the favourable verdict o( the London public was known at Edin- 
burgh, thought that the contributors had gained little credit by 
their work, and that tbough it was considered respectable in 
point of talent, the severity of some of the papers, — a natural re- 
action from the mawkish panegyrics which were then in vogue, — 
had given general dissatisfaction. !n this Inference be was un- 
doubtedly mistaken. There are certain things in which people 
delight white tbey affect to condemn, and among the number is 


Memoira of St/dnetj Smith. 


satire when pointed with wit. The pungepcy helped at ihe 
outlet to brin^ the Review into favour, am! if with greater'' 
tenderness it Itntl been less censured, it would al»o bave been'j 
less read. 

On accepting the editorship Jefffcv dwelt iipnn the circuni- 
vlance that none but g«^ntLemen were associated in the under- 
taking'v and he declaretl that in his hands it should np%'er sink 
into a bookseller's organ. He nobly redeemed his pledge. He 
never permitted the least interference ; and when Constable asked 
hiin in 1814 to review Scott's edition of ihe works of Swift, the first 
and lasttime the publisher ever made aucharequpst, the inflexible 
«lilor complied by an article which, in our opinion, was extremelyi 
unju5t to the genius of the Dean, and chocked the sale of t!ie book/ 
It was indcixi obvious that the confidence of the public wouhl not 
long survive if the independence declined, and thiii high-minded 
men of letters would cease to contribute if the editor wns open to 
any unworthy influence. Vet, as the system Was new, a jier^dtt 
less Grm and upright than Jeffrey would hardly have sustained it. 
The office which he feared would degrade the ntinosl briefless 
barrister, he himself raised to a pitch of consideration that threw J 
into the shade the judicial honours to which he subset] uenllvj 
attained. The ^reat journals have ever since been conducted! 
ujwn the principles he established. The consequence bas been 
to effect a complete revolution in this jiorlion of the press, nnd'J 
there lias scarce been a tnan of eminence, for the |as.t fifty ye;irs, ' 
who has not, at some time or other^ made reviews the channel 
for communicating his opinions to the world. 

'I have seldom seen it noticed,' says Ladj- Holland, 'except 
in a very clever sketch of him written by some friend after his 
death, that my father had no youth in his writings, no perind of 
those crude, extravnpant theoretical opinions with which the French 
Revolution had infccleil society, to a degree of which we can 
hardlf now form any estimate.' Lady Holland appears to have 
forgotten that ber father had ceased to be a youth when his 
earliest known productions, with tlie exception of some sermons 
which he printed the year before, appeared in 1802 in the ' Iidin- 
bur^h Review,' a period, moreover, by wbicli events had cured 
nearly all the intelli«;ent partisans of the French Revolution of 
their former enthusiasm, Sydney Smith was at this time in his 
thtrty-firBt year, aad Jeffrey was twenty-nine. The younijest 
member of the ^oup was, as would now be universally admitted, 
the most remarkable, — was possessctl of a genius mnre brilliant 
and versatile, of information more varied, of an cnerg-y and 
quickness more proftigious than any of his telchrated confederates. 
Henry Erougtisin was but tweaty-three. Homer, who in youth 

VOL. xcvti. Jio. cxctn. i had 


Memoirs of St/dnei/ Smit/t. 

had the gravity, moileratioD, and cautioD of age, was n jear 
older. There was no foundatioa for the notion, which, notwith- 
standing the refutation g-iven to il bv LiOrd Cockhum in bJs 
Life of Jeffrey, is still very common, that the early Edinburgh 
reviewers were all rash yoiing men, of fervid, unripe talents. 
Nor was it at the commencement of the undertaking that the elfects 
which have been ascribed to juvenile ardour were most apparent. 
The politics, moderate at the begioninff^ grew more decided as 
the juuraal proceeded, and it w»s rather in its maturity than its 
infancy that it was attacked for its violence^ Sydney Smith, 
the originator of the review, was also, with the exception of 
Allen, the senior of the party ; and as be was distinguished for 
sagacity^ his counsel and supervision exercised no doubt nt 
starling; an important influence on the plan and tone of the work. 
Sydney bad early engaged himself to Miss Pybus, the schoul* 
fellow and Mend of his only siater, and visited England in 179^ 
for the purpose of marrying her. The sole worldly goods with 
which he was able to endow her at the moment were six siSver 
teaspoons^ but she had some fortune of her own, and Mr. Bt-ach 
shortly afterwards gave him a thousand ix>und9 for the super- 
intendence of the studies of his son. A pearl necklace pre- 
sented to her daughter by Mrs, Pybus they sold for 5(KV,, which 
enabled the young housekeepers to buy what was necessary for 
their new establishment. Mr. Beach now put another son luuler 
his charge, and he had a second pupil in the person of the 
present Mr. Gordon, of Ellon Caslle. With each of these he 
had a fee of 400/. VVhcn their time was up in 1803, bo had 
again his subsistence to seek, and he was prevailed on by his 
wife, who took a just measure of his great powers, to carry bis 
talents to the metropolis. He had already a daughter, soon to 
be foJIowetl by a son, and with the small opportunities which 
a clergyman has for distinguishing himself, except through the 
medium uf the press, it was certainly an adventurous step io 
face the expenses of the capital, and run the risk of lieing for- 
gotten in the ctowd. But we think that Lady Holland is mis- 
taken when she supposes the difficulties to have been aggravated 
by the circumstance * that he had become obnoxious to Govern- 
ment by his principles and writings.' He had published nothing 
''then which could have excited its indignation, or even, we 
imaginej have attracted its notice* to him. The error arises, we 
Kuspect, from Confounding the reforming spirit which animated 
the later niimhera of the * Edinburgh Review' with the milder 
doctrines which had hitherto appeared. 

Sydney arrived in Loudon towards the close of 180^, aad 
aborlly afterwards settled in a house in Doughty-street, Busseil- 


Maaoirt of Syditey SmUfu 




square. Hii early btas to the profession of the law being; atcom- 
panied wjtb a paitialUy for tbe societji' of lawyers, he cliose his 
residence in a quartrr of the town wlilch was much frequented 
by ibein. He bad formed a friendship with Mackintosh, who 
was oow on the eve of starting fur India, two or three yean 
before^ and he soon ^rew iotlmatc with Homillv and Scarlett. 
VVlipn visiting his eldest brother Robert at KiDg:'s College, 
Cambridge, be had made an acquaintance with Lord Holland, 
which more frequent intercourse quickly cDnverted in!o cordiality.* 
His companionable qualities must always have been conspicuous, 
bnt be was not as yet *a diner out of the first lustre,' who could 
at will set the table in a roar, for he was diffident in general 
sociwt'v ; and writing in 180LI to the hostess of Holland House 
upon ilie probable effects on him of a residence In the country,, 
be says, '1 &l:iall tvike myself aji^ain to shy tricks, pull about mj" 
watcli^hain, and become, as t was before, your abominatloD.* 
* It was not very long,' be told a friend later in life, ^ before L 
nude tK^o very useful discoveries: 6rst, that all mankind weror, 
not solely employed, in observlnif me, a belief that nil youn 
people have • and nest, that shamming was of no use ; that the 
world Was vcrT clear-sighted, and soon estimated a man at bift 
just value. This cured me of my shyness, and 1 determined ta 
be natural.' There is good setue in this remark, though it leads 
in the application to oifenslve consequences where men do not 
take care to form a jusl estimate of themselves as weW as to 
feel that a just estimate is formed of them by the world- Many 
pcr»jns by neglecting to put a check upon their natural pro- 
pensilr to he forward or over-talkative, or to harp on their own 
peculiar tlietre, become the pests of society, Sidney was pos- 
sessed of infinite tact, and be gathered courage to give vent 
before miked companies to the native humour in which he 
indulged with his iullmates, simply because he discovered that 
it WM not less adapted (o the larger than the smaller spliere. 
Afrs. Pybus dieii heliire t!ie Soiitha removed lo London, 
the jewels she bequeathed her daughter again supplied them wittrj 
the funds for their outfit. Sydney, judging the rest of the world 
by himself, was restless till the ijargain was complete, ' l<;sl 
mankind should recover from their illusion, nnd cease to value 
BBch glittering baubles:' but he need not have feared tho sudden 
extinction of a passion which lias lusted for thousands of years 
id extends to ever^- section of the huroaii race. His brothec 
Robert allowed him, during these early struggles, a hundred 

* Th> frieniUblp wu broarei] %j the insrriBgc of Robert witli Hvm Vensmi, 
«^ «*k on 94Dt gf hori. lioUuid, 

I 2 y^*^) 



Memoirs of Sidney Smith. 

year, anil his own lalenta and energy dlfl the rest. He was not 
left long; without employment. Sir Thomas Barnanl, wlio was 
ati active manager of tiie Royal Institution, invited him to givp a 
course of lectures on Moral Pliilosojiliy. He adopted the term in 
its most extended mcanint^ as comprehending tLe entire range of 
menta.1 phennmuna, and not merely in the limited sense in wbicb, 
it is used by Paley, as the science wliicli teaches our duty and tlie 
reason of it. During the five years that Sydney resided at Edin- 
burgh he had attended the lectures of Dugnld Stewart, and, what 
he considered a still greater advantage, had enjoyed the convej- 
sation of Thomas Brown, whom lie lield to be by far the pro- 
founder philosopher of ihe two. Jeffrey, convinced by bis know- 
Icdjje of the tastes and haljifs of the man that be had never taken 
the trouble to master &v extensive and dlflicult a theme, always 
assumed till the lectures were published that he had been con- 
tented to retail from imperfect and mistaken recollections the 
opioinnsof these worthies. His own nceount of his qualifica- 
tions, in a letter tc Dr. VV'hewell in 1843, jesting as it is, may 
be considered as a proof that he had not drunk very deep at the 
cloudy spring of met a physical lore. ' I knew nothing; of moral 
philosophy, but I was thorouglily aware that 1 wanted 200/. to 
furnish my house. The success, however, was prodigious j all 
Albemailc-Btreet blocked up with carrian^es, and such an uproar 
as I never rcmeml>er to have been excited by any other literary 
impostor. Every week I had a new theory alrout conception and 
perception ; and supported bv a natural manner, a torrent of 
words, and an impudence scarcely credible in this prudent age. 
Still, in justice to myself, 1 must say there were some good 
things in them.' He mnde no mystery at the time among: his 
friends of his slight acquaintance with the subject Into which he 
Lad undertaken to initiate the London public, and used to amuse 
ibem with humorous deacripttons of his 'mode of manufacturing 
philosophy.' His first course commenced in November, l&O'l; 
Ilia second was delivered in the spring of 1805; and a third 
the year after. So great was their popularity, that Homer men- 
tions that the only topic of conversation through the winler of 
1804-5 was the young Koscius and the lectures. 'The success,' 
Homer continues, ' has been beyond all possible conjecture ; 
from six lo eight hundred hearers ; not a seat to be found, ereu 
if you ^o half an hour before the time. Nobody else, to be sure, 
could have executed such an undertaking with the least chanoe 
of this sort of success, for wbo else could make such a mixlure 
of odd paradox, quaint fun, manly sense, liberal opinion, striking 
language?' The sensation went on increasing, and galleries bad 
to be ererted for the accommodation uf the crowd of fosluun and 


Memoiri of Sydney Smith. 

talent which thronged to bear him. * My lectures,' he writes to 
Jeffrey, in April, 1805, 'are just now at such a.n absurd pilcli of 

ICt'lebrily that 1 must h)sc a ^eat deal of reputation btrlorc the 
public spttlfs into a jii&t equilibrium respecting them. 1 am 
most heartily fuhamed of my own fame, because I am consciuus 
I do not deserve it, and that the moment loca of si^nse arc pro- 
Tok<'(l by the clamour to look into my claims it will be at an 
end." Tinder the influence of these modest convictions he, later 
in life, committed much of the manuscript to the liaHic5» and 
would haie destroyed the whole if luckily he had not been pre- 
venteil by his wife. 

It was a bold idea to attempt to render metaphysics attroclive 
among' the seekers of diversion and eicitement, and the triumph 
was Ihe grester that it was not purchased by the sacrifice of 

■ solid instruction to airy pleasantly-. His vivacity was not Itfce 
the feather floating from its inherent levity, but the wings ivLich 
gave bui.iyn.ncy to substantial matter. The gayer portions Werc^ rc- 
licveil by much serious reasoning, and by many grave and eluqucnt 
passages written for the purpose of being ttpokeii^ and which it 
is easy to see must have produced, with his impressive delivery, 
an'extraordinary effect. It was to subject the lectures to a new 
and severe test when his widow published them in 1850^ and 
expusetl compnsitioQs which were solely designed to make a 
rapid and passing impression to the calmer criticism of the closet. 
Thev more tlian stood the ordeal. Jeffrey, regarding thein 
•imply as a system of metaphysics, said it was surprising with 
what dexterity the author had in general seized the substance 
of a Question, and with what ingenuitv he had evaded the diffi- 
culties. Every one may here get upon the easiest terms such 
popular notions of mental phenomena as will ser^'e for the 
unlinary purposes of life. But the strictly philosophical porlipng 
of the work are its least merit. Its highest value will he found 
in the admirable reflections, precepts, and rules of conduct which 
^K»re ]ierpetually recurring, and uhich are marked by t!iat sense 
^puid saijaeiiy^ and are expressed wilti tliat force of language which 

distingui<ihed Sydney Smith, 

^_^ His clerical functions during^ this period were the evening 

^■lectureship at the Foundling Hospital — nn appointment he owed 

^Bto Sir Thomas Barnard, and which briiught him only ftfty pounds 

^u yoar^-and to preach at Filzroy and Berkeley Cliajiets ua 

allemato Sunday mornings. The laller place of worship had 

Ceascft to he frequented, but Svdney i|uiclt|y filled it to over- 

ilowing, the aisles as well as the pews. After two vcars he had 

^_the ol^'er Ui lease a chapel hehl by a sect who went under Ihe 

^Heaomination of the New Jerusalem. Sudi an armngement 


Memoirf vf Sffdnct/ Smith, 

could nut be made by a clergyman of tlie EstabUshment witbout 
\'\he cunsent of tbe rector of tLe parjali, and Sydney on asking 
lii^ pcrmisiioD represented tbat the cliurches and cliapi*]s uf 
the district were fuH, Ibal accommodaticn Uas grievously 
wanted, and that it was a Javuurablc opportunity to displare 
irild delnsions by sober doctrine. The rector, whose name 
is not given, replied in subsUmije that be acknowledged 
Sydney to he an able preacher: that be would doubtless do 
Considerable service ;; that it was desirable to drive tbe sectaries 
{roni tbe parish, but that he w^s reluctant tq impose an obligm- 

'tion on his successors. Sydney answered that be would be 

■ latisfied with leave to preach during the tenure of the incumbent 
to whom he preferred the request ; upon whicli tbe rector re- 
joined that he meant to abide by the decision of his ffretiecesson> 
Here, tberefore, was a clergiiTnan refusing a ronccsaion on the 
ground that he iiad no right to fetter those that i-ame after him, 
and, when he was deprived of this plea, prelendin^ that, upon 
tbe very point on which hi* stickled for the unreslraineil discre- 
tion of others, he was himself fettered by the opinions of those 
that went before him. With antiquity an one side of him, and 

[posterity on the other, he was like a prisoner between two 
policemen — a slave out of his excessive respect to freedom of 
judj^eiit in every one but himself. In the majority of cases 

I men plead tbe rights of their successors to excuse some meanness 
in themselves which they want the courage to avow. He who 

lliolds a trust muAt act as a worthy successor would do in his 
place, and not invoke a phantojn of future selfishness to cloak 
his own. This form of misconduet is so common^ so cowardly, 
and so fenced aj^ainst shjune, that it deserves no (|uarter. 

In 18f.Hj, during the short reign of tbe Whigs, tbe Chancellor, 
Z^rd Erskine, at the earnest sulicitaliun of Lord Holland, ap- 
pointed Sydney to the rectory of Fus ton- le- Clay, in Yorkshire. 
Archbishop Markham permitted him to continue bis residence 
in London^ and fur the present tbe preferment made m> change 

' in hia mode of ]iie. The following year, 1807, was a memorable 
one in his L-arcer, for it produced tbe ■* Letters of Peter Plymley ' 
on the Catholics. Upwards of 20,000 copies of thij witty pro- 

'ductiun were sold, and, though much of its zest has eva|>urated 
with time, it continues to be rardted among his happiest effu- 
sions. The scanty argument was less remarkable than the fer- 
tility of humour with which it was enforced and repeated under 
various forma. It was not calculated to convert the mnjority of 
his opponents ; for, while their phjectiuns were io a great degree 
religious, he reasoned tbe question mainly on the ground of poli- 
iicsi expediency. His prominent ^loint was the certainty, if 


nrt of Sydney Smith, 

Cfttbolic emoncipalian was refused, that the Irish would throw 
themsclvev into the aims of Buonnparte, and iLat Great ^itaia 
would be invaded. As the prediction was not verified, the ludi- 
ctous jticture* he drew of the consequences of French valour aad 
Koglish bi^iotrv soon lost all tbeir argniuienLativc force, aad were 
only read as rich specimens of comic fancy, Viewed in this 
lig-bt, they deserved their fame. The reid and durable blot opOQ 
the ' Letters of Peter PLymlej ' is the lei-ity with whicb relig-ious 
topics an; snmetimcs treatt^d, and the ridicule and contempt cast 
uptM) ablu and c^cellt^nt ni&n whose notions of piely diFered from 
his own. The subject is forced upon the notice of every reader 
of ibe works of Sydney Smith ; nor is it possible, in an estimate 
of bis life and opinions, to pass il over altogether, 

I Tbe notion that be held opinions at variance with tbe doctrines 
of the Church was without foundation. He protested vehi> 
mently a^inst the inhdel notions wbich w^re occasionally pat 
forth^ during its early time, in t!he ' Edinburgh Review,' and told 
Jeffrey fbat be would abjure all connexion with it unless the 
practice cc'ssed. Wijen a bookseller sent him an unchristian 
pulilicatiuo, he wrote a letter of rpmonstraiice, and concluded by 
saying", 'I have an unadected horror of irreligion and impiety, 
and every piinrJple of suspicion uid fear would beescjted in me by 
u. roan wbo professed himself an infidel.' He cmphaticatty declared 
that he believed all the views epib<xtie<.l in the Thirty-nine 
Articles to whicb he had substrribed, and be was entirely inca|)able 
of asscrling an nntrath. Tliough he was plainly an anibilious 
tusji, and anxious to make his way in tbe world, nobody could 

, Ik bolder in promulgating sentiments opposed to his interests ; 
and there can be no surer teat of invincible 5traif;:htforffardnesB 
than that it should predomiimte over qualities which affonled the 
atroogest temptation to palter with il. ^ There is only one prin~ 
ciple of public cgnduct,' he said, speaking of political parties — 
* Uo what you think right, and take place and power a* an acci- 
dents Upon any other plan, office is ehabbiness, labour, ajid 
MOtTow.' Upiia this principle he acted through life. Such, 
indeed, was his honesty and candour, that the simple fad of bis 
faecDining a teacher in the Church and accepting its revenues, was 
sufficient evidence, without furthpr protestations, that he assented 
to the truths he was paid to prodaim. His views, however, bor- 
rowed their colour from (be theology mosi prevalent in his youth. 
The Church had passed tbroug-h one of those iii^bts which in all 
ages and cuuntries have Dccasionolly overtaken it, and tbe new day 
was beginning to break. The bulk of the cler^ry still belonged to 
tbe old scliijol, which cbieJly confined its atU-nUi>n U> tiie command- 

I inents, and hardly appeanxl conscious of the existence of the Ci'eed. 


Memoirs of Sjfdneif Smith, 

By all such pt^rsons the few who dwelt much upon the doctrines 
of the Gospel, and insisted upon an elevalcd strain of pietjr 
iuid a more than ordinary strictness of conduct, were regarded] as 
doluded entliusiasts. Sydney himself styled fanaticism opinions 
which have ever been maintained by our most eminent divines, 
and which have happily gained, in the last five-and-twenty years, 
their former ascendnncy. As he did not attempt to show that 
they were opposed either to the letter or the spirit of the Bible, 
to wliich their advocates appealed, nothing can be less forcible 
than tills portion of his writings ; and when he called the reli- 
giuR of Mr. Wilberforce and bis adherents 'nonsense which dis- 
gusted his understanding,' and the clergymen of that persuasion 
'groaning and garrulous gcotlcmetij he at least violated his own 
excellent maxinij ' Piety and honesty are always venerable, with 
whatever degree of error they happen to be connected.' Still 
worse was his attack in the Eilinburgh Review upon the devoted 
missionaries of India, and which it is strange to find reprinted 
in the same volume which contains his sermon on the ' Rules of 
Christiai] Charity,* He would not, we are confident, hare written 
the article in later days, when, upon some one ridiculing Missions 
in his presence, he dissented, saying that, ' though all tt-as not 
dont; that was projected or even bofisled of, yet that much good 
resulted, and that^ wherever Christianity was taught, it brought 
with it the additional good of civilisation in its train, and men 
became better carpenters, better cultivators, better everything/ 

To his general habit of jesting must be ascribed the occasional 
levity of his liinguagfe when speaking of sacred subjects. VV'it is 
a dan^i^rous faculty in a divine. Unless a severe restraint is put 
upon the exercise of it, every object comes to be viewed through 
a jocular medium, and in the exigencies o* controversy the tempt- 
ation to raise a laugh at the expense of an opponent is then irre- 
sistible. The usual defence of those who employ humour and 
satire upon solemn themes is to allege that they do not ridicule 
religion, but the errors engrafted upon it. Tbe answer is, that 
the distinction is impracticable — that so much tbat is really 
sacred is mixed up with the baser matter of human invention, 
tliat both are involved in the ludicrous effect. Add to which that 
wit IS not argument— that it is just as easy to burlesque what ia 
hallowed ns what is absurd — that, as a matter of fact, jesters have 
often made a sport of truth when they fancied they were ex- 
posing folly — that in any case religious convictions arc not a 
legitimate subject for mirth — and that, far from weaning the mis- 
guided from their errors, its only results are to strengthen their 
Confidence in their cause when they find it assailed by the exag- 
geration which is the usual concomitant of humour, and to 


JHenufirt of Sydney Smith. 


shock ibem by ite mocfce^ which to th^em, at any rale, must 
appear misplaced and profaae. 

From the day that Sydney tmcrged from the desolation of 
Salisbury Plain, hjs permanent residence had been in Etiinburgrh 
or London., where he enjoyed the society of all that wiis most 
distinguished, and wiiich must have lieed the more fascinating to 
him that he was bimsdf numbered among its briffhtest orna- 
ments. A cbwigc was at band which threw him back upon the 
pastoral eiistence with which he coinmcnced bis clerical career. 
Archbishop MarkEiam died at the close of 1§07, and his suc- 
cessor Dr. Vernon required the rector of Fo9lon-lc-Clay to resign 
his preferment, or reside. To defray the expense of the remnval, 
bydnej in 1809 published fifty sermons, of which a considerable 
part were reprinted from the volumes of 1801, which had not, we 
belipie, met with much success. ' You talked,' he wrote to 
Jeftrey when tlie second venture had been mad[>, *of reviewing 
my sermons ; T should be obliged to you to lay aside the idea ; 
I know %ery well mv sermons are quite insignificant,' They are 
cerlainly not, as a whole, of a high order. liis principal object 
in tliem was to enforce moral duties, which he does with less than 
his usual origlnaiity. Many of tlie ideas arc borrowed from pre- 
codinjff writers; many more are commonplace; the artificial 
rhetoric seldom rises into true eloquciicc, and the alnpl ill cation 
of laneuage, ibousli well adapted to delivery from the pulpit, is 
often tedious to read. Particular para^aphs arc an exception, 
as are the two sermons preached before the judges at York Assizes 
in 1824. Reflections which recommend themselves as soon as 
heard, espressed in strong and emphatic termsj are the charao 
teristlcs uf Ids best passages, 

Sydney lingered awhile in the metropolis, but in June 1S09 
he went into Ijanisliment, and, as there was no parsonaiire to his 
living, he setth-*! himself in ibe village of Hesliugton, about two 
miles from York^ The change brought with it some advantages. 
He was sorry, be said, to lose the society of his friends ; but he 
wished for more quiet, more space for his cbildrpn, and lese 
expense, * I bear you laugh at me,' he wrote to the hostess of 
Holland House, after three months' trial of rural pursuits, ' for 
being happy in the country, and upon this I have a few words to 
say. I am noi leading precisely the life 1 should choose, but that 
which (bU thinpi ruasidered, as well as 1 conld consider them) 
appeared to me to be the most eligible, I am resolved therefore , 
to like it, and to reconcile mvsctf to it ; wluch is more manly tba 
lo feign myself above it, and to send up complaints by the post 
of being thrown away and being desolate, and such-like Irnst 
If frith a pleasant wife, three children, a good house and farm, 



Mtmoiri of S^dafy Smith. 

many books, and many frteodK who wish me well, 1 connol be 
happy, I am a very silly, foolish follow, and what becomes of me 
is of very little consequence. I have at least tlii* chaace oi doing 
well in Yoricshire, ^at 1 am heartily tired of Londoo.' To 
JefTrey lie said, ' Insti'^d of bein^ unajnused by trilles, 1 not, u 
I well knew I should l>e, amused by them a aren't d^eal too 
uiucfa; 1 feel an ungovernable interest about my lioraes, or my 
])ig&,, or ray plants; 3 am forced, and always was forced, to task 
myself up into an interest for any higher objects.^ Tbese afii- 
cultural occupations, of which he talked so gaily, to which he took 
su kindly, and out of wliich be wiselv cxtractLtl so much recret- 
tiun, were oerertbeless a serious und often an anxiaus bu&iness, foe 
his subsistence depended on them. The endowment of bis living 
consisted of 300 acres of stiff clay4and ; the tenant refused to 
]ive any longer in tbe dilapidated house, and Sydney, ^ a diner out, 
a wtt, and a popular preacher, and Hot knowing a turnip from a 
'Carrut,' nas compelled to fann his stubhom ^lebe. He applied 
liimsetf to master all the mysteries of cultivatiun, from tbe broad 
principles of the science down to the minutest details of ntaiu^- 
zneni, and with such shrewdness that his clerk, the village Nestor 
and oracle, and who, like all rustics, judged every stranger by his 
ability to talk of bullocks, said to hJni at ibeir fii-st inten'icw, 
' Muster Smith, il often scroikes moy tnoiod that people as comes 
itiic London is such fmds ; but vou, I see (and here he nudged his 
rector significantly with his slick) — but you» I see, are no fool V 
Muster Smith had an escelJMtt maiim, ' that nothing was well 
done in a small household if the tnoster and mistress were Igtio- 
rajit of the mode in which it ought lo be done.' This was to say 
in other words that nothing Is properly performed without some- 
body to superintend it, and, as persons in the middle station of 
life cannot afford to hire stewards and housekeepers, they must 
he their own overaeers. In the instiince of Sydney prudence and 
inclination wont hand in hand. He had an evident pleasure in 
ordering domestic concerns — in drilling and instructing servnnls — 
And in regulating the supplies of the store-room and kitchen. 
He seems, out of pure love for tbe occupation^ to have even eft- 
croached upon the province of Mrs. Smillu Housekeepers may 
profit by the discoveries which his shrewdness enabled him to 

' Have you never observed,' he said, • what a dislike senants have to 
anydiing cheap ? They hate saviug- their master's raoney. I tritil this 
experiment wilh great succesG ilii! other day. Finding we eunsumed a 
gre&t deal of aoap, I eat down in my ihiiiking-climBr, sad touk the soap- 
<]uc«tiun into ooiisldtiraliaii, and I found reason to suspeei that we 
were n^ng a very ex-pensive article, vhea a asvtdi cheaiHV one would 

Memoirs of Syilney Smith. 

re the purpoae better, I qrdend half-Q-iJozea pounds of both eort%] 
but look tht [tr^aution nf c^^nging tbe pitpers oh wliicb liie price*] 
w^re mnrkej befqna giving- Ih^m into the hands of Betty. " Well,i 
BeK;% which soap do yoa find wishes best ? " " Oh, please, Sir, the 
dear^t, in the blue paper ; it makes a lather as well again as tfaember !" 
" Well, Hetty, you shall always have it, then ;" ami llius the unsuspect- 
ing Belly saveO me some ptiuiitL} a-year, and washed the clothes better.' 

* Tbe cook, the butler, the groom, the markeUman,' sbjb Swift, 
in Ui ironical directions to servants, 'and every other person 
who is concemetl in the expenses of the family, should act as if 
his master's whole estate ought to be applied to thiU serrant'* 
particular businc&s. For instance, if the cook computes his 
master's estate to he a thouKiiid pounds a-yeatf he reasonably 
concludes that a thdufiand pounds a~}.'earwi11 fifiord meat enoug-h, 
luid therefore be need nut be sparing. The butler luakes the 
same judgment ; so may the gjcKim and the coachman ; and thus 
every branch of espenae will be filled to your master's hoDtiur.' ^M 

Nothing can be beneath a man in humble circumstances which^H 
enables liini lo combine comfort with economy in his household. 
Sidney did more. Despite his small estahlisbmcnt, he enter- 
tained with credit the great folks who visited him in his retire- 
ment, and satisfied the critical palates of town-pampered epi- 
cures. The ill success which commonly attends parsonic fes- 
tivities is laughably exemplified in cine of his own stories^ a liltlei 
heightened, we presome, in the telling i'— 

* What lulaery humau beings inflict on each othi^ under the name of 
pleasure \ We weut to dine last Tburaday with a neighbouring cltrgy-. 
mail, a haunch of venisun bein^ the stimulus to the iuvitatioo. We set] 
out at five o'clock; drove in a broiling ?sm on dusty roads, three miles, 
ill our best gowns ; found GtjuirtA and par&oos assembled in a Gmull hut , 
room, Ihe whole house redulent of frying -. talkeiJ, as is our wont, of j 
roads, weatlier, andCuniips; that done, began to grow hungry, Ihea 
serious, then tmp&lietit. At k#t u stripling, evidently caught up Ibr the 
occasion, ojienifd the door, and lieckontd our host out of tlie room. 
After some moments of awful suspense he relumed to us with a face 
of much distress, saying, the Momao o^uiting in the kitchen had mis- 
4£ken the soup fur dirty water, and hvl tlirowo it away, so we must do 
viihout it I At last to our joy dinner was auoounced ; but. oh ye 
gods ! as we entered the dining-room what a gale met our n(»e * Tbe 
veniaoa was hig-h, the veaisun was uueat;ible, aqd weu obl^ed to foUowl 
the 30up with all speed. Dinner procwded, but our spirits Hagg^dl 
under dieae accumulated misfurtmies. There was an anxious pause 
het^\'ecn the first and second courses ; we lookeil each other in the face 
— what new disaster awaits «s ? The pause bccatne fearful. At lust 
the door hurst open, and tlie boy ni»hed in, calling out oinud, " Pleii*e, 
6ir, has lietty any right to leather \7" WJmi human gravity could 



Mim&irs of Sijdney Smith. 

stand this? We roared with laughter; iJI took part against Betty; 
obtaiiied the fiecond course wilh some difficulty, bored eacli other the 
usual tiniiej ordered our earriages, expectitig our postboys to be drmik, 
and were grateful to Proi'idence for not permittitig tliaa to deposit m 
in a wet ditclu So much for dinners in the country ! ' 

A turn for small contrivances, many of them of a whimsical 
descriptinn, was coasptcuous in Sydney's domestic management. 
He at one time attempted to burn llie fat of his own sheep, filled 
his house with villanous smells, and ended by discovering ibfti 
he cuuld not dispense with the tallow-chiLadlcr. Having ^ $lu^g:isb 
horse, lie fastened a small sieve to the end of the shaft, which 
induced the animal to quicken its speed, in the hope of reaching 
the com ; and this be callc<l a patent Tantalus. Such an exercise 
of ing^cnuily almost amuunttd to a practical joke. 

Sydney extended his care to the secular concerns of hi& 
paris.tii oners. He established the allotment-system ; endeavoured 
to improve their cookery ; and directed them to the choice of 
the most economical descriptions of food. Abnv'O all, he was 
their physician. There is nothing for which the poor are so 
grateful as drugs, which they receive with unsuspecting confidence 
from any liands that are rash enough to offer them. Sydney, 
though undiplomaed, was not nntaugfat. He had pursued the 
study of medicine at Oxford, and was advised by the profpsBor, 
Sir Christoplier Pegge, to became one of thf; faculty. In antici* 
pation of being located in some rural district, where professional 
skill Would be oUl of the qnestion, and even professional igno- 
rance too cosily for the majority of liis parishiuners, be subse- 
quently attended clinical lectures in the hospitals of Edinburgh. 
He Used to regret that medical men would not talk more of their 
calling ; * hut I never,' he said, ' ran get any of them to speak, — 
they look quite offended.' Sir Henry Holland attests that he 
ha«l attained to considerable knowledge of the art, and that he 
applied it with remarkable tact. He doctored his own children 
successfully in typhus fever with the assistance of only one con- 
sultation with the apotbecary, and cured them of * the hooping' 
cough with a pennyworth of salt of taitar, after having filled 
them with the e3C]>ensive poisons of Halford.' Scarlatina he 
left to 'the graduated homicides.' He kept by him all the 
usual drugs and implements of a country practitioner. His 
brother Bobus roared with laughter when a stomach-pump was 
shown him ; but Sydney afterwards saved by it the life of a 
man-servant who had accidentally poisoned himself by eating 
arsenic. He had in this department, as in others, invention* 
of his own, such as his 'ptitent armoitr,'— 'tin cases filled with 
hot water, to fit the head, the neck, the shoulder, the stomach, 



the feet ; something ol the grotesque mingling itself in his pntcltcea 
as well as in his conversntioa. 

To hi* other functions he fhortlj addtd that of 3 country 
tnagistmte. He studied Jsw, while^ b}' his s^nse, sagtLcitj. and 
Ifcnial disposition, he often made datUml equity and porsonal io- 
fluence do the work of legislative enactments. Game-preserving 
was carried to much greater lengths than is general now, and the 
woods on many estates were one vast pheasaot-rpQ^t. Sidney 
waslenieatto poachers, considering the punishment to be di&pro- 
portioned to their offence. He endeavoured to keep boys out of 
Jail, where casual offenders were theti frctjucntly convetled into 
permanent eriminals. Humanity is as commoo, and perhaps lom- 
nioner, than harshness. What was noticeable in him was the 
rrisdom which presided over his kindly feelings, and made mercy 
and improvement go hand in hand. 

Tiie year 1813 brought with it a new occupation — ^ihal of 
house-builder. He had hoped to have averted this necessity by 
sii exchange of livings ; but though he got bis friend Sir William 
Scott to ask the permission of Lord Eidon, who as Ivord Chan- 
cellor was the patron of Foslon, there was no obtaining from him 
a relaxation of Iiis rule, that one piece of Cbanceiy preferment 
should only be exchanged for another, and that both incumbents 
Bhould be of the same age. When to this rare conjuncture of 
circumstances was added the necessity that Sydney's twin in 
years and C'iiMicery favour should prefer to his own little vine- 
yard a houseless parish, a stiff-clay farm, and a northern, de- 
solate, and inconvenient Locality, the condition amounted to a 
^po!!itive prohibition. The archbishop granted him some years 
cf grace ; nor did be at the last insist upon his building. Sydney, 
nevertheless, erroneously inferred that it was in honour expected 
from him, and did not discover the misconception until * he had 
burnt his bricks, bought his timber, and got into a situation in 
which it was more prudent to advance than to recede,' These 
burthens must fall upon somebody ; and no rejecting person will 
complain that his own turn has co'me. The tusk has been pcr^' 
forTne<l by hundreds of jjoorer tnen thai! Sydney Smith, — men 
with less c^, larger families, and fewer resources. The 
hardship in his case was, that with auch talents and friends he 
might fairly expect his lease to be short ; and it was hardly 
worth while for a bird of passage to construct such a costly nest. 

He set to work with his usual energyj bat commilled a grand 
mbtake at starting. An architect having famished him with 
expensive plans, he threw them aside, and took the entire bust- 
, ness into his own hands. The issue was that he expanded up- 

t)00/. upon the parsonage and farm-buUdings. Those 




Mtmoirs of Sif^ney Smith. 

who know how dearly experience is alwnys boug'ht in such cases 
will conclude, what lie seems never \o bare suspected himself, 
that be paid far more money, and ^oi considerablj less fur it, 
tfaui if he had arailcd hiinseU of professional aid. It would 
seem that house-building:, after the experience and incessant 
eJIbrts of myriads in every peneratiun. tiught to be among- ibe 
most perfect of the arts, and that there should exist stereotyped 
mDdels of taste and convenience. But such are the diversities 
of wants and faauie» that every man desires something different 
from his neighhonr. Sydney professed to look only to use in Lis 
designs, thoug^h beauty, from the pleasure it gives the eye, is 
itself utility. Of this source of deli^rht he had provided so Siltle, 
that, when he tnove<I inty Somersetshire, a friend inquired, ' Ate 
you sure, Mr. Smith, you have left Foaton?' 'Yes.' ''Never 
1o return ? * ' Never I ' ' Well, then, I may venture to say that 
it was without exception the ugliest bouse 1 erer saw/ Tbe 
inside was better cared for than the exterior. He had aimed 
at siuLgtiess, and hts parsonage, though plain, was admitted to be 
sing'ularly conifortahle. 

In March. 1814, he removed Inlo his new home, while it was 
yet unfinished, and the bare walls were still running down with 
water. A carpenter, who came to hJin for parish relief, coxi- 
strutted a larg^e part of the furniture out of common deals. What 
was the ultimate result is 'admirably told in a private letter of 
Mr, Stanley, afterwards Bishop of Norwich, who visiteil him at 
Foston in l.'!^22. No other account is so brief and ^aphic ; and 
though we have already mentioned some of ibe traits, we will not 
spoil the picture by omitting them here ; — 

' A man's character is probahty more faithfully represented in ihe 
armngeraent of his home than in any other point; and Foston is a 
fac-simlle of its mas(er'a mind from first to last. He had no apcliitert, 
but I question whether u tnure compact, convenient liousp could well 
be inm^ned. lit llie midst nf a field, cotniEtatiditt^ no very artmetive 
view, he has contrived to give it au air of ^nuguess and comfort, nnd 
its internal arrangements are perfects Tliedrawing-rootn im exquisitely 
filled with ireEtriJar regularities, — tables, books, cltoirs, Indian ward- 
robes; everythuifj; fini^ed in tliomugb taste, wiihom ihe sligUtest 
refeff rjce to smartness nr useless finery ; and his inventive genius 
appears in every corner His own study has no appear- 
ance of ['ouifurt ; bm as he reads and writes in fais family circle, in 
spite of talking and other interruptions, this is of less consequence. In 
other respects it has its aUtraedons: (here, for instance, he keeps his 
rhewnsatic armour, all of which he displayed out of a large hac-, g"iving 
me an illustra(e<i lecture upon each componeht part. Fancy him in a 
fit of rheumatism, his leg» in iwo narro^v buckets vrhich he calls his 
jack-boot3, round the throat a hollow tin collar, over each sliouhler a 


Msmitirs of Syfhtey Smii^ 

larg* tin ihtDg like a shoubJer of mutton, ou his head a hollow tin 
bolmet, — -all tilJeii wiTfa hot water; and fancy Eiim expatiattu^ u[iuo 
each and ail of tbem with uUra-eoergy. His stare-room is more like 
that ut' AD Iiidianiaa tliiu] aaythiiig el^e, contaiuin^ such a complete 
and well-fsssorted portion tif every po6eil)le want or wish in a country 
establisiiiDcnt. The same spirit prevails in his garden and fami — con- 
trivance and 8in^]ariEy in every hole and corner. On Siinciay we 
prepared for ciiurch. Oood heavens ! wiiat a set-out I The family 
chariolj wtiich lie ailb the imiaorlat, from havings been altered and 
repaired in every posaibk waj— the last novelty, a lining; of green cloth 
-worked and fitted by the rillng'e tailor — appeared at tlie door, with a 
pair of hhafts substituted (or the pole^ i" irhich ihatis stood one of his 
GUt-horaes, witii the regular eart-harae^s, aiitl a driver by its ^ide. 
Bis domeGtic wtabUsbment is un a par with the rest : his head-s«rvant 
is l]i^ carpenter, and never appears except on company-daye. We were 
waited upon by bis usual corj>s domestiquff one little girl, about 
fourteen years of age, named, I believe, Mary or Fanny, but invariably 
mlled by tbeiti " Bunch." With the moat immovable gravity she etani^ 
before hini when lie gives his orders, the au.Kivers to which he make* 
her repeat verbatim, to ensure accuracy. Not to lose linie, he Ikrms 
with a tretnendons f< from his dDor,a proper companion 
for vhkh machine is a telescope, aluug in leather, Ebr observing what 
; tbey are doin^.' 

He was extremely metbotlical in the transaction of business, 
and the keeping of accounts, which was the more remarkable 
that his nature was in many respects volatile and impatient. 
On the two or three occasions on which he went abroad, he was 
content with the most cursory glanu: at the objects he travelled 
to sec, and declared be had ma&lered the louvre in a (quarter uf 
an hour. He dipped into books after the same rapid and roving 
fashion^ and sat with a number piled round hlmj that he might 
change inceraantly (row one to another. Syslemalic study he 
leems seldom to have attempted. His wretched pcninansbip 
mav prohablv have bceU occasioned by this hasty disposition. 
His wile once asked him to interpret a passage which she had 
cried in vain to spell out, and he answered, ' tliaC he must decline 
ever reading his owa liaEldwriting four and twenty hours after he 
hod ftTitten it.' The deficiency was general among the early 
^^ Edinburgh reviewers. The MS. of one of llie most celebrated of 
^K tbeix mitnber was considered by the printers the most perplexing 
of any which ever came before them. The editor set the example. 

* My dear Jeffrey,* Sydney wrote to him upon one occasion, 

* We- are much nbligetl by youj- letter, but should be still more 
so ware it legible. I have tried to read it from left to rights and 
Mis. Sydney from right to left, and we neither of us can decipher 
a single word,' Sydney's ridiBg was on a par with bis penman- 



Memoirs of Sj/ditey Smith. 

sliip, aad he uas thrown incfasantly to the constent terror of 
his family. A tnilar once chancing to call with hia bill shortly 
after Sydney had mounted his horae, his wife inferred that eome 
terrible accident had occurr^, and, rushing;: down to t\t& maD, 
exclaimed, ' Where is he? Where is your master? h he hurt? 
I insist Upon knovvinij the worst?' He rode no more after this, 
His friend, Sir George FhiSlips, wliom he called ' the happiest 
m;m and the worst rider he had ever known,' he alleged to be one 
fall a-head of him. 

The money be had expended in building left hiin poor for 
many years, and, in his own hmguage, he was obliged to make 
sixpence do the Work of a shilling. Nol withstanding hi* pre- 
vailing mirthfulacss, which was in part produced bv his resolute 
determination to drive away care, his natmral temperament was 
by no mean$ sanguine, and during this period uf debt he spent 
many sleepless nights, and, as he hung over his billsj would buiy 
hi& face in his hands, and exclaim, * Ah ! E sec, I shall end my 
old ag-e in 9 gaol.' These were passlog emutioOE, It is evident 
that in the main he was a very happy man^ who had the art to 
play with life whilst he Ml its rcaponsabililies. Certainly he was 
not mudi the leas happy that he was driven to devise economical 
conlrivauccs, that he was coinpclliKl to content hitnself with ibe 
substance of comfort, and djiipense with the gewgaw which is its 
shadow; — that his rarriage was of village manufacturej Ins horse 
fresh from the plough, his butler Bunch, a little garden-girl, 
made like a mlll-stoqe, wli'.m he himself had trained to the 
office. These were the pccuKarities which gave a zest to enjov- 
mcnt, kept existence from stagnating, and furnished an endless 
theme for jest. He could not, indeed, afford to make many 
visits to London, which was to him the centre of attraction, but 
relays of his celebrated friends were constantly finding their way 
to his retirement, and gave liittlc ground fur his complaint that 
the idea of filling a country-house with company was a dteam 
which ended in excuses and nobody coming except the parson uf 
the parish. His family, and no one was a more a^ecttonate^ 
attentive, and indulgent fallier, were the belter for his constant 
presence among them, and his own mind must have profited 
by the sedatcr pursuits of bis quiet home. He acknowledged 
this himself. ' Living a good deal alone as I do now,' he wrote 
to Jeffrey in ISlO, ' will, I believe, correct me of my faults ; for 
a man can do without his own approbation in much soriety, but 
he must make great exertions to g»in it when he lives alone.' 
He used lo remark, on the other hand, that he might have been 
a different man, if, like Lord Holland, he had spent his days 
atnoDg all that was most worth seeing and hearing in Kurt)pe, 


Memoirs o/ Sydney Smt't/t. 

I instead of bein* confined, for tbe largest part of his time, to 
•he ■rjcielv of his pari?h-clerk. But it ia not in conrcrsation, or 
In roving: about, useful and deli^btful as {-ach may be in its 
degree, that any one acquires profound knowlmig? or deep 
iirudom. These are ihc prinlucts of ditigent study,, of solitary 
tneditation ; and il was in the retirement of his early and middle 
age (!iat Sydney, we suspect, acxiuixed the ballast which gave 
steadiness and purpose to his buoyant wit. *The haunts of 
happiness,' he once wrote, ' arc varied add rather uniiccounlable ; 
but 1 have more often seen her among^ little cbiUlren, home fire- 
sides, and counitry houses, than anywhere else ; at leaat I think 
r.' He mig-ht have been sure. 
Thus time crept on without any notable change in his cir- 
cumstances, when an old aunt died in 1821^ and unespectedly 
left him a respectable legacy. Two or three years later he had 
the living of Londesborougrh, which produced him a clear 700/. a 
yeai", given him to hold until Mr. Howard, the son of Lord Carlisle, 
sboulil he qualified ttt take it. The revolution of the wheel was 
bringing; him up now on its ascending side. Before his tenure 

»of Londeshorough was out, Lord Lyndhurst, whose generosity 
Kpd frienilship were superior to all political differences, prescnled 
faira, at the commencement of 182S, with a prehendal stall at 
Dristni. In the summer of the following year he exchanged 
■tFoston for the delightful rectory of Combe Florey in Somf^rset' 
■hire. Having repaired, enlarged, and beautified the dilapidated 
S, at aq expense of SOCKV, he ever after spoke of the 
terrestrial paradise, so far' as he would allow that term 
'to be applicable to the country at alU But sharp winds blow 
^from more quarters than one, and his peconiarj' aaileties had not 
.\Xong censed when he lost his son Douglas, a most promising 
•young man of twenty-four, on tlie 14th of April, 1829. This, 
'he said, was ihe first great misfortune of his life. The more- 
ordinary trials which upright men encounter in their struggles 
»with ihe World go but skin deep, and leave no scars. 
More preferment was at hand. The Whigs came into ofHce 
at the close of 1830, and, in addition to the claim which Sydney 
hod upon a parly whose cause he had steadily espoused and pro- 
moted, the leading members ol the Administration were among 
his old and intimate friends. Of this number was the premier, 
and one of the first remarks of Lord Grey on his accession lo 
power was, ' Now, i shall be able to do something for Sydney 
Smith.' He redeemed his intention in September, 1831, by 
making bim a canon of St, Paul's ; and if niofe Vacancies had 
occurred, it was Sydney's belief that he would have made him a 
bishop. That Lord Grey's successor did not complete the work 



Memoirs of Sydaetf Smith. 

of promotion continue^l a source of vcxBtioa to the canon of St. 

Paul's up to the close of his life, and even aflpr he had ceased tn 
jWi*li for the tUgfxjly, ami wits resoU-ef! to decline it, he ardeQtly 
, desired to have the credit uf the o^er. Lord Melbourne is 
reported to have said that there was nothing he more regretteil 
.jn bis ministerial career tbaji that he liad neglected his daiins. 
No one can douht that the premier was infiuenced by the offence 
which would have been given hy the elevation of Sjdnej" lo the 
^bencb,. and in this instance we cannot but feel that ofHcial pru- 
dence dictated a sounder conclusion than subsequent reflectioa, 
iwben reBponsibillty and power had passed awaj". If political 
services were a ground, whicii they never ou^bt lo be, for 
advancement to the episconitcy, and if intellect and probity were 
alone a clniTn, nobody had a better right to the oflicc tlian Sydney 
Smitli. But it was not as a divine that he was 'listing'uishcd ; 
And though the other qualities of literature, leamiji^, and power- 
ful writing make an excellent settiofr, the central jewel of the 
mitre should be of a more e(.-c]esiastical kind. Nor were the 
drawbacks exclusively negative. A pfteat ciian^e, greater tiian 
he appears to have been aware of, had taken place in leligious 
npinion since lie entered the CliurL-li. and there were passages in 
bis writings which jarred npon the feeling's of the new geue- 
ratioa He has himself indicated another obstacle. Tbe only 
thing, be said, he could he char«;ed with was high spirits and 
much innocent nonsense. But if it was wroop in the public 
tn believe that more gr;Lvity was drsimble in one of the niasters 
of Christendom, be had fostered the notion when iie unjustly held 
up Cannings to ridicule as a politician because be was a jester 
and a man of plcasanlry. A predominating levity ia at least as 
excusable la a statesman as a bishop. How much tbe objection 
would have been felt in his own rase is evident from an observa- 
tion be let fall in conversation — * I wan never asked in alt my lift 
to be a truatee or a» exKtitor. No one believe* that 1 can be a 
plodding man of business, as mindful of iJs dry details as the 
gravest and most stupid man alive.' If such was tbe impression, 
however mtstakeu, which he left upon his friends,, who had the 
best opportunities of detecting his solid qualities benealb the 
liglitcr atmnsphere which enveJoped them, it is easy to see how 
seriously his spiritual authoritv must have suffered with stnuincrs 
who only knew him by Peter Plymley's Letters and his fame as a 
wit. His daughter, in discussing the subject, quotes bis remark, 
* I hope I am loo much a man of honour to take an office without 
fashi'ining my manners and conversation so as not to bring it into 
discredit,' In this instance we think that the manners and con- 
.TersalioD should precede tbe appointment* and pot wait to be 
. ' produced 




Memoira of Stfdney Smith. 

produced by it ; that he wlio is selected to be the head of a dlo- 
«■«« and a paltera to the clergy should be already conspicuouv 
for Uie qualitii^s required by his station, cind that he should not 
bare tu put tbem on for the first time with his mbts ct( office 
when Ue had rao\iiited to llie lop of the staire. Men cannot 
nlways Ije amwerable for themaelvea. If iiabit, as the Duke of 
WellingEon asserted, is lea limes nature, \f»a» habit and oatufe 
roiiibined arc almost iirpsiati Me. When the restraint of novelty 
had iTora olf, and he bail grown easy in liis new position^ he 
would, we suspect, have instinctively indulged in sallies that 
would have exceeded the bounds nf episcopal usag-e. In the very 
letter to Lord John Russell, in April, 1837, in which he con- 
tended for liis fitness for ihe office, he made an announcement 
that showed what unwonted characteristics he would have intro- 
duced into the ecclesiostkal debates in the House ofLordt: 
* Had I been a bishop, you would have Seen Ine, on a late occa- 
sion, charging and — — with a pallautry which would have 

warmed your heart's blood, and made Melhournc rub the skin off 
his hands,' Thai Sydney would liave laboured to xlo his duty, thai 
h^' would have conducted hiinaclf towarris his clerny with infinite 
indnesa and tjut, and that he would have managed his business 
with shrewdness, diligence, nnd skill, can bo c|uestJoQcd by og 
one. He was no sooner installed in his canonry at St. Paul's 
than the office devolved Upon him of admitiislering a fund, in 
which the Dean and Chapter have no sott of interest, for the 
Tepair of the fabric. Mr. Cockerell^ the cathedral architect, 
describes the suspicious vigilance with which he watched the 
officials, taxed accounts, and investigated contracts. He learnt 
the market rates of all the materials, irom Portland atone down 
to putty ; hn would allow nothing to be undertaken without bis 
penvoal inspection, and, portly and gouty as he was. he scaled 
heig;hta and pinnacles which even, says Mr. Cockerel], to those 
accustomed to them are ' both awful and fatigTiing.' Warned by 
the disastrous fires at York Minster, he caused St, Paul's to lie 
ins.ured, had tnaias conducted from the New River into the base- 
ment of the building, had cisterns and engines put into the roof, 
and declared that ' he would reproduce ihe deluge in the cathedral,' 
He introduced a variety of Impnnements in the administration of 
the works and finances, and altogether patd an attenlioP to his 
dutiesof which Mr. Cockercll had seen no siinilnr example during 
the quarter of a century that he had superintended the repairs. 

Id 1837 appeared the first of bis three Letters to Archdeacon 
Singleton, ' On the Ecclesiastical Commission/ None of his 
writintra are superior in argument and wit to these celebrated 
pamphlets, whicli had the result of materially modilying tljc 
measure they opposed, Nothing could be more masterly than. 




Memoirs of Si}dney Smith. 

his demon stration thut an io^uality in Xhf-. value of benefices wns 
aJvfinlag'euus lr> the Church, tlint it was tlie chance ol~ the prJies 
tbjit fittrat-ted So larpe an amount of learning and talent into its 
service, and that, if an equalisation was nttempted, the men woulil 
he reiluceil to the same uniform mediocrity as tlieir livings. The 
tide of opinion was then running fasi in favour of the change; 
Syilney checked and turned it back, and, in the alterations which 
were made, the position for which he contended was admitted 
to be un3.nswerahle. 

In 183^ he brought out with great success a pamphlet a^insl 
the ballot, and the same year he republished his articles from 
the EdinburE-h Review, to^etlicr with his other toi^cellaneous 
writings. This eollectinn of Lis Morks was very favourably 
received ; in fact, his fame had increased with yeurs, and occa- 
sional productions^ like his letters on American debts in ItSAZ, 
kept it fresib to the end of his life. His cirrumslBnces went on 
improving with his reputation. His brother ('ourtenay, who had 
realised a larg^e forlune in India, died in 1842 withoul a will, ami 
Sydney inherited the third of his property. What remained to him 
ofexistertcC waspfissed iiiunbrokcn proaperity. *I have long sifire,^ 
he wrote tu Lady Holiiind in 1@4-1, ^ gut rid of all ambition and 
wish for distinctions^ and nm much happier for il, The journey 
is nearly over, and 1 am careless and goud^huiiioured.* His love of 
London and the cravin;* for society hecame stronger as he advanced 
Jo lj iii three score years and ten. ' I suspect,' he said in \ 835^ ' tlie 
fifth act of life should be in ^eat cities: it is there, in the long death 
of old age, that a man most forgets himself and his infirmities, 
receives the g^reatest consolation from the attention of friends, and 
the greatest diversion from external rircumslances.' * The sum- 
mer ajid the country.' he wrole to Miss Harcourt in 18.i8, ' have 
no cbanus forme, 1 look j'orvrard aoxiously to the return of bad 
weather, coal fires, and good society in a crowded cily, I hare 
no relish for the Country ; it is a kind of henllhy grave, I am 
afraid you are not exempt from the delusions of flowers, green 
turf, and birds ; they all afiord slight gratification, but not worth 
nn hour of rational conversation ; and rational conver5a.lion in 
sufficient quantities is only to be liad from the congrcgarion of a 
million of people in one spot.' The real use of llie country, he 
said, Wag to find food for cities. He had a particular love fur 
iluwcrs, and was far from insensible to the pleasure afforded by 
rural sights and sounds : but he protested he had ^own too old 
to be fulled by them. 'l"o my mind there is no verdure in the 

creaiion like the green of- 's face; and Luttrell talks more 

sweetly than birds can sing,' * What a beautiful fifld !' exclaimed 

one of his guests at Combe Florey : ' I sliould like it better,' he 

eplied, * paved and filled with people.' He had still occasional 


Memoirs of Sydnejj SmUk, 


viaitatioTM of rural entbasiasm ; but in geneml the placid delight 
of country' objects proved loo tame for the blunted perceplinns of 
advancing yenrs, wKich required a strrhn^cr stimulus. He wu 
not, lif snid, une o{ those persuaa, who had * iii&aitc resources in 

N^ine voars before he died he ^polce of )t as one of tlie evils of 
Id ape — that, as your time ie come, jou think every Utile illness 
die be<;innin^ of the end. ' When a man expects to be arrested, 
every knixk at the door is an alarm/ The knocks at his door 
were chiefly periodica! filu of piut and attacks of asthma. In 
Octoljcr, 1844, water on the chest, consequent upnn disease of the 
heart, gave indication ihnt the inexoraltle cretlitor wns come at 
last. He hastened from Combe Florey up to London, that he 
jintght have the benefit of the kindness and skill of his son-in-lavT 
]Dr. Holland. His old jocosity still broke out. ' If you hear of 
sixteen nr eighteen pounds of human ilesh/ he wrote to Lady 
CnrlUle, ' they belong to me. 1 look as if a curate liatl been 
taken out of me.' The low diet prescribed him was a constant 
subject of humorous complaint, ' Ah, Charles,* be said to 
General Fox, 'I wish I were alhiwed even the viuig-of a roasted, 
butterfly.* As the disorder advanced and subdued ids powers he 
remained patient and caJm, but spoke Utile, and ibis chieflv to 
address a few words of kindness to those about him. He was 
aware that his end was appnjachino^, pave directions for his 
funeral to an old and faithful servant, and lold ber tlint all mUSt 
sisist to cheer him aud keep up bis spirits if he lingered loo^. 
He Appears tlirou|rhout life to have had a dread of depression ; 
and^ llioogh his natural spirits were in general higb, we believe 
that be often assumed the character of the lau^liing to avoid 
sinking into that of the weepinfj; pjiilosopher. On the 22nd of 
February, 1?145, the contest with pain and lassitude Came to a 
close, and ihc ' long death of old age ' was complete. 

The works of Sydney Smith, like those of atl persons who have 
Written much, are of very unerpml merit; but we cannot doubt 

ithat what is escellenl in tiiem will ensure ihem a high and durable 
rank in KngliAh literature. In his views there was uuthin^ 
original ; it was far otherwise with his moile of enforcing them. 
His manner is peculiarly his own, and it is efTective and racy» 
The first place Is due to his humour, which is broad and often 
burlesque, and is easily traced up to two or three sources. To 
seize SL>me element in a case and picture the utmost extravagances 
of the ridiculous kind, possible ar eveii impossible, to which it 
^HJDight be supposed to give rise, is one ol his fav(}uri(e methods. 
PKiA psM^fe from his article on the Sermon of Ur. LangfonI, for 
the Royal Humane Society, will serve for a specimen, tbougli we 




Memoirs of Sydneij Smith. 

select it more for its brevity thnn its merit, TLe old complaint 
of the gnjiorific effects tif a dull proituctiun is thus cxpaDdc<l by 

Sydney Smilli :^ 

' All acciilent which happened to the ^nUeman engagett in review- 
iDg tills semiDU proves in the mo^t AthkinK manner tJie importaiic? of 
this charity for restoring lo life persons m whom the vijal power 19 
smpended. He was discovered with Dr. Lang-foni's discourses lying 
open before liim, iu a slate of the iiiost prufound ^Seep ; fmra wlucFi he 
could not by any iiieacis l>e awakened for a great lenirtJi gf time. By 
atlendiDg, however, to the rules prescribed by the Humane Society^ 
flinging ill the smoke of tobacco, cLpplyiog hot flatiiielit, aud caiefully 
removing the dificour^ itself to a great distance, the cxitlc was restored 
to his disconsolate brothers.* 

Auotber mode in which he exercises the faculty is by drawing 
ludicrous compurisons. Of these one of the best and most cele- 
brated is thrown into a note to the LGtter* of Peter Plymley :^ 

' Nature descetidia down to inliiiite smaUtie»$. Mr. Camming has his 
parasites ; eind if you lake a large buzzing bluebottle Hy, and look at it 
in a microscope^ you may aee 20 or 30 little ugly insects crawling 
about it, which doublI&«s tlirnk their fly to he the hhiest, grandest, 
mcTTieKt, most important animal in the universe, and are convinced the 
world would be at an end if it ceased to buzz.' 

Still more charactcri:stic, and we must add more oiiichievous^ 
was the comparison of the House of Lords to a fabulous Mrs. 
Partington during the Reform freiixy of 1831 : — 

' I do not mean to be disrespectful, but the attempt of the Ijords to 
Btop Che progress of reform reminds luc very forcibly of the great 
storm of Sidniouth^ and of the conduct of the excellent Mrs, Partington 
on that occasion. In the winter of 1824 there sot in a great flood 
upon that town— the tide rose to an incredible height— the waves 
nuhed in upon the house!!, and everything viaa thrcaleneiJ u-ithdestiuc- 
tiuu. In the niidtiit of this sublitue and terrible storm, Dame Fartiiigton,. 
■who lived upon the beach, was seen at the dour of lM;r house with mopa 
and pattens, trundling her mop^ squeezing out lh« sea^water, and 
vigorously pushing away the A tlaiitic Ocean. Tlie Atlantic wu 
roused. Mrs. Panin^on'a spirit was up. but I need not tell you that 
the contest was unequal. The Atlantic Ocean beat Mi». Parliugton. 
She was excellent at a slop or a puddle, but she should not havtt 
meddled with a tempest. Gentlemen, be at your ease— bo quiet and 
steady. You will beat Mrs. Partington.' 

Both qualities of bis bumour are exhibited here, for the whole 
force of tbo ctimparison lies in the previous comical but extrava- 
gant suppositioQ uf Mrs. Partington attempting to arrest ibe 
onward roll of tbe Atlantic with her mop. His most freqnent 
resource of all js, however, to take the priaciple of his adversary 


Mtmoirs of Sffihie^ Smitft. 

I unit endcarotir to show ics absurdity by pushing it to its extreinest 
ounse(|aence3, ' The liejt sf^y of misweriag a biwJ iirgurijcnt,* be 
says btmseU in his nrttcle on * Spring Guns and Man Tmpa,' 'is 
not to Btttp it, but to let it go on in its couriie till it lenps over the 
boundaries of common sense.' Thus Hannah More, in ptolcaiing 
a^.kiiut tUc scanty dress ul' the ttulics ol' the day, havin;^ os^erled 
tbnt, if liiery knew hoir much more winning- tiny appeared in pro- 
portion OS they were covered. ' the coquet would adopt the metbod 
■ as (in allurement, and the voluptuous as the moat infaliible art of 
*^UCtt(7n,' Sydney justly subjoined, ' If there is any truth in lhl9 
uamsafBy nudity becomes a virtue, and no decent woman for the 
future can be seen in swrments/ Kxamplea of this humorous 
artihce of logic are eodlcss in his writings. 

His wit IB usually a vebitle for ai^menf — is eniployetl not 
simply to amuse tUp reader with laughable tonocptions, but 
to illustrate and establisli opiniuiu. it is often, ueverthelcss, a 

P weapon of more glitter than strength. Its true force was depen- 
dent upon the reality of the pictures he drew, which were, on the 
contrary, fm^ueutly f^inciful and almost always exaggerated. In 
the case of tlic Reform Bill, for instance, the mob was vastly less 
than the Atlantic Ocean, and the House of Lords immeasurably 
^- more ibuiMrs. Partiugtou and bci mop. With these drawbacks, 
^1 inseparable &om his vein of wit, be could yet he a powerful and 
convincing reasoner. 

Svdney frequently said of his reviews that tliey were all 
written for laughing; but when ho republished them he stated 
that his motive was to show, if he could, that he Lad not be- 
stowed the whole of his life in making jokes. Many of ihem are 
slight pfoductions, which were ptobahly struck off at a single 
sitting, and were not worth ccprinting. The best have imkuriably 
a serious purpose, anil he might justly appeal to tbem to prove 
that there wiis method in his mirth. His »ty]e, apart from hi* 
humour^ is remarkable for its strength and vivacity- He cost off 
the iDCombraciL-e of prefatory observations and coDnecting links, 
grappled in succe^ion with the salient points, and cared not how 
inelep»nt and abrupt might be bis periods if they were lelUng 
and nervous. ' They would not take it,' urged Dr. Doyle, when 
Sydney proposed tli*tGovemmenl should pay the Hooian Catho- 
lic priests. * Do you mean to say/ replied Sydney, * that if every 
priest ill Ireland received to-morrow morning a Oovemroent 
letter with a hundred pounds, first quarter uf their year's income, 
that they would refuse it ? ' 'A \i, Mr. Smith,' rejoined Dr. Doyle, 
'yoo've such a way of patting thingj.' This 'way of putting 
things/ this stripping off all Ihe disguises of specious l-inguugc, 
•od presenting a case in its naked truth, was an arc in which he 


Memoira of Sydae*/ Smith, 

WB9 never suirpassed. It atlded gri?atly to the force of his writlng^ 
thikt he minced notbin'F. ^tatctnents wliu-b other men resprt ed for 
tlic whispers of cunveisaCinJi, orcommuQiCritoti only hy implication, 
and allusion, he spoke out holdlv to the 'worlii in the stron^e^t terms 
the English tongue could afford. His jocosity aidud him here by. 
enabling him to throw over Uis attacks an air of goo^l humour, aid 
if the kick he gave was only ' preiry Fanny's way.' Nohody ran 
laugb ind be angry, and tlic public chuckled at freeclDtna wbicb 
ia an austcrer garb they would have' condemned. His laa^uage 
was idiomatic with one exception — he employed polysyllabic 
epithets and jgrunLliloquent expressions with the intention of pro- 
ducing a ludicrous effect — as when he speaks of * the vertuil 
eruptions of asparagus." This is an easy art ami not very divertinp 
either. In his graver moments be rose occasionally to a high 
strain i>f eloquence, and we know few more impressive passafj^es 
than that which we quote from liis article on ' Gannse! for 
Prisoners/ which describes a state of things that has now happily 
ceased to cxist^and which this able essay did much to remedy : — 

* It IS a mo»t aflbctiiig moment iti a c-oiirt of justice when the evi- 
dence iios all been ilieard, and Llie Judi^e asks the prisoner what he lias tcr 
say in his defence. The prisntner, who has (by great exertions, perha)», 
of his friends) saved up money enough to procure couufiel, bays to ihe. 
Judge '' that he leaves his defence to hia counsel." We hare ofien 
blu^lie<] fur Englietfi humanity to hear the reply : '" Your counael cauiiot 
speak for you, you must Apeak for yourself;" and this ia the reply 
g^veu to a poor girl of eighteen, to a fortsigner, Ii> a deaf man, to a 
£tamnien?r, to the sick, to the feeble, to the oM, lo the most abject and 
ignorant of human beings. Can a sick man And eireng'th and nerves 
to speak befi>re a Iar|:e assembly? Can an ig-norant man And words ? 
Can H low man find confidence ? Is he not afraid of beconiirtg an objeci 
of ridicule? Can. he believe iliat liis espressiom will be understood ? 
How often have we Betn a poor wretrli, stni^glin^ against the agonies 
of hU spirit, and the rudeness t>f hia conceptiong, iind his awe of hetter- 
drcs^cd men and better-taught men, and the &harne which the aociisitinr] 
has lirought upon hia head, and the sight of his parents and children 
gazing at liirn in the Court, for the la^t lime, perlmi^^ and after a long 
absence ! The mariner Binking in the wavt; does nut want a helpni^ 
hand more dian does this poor wretch. But Eielp iit denied to all ! Age 
cannot ha^e it, nor isnorance, nor ihe modesty of women ! Owe hard 
unehiiri table rule silences the defenders of the wretciiwl in the worst 
of human t^vils ; nn't at ihe bitterest of human moments mercy is blotted 
out from the ways of men.' 

The letters, which are introduced by an excellent preface from 
the pen of Mrs. Austin, fill the second of the two volumes that 
Lady Holland has devoted to her father s memory, and do credit, 
if we except occasiondl outbreaks of political inluleiaace, to 


Memoirs of Sydiwy Smith, 


hii hDnesty, bia heart, and bis understanding. If they arc read 
as the liniahetl coinpoail'iuns of a wit they would disappniut px^ 
pectauun. Rend lorwhat they are, the spuntancuus and uaaSccted 
outpouring of a man who wmte without fiiretlioughl or effort, tbey 
we a proof uf tlie tleartiess «f tiis conceptluns, the vijfoUf and 
brevity a{ bis staiementa, and the perennial fertility of his comic 
faocy. In his correspnindence with men his tone is almost uni- 
formly candid and mufiCuLinc, and when he praises he speaks the 
language of truth and soberness. Towards ladies he indulges itt 
complimentary embellishments. With so many other powers of 
pleasing he did not neglect the maxim of Voltaire, ' L'art de 
Jouer coromen^ I'art de plaire/ jVor can we forbear tt) remark 
that there is a want of delicaoy in the practice, which has been 
latterly gaining ground, of persons sending letters for publkatiyo 
full of ]>anegyric8 upqn themselves. The surest way to neutralise 
the commendation i& for the subject of it to be in any way acces- 
■oiy to its promulgation. 

To those wlio enjoyed the society of Sydney Smith nothing in" 
the intellectual achievements of tlie man seemed more remrtrkablc 
than bis colloquial powers. Several of his sayings are current, 
and have naturaJly led j>erson3 who were never in his company 
to infer that his wit was exhibited in short and pointed repartees. 
It chiefly consisted^ on the contrary, in n species of burlesque 
Tepreaentation of any circumstance which occurred, the rapid 
inventioFi of his humorous imagination presenting it under all 
manner of ridiculous lights. As the grotesque conceptions fell 
from his lips, he accompanied them with a loud, jovial, contagious 
laugh. There are fewsubjccta which will not lend themselves to 
this mirth-moving process, few which are not capaple of being 
tbown with a little distortion under ludicrous aspects. Those 
who are adepts in this description of fun are therefore more uni- 
formly entertaining than men wIh> deal in the terser retorts for 
which the course of conversation seldom mHords any scope. Of the 
latter kind of wit there is not much that will bear tu be repeated ; 
but the whole of the former expires with the burst of laughter it 
originally provokes. Dissociated from the circumstances which 
produced it, the comicality is Inal, and the nonsense remains. 
Nut only must the tree, with all its rtHfts and fibres, be trans- 

Stauted, but the entire soil from which it derived its nutriment, 
[oore records in his Jouitial, iliat, walking home at night with 
LuttreU ami Sydney Smith, they ' were all three seized with such 
convulsions of cachinnatiun at something which Sydney said, that 
they were obliged to separate and reel each his own way with the 
fit-' Yet tiie poet could not rememlicr, when he came to make 
the eatrVr what this ' something ' was, so entirely was it dependent 



MemoiTs of St/tlucr; Smiifi. 


upon tlie whim of the moment for its value, and so fleeting the 
im|)r<;ajiun which it ieft upun llieraind. Moore on varioas occa- 
M<ma bas eptomtse<l sallies of Sydney Smith which were more 
thui ordinaril) amusing, and they give about the same jdftft of hi* 
fun as an index would do of a Wavrrlcy novel or one of Byron'* 
tales. The specimens of his wittitisma nliich continue lo cir- 
culate owe the privilege to their being exceptions to bis predomi- 
nant vein, which could no more be peqietuatcd than the flash 
from 9 gun. The example in these volumes of his ordinary 
msnncr, which retains perhaps most of its primitive spirit, is hi* 
exclamation when he vtai told thai a young Scotchman was about 
to marry a portly widow :■ — 

' " Going to inan7 her ! going to mairy lier ! impossible ! you mean a 
part tif her: he ccmld not marry her idl hinii^elf. It would bo a case 
not of bigaiuy, hut trigaiay ; the neighbourhood or the uiagislratM 
should interfere- There is enough of her to furnish wives for a whole 
parish. One man marry her J^t i& monstrous. You might people a 
colony with her, or give an assemljly witJi her, or perhaps take your 
momiiig'ft walk rowttd her, always proTJded there were frequent ratings 
plact«>, aiid you were in rude h^alih, J once was rash enough to UFJ 
walkiiiig^ ruund her before breal^fasl, but only gut half-way, aod gave it 
up exh:iu8tExl, Or you might rvad the Kiot Act uud disperse her; in 
short, fou miglit do anything witJi her hut marry her.'' " Oh, Mr. 
Sjdney," said a young lady, recovering from the general laugh, "did 
you make all that yourBelf?" " Yes, Lucy, all mystif, diild ; aU my 
owu thunder. Do yuu think when I am about to make a joke I ^ud 
for my Heighboure Carew and Geering, or consult the elerk and church- 
wnrdem upoa it?" ' 

His moods were various, and his serious coavenatioti, wbieh 
was Usually interspcTsed with touches of fun, was of a superioc 
kiud. Not ouly was he enterlaiuin*; himself, l>ut he bad the art 
of bringing- llie most discordant materials into aodal harmony, 
insomuch that he used to say that he was a moral amalgam for 
blendiog repellent natuivs. This thought for his comftany, as well 
as for himself — tbt,- desire to give every one a share in the talk 
and to make the best of their several talents — is a proof of large 
sympathies, aiid an uuu&uaL toleration and benevolence of feeling. 

Tiie Memoir by l.ady Holland, from which we have drawn our 
sketch, has lUe rare merit of presenting a vivid picture ol the 
character of her father, and his mode of living in his family. 
Some of the relnini&cences ar^ rather trivial, and would have 
been belter omitted. The same may be said of the fxagrocnts 
from his conversation and manuscripts ; but much is amu&ing 
and insixucliye, snd we give a few of the passages ivhlch appear 
to us the best. He (ummencrd a work under the title of 


Memoirs of S^dnei/ Smith. 



'Prafticnl Ksaay^,* which it is preatly to lie regretlwl be sUould 
never have firiiisbed. His excellent sense^ his extf>naivc expe-^ 
rience of life aiid cbaracler, liis shrewdness of observation, and 
the strong and entertaiiuDg way in which he stated obviuus 
but neglected truths^ would have made it an admirable manual 
of practtoal wt^lom. Of the unfinished sketches wbixjh rcniajji 
one is entitled ' Of the Body :' — 

* The long'er I livt; the more I am convinced that the apotheraiy is 
of more iinporunee than Senera. and that half the unhappineiij in the 
world proceeds frbm little stoppages, from a duct choked up, from foud 
pr«tt»in^ Id the wrong* place, from a vexed duodeuum, or an a;^iated 
pyloruA. The deception uj, practised upon humnn creatures is curious 
and eolertuDtng'. My friend sups late ; he «ils atrnte strong soup. liien 
a lobster, then ftomc tart, and he dilutes theie excellent varieties widi 
wine. The next day I call upon him. He is going- to sell hja bouse 
in London, and to retire iuto the country. He is alarmed A>r his elde&t 
daughter's health. Uis expenses are hourly increasing, and nothing 
but a limely retreat can fave him from ruin. All this is the lobster: 
aitd when over-excited Mature has had time to manage thi» teRtnceous 
eucumbrance, the daughter recovers, t^je finances twe in good onler, and 
every rural idea effeclgally excluded from the mind. In the eame 
ipaJiner, old frieiidsliijw ure destroyed by tuasteil cbeese, and hanJ »^ted 
meat has led to «uicic[i^ Unpteaeaiit feelings of the Ijcxfy {jnidvce cor- 
respondent senBalions in the mind, and a grtHt M.'eue of wretchedness 
u sketched out by a morsel of indigestible and misguided food. Of 
ouch infinite consequeace to happiness is it to study the body.* 

In his old ngr, when he began himself to feei the miseries of 
indig^Mtiotk, be c^Jbe to the conclusion that mnnkind consumed 
about twice too much, and that he himself bad eaten and drunk 
between his tenth ami seventieth year forty four-horse wagrgun- 
loads more than Was good for him. 'The value of this moss of 
nourishmcat I considered to be worth seveu thousand pounds 
sterling. It occurred to me that I must by my voracity have 
■IWTcd to death fully a bundrtJ persons. This is a frightful 
i^lculaiion, but irresistibly irue.' 

Excffllent is his 'definition of hardness of character : ' — 

'Hardness is a want of minute alteution to Line feelings of Qtlierv; it 
does not proceed from malignity or a carelessne»« of inflicling pain, hut 
from a want of delicate perception of those little thing* by wEiicii 
ptsutire is conferred or [win excited, A hard person tluuks lie bift 
<l<ne etiougb if be does not apeaJc ill of your rehitiooH, your ciiildns, 
or your country; and then, willi the greai^t good-hnmtujr and i-olo- 
biltty, and with a total iiiaieeotioa to your individual state and position, 
gallops over a thousand fine feeling, and leitves in every &tep the mark. 
of his hoof upon your beatt. Analyse the couvermlion of a well-bred 
xoan whu is clear of the besetting sin of hardness; it is a perpetual 



Memoir* of Stfdney Smith. 


homage of polite good-nature. He remembers that you are connected 
with the Church, and Ue avoirfs. wliatever Itis opinions may be, the mot 
distant reElectionu oil the esiablUlimeni; he knows that jou are admired^ 
and he adititres you as far as is compatible with good breeding ; he seen 
that, tliou^h youn^, ymi are at the head of a gnat e^tnbliithment, audi 
he infuses into hi« manner and conversation that respect which is so i 
pleasing to all wIlo exerci.'^e auihurlly ; he leaves you in perfect good^ 
humour with yourself, because you perceive how much and ^uccessfullj 
you have been studied. In the mean time the gecitlentan on the other] 
aide of you ia highly moral and respectable man) has been crushioj^ 
little sensUiilities, and violating little propriciiea, and overlooking lictls^ 
diEcrlminations ; and without violating anything- which can be calle<l 
ruie, or committing what can be dejiominated a fault, has displea^ed^ 
and dispirited you, from waiiling; that line vision which sees little ihingi 
and that delica.te touch which handles them, and that fine sympathy] 
which this superior moral organisaiiun always bestows.' 

Even the worst of these offenders believe tliemselvea to 
gentleman — the same want of menial perception which hinders 
their being such equally preventing them from seeing that they 
are habitually jarring strings, of which the quiverings arc inap- 
preciable by their coarser senses. 

* Life is to be fortified by many friendsHpsi. To love, and to be 
loved, is the greatest happiness of existence. If I lived utider the burn- 
ing sun of the ef|uator, it would be a pleasure to me to think that there 
were many human beings on the other side of the world who regarded 
and respected me ; I could not and would not live if I were alone upon 
the earili, and cut off from the reniembranpe of my felloW'Creatures^ 
It is not tiiat a man has occasion often to &I1 back upon the khidnofs 
of his J'rietids; perhaps he may never experience the necei^ity of doing 
so ; but we are governed by our imaginations, and they stand there aa a 
Kutid ard impregnable bulwark against all the evils of life. . . . Very 
few friends will bear to be told of their faults ; and if done at all, it 
must be done with infinite manngenieiit and delicacy. If the evil a 
not very alanning, it id better indeed to let it alone, and not turn friend- 
«htp into a system of lawful and unpunishable impertinence.' 

He Considered friendship with a woioan the s.ourcc of tbc 
Itigbest possible delight lo those who were fortunate enough to 
fonn it, and in this he spuke from personal eiperience. The 
following afe from his conversation ;^ 

'When 1 pniiE.e<i the author of the New Poor Ijiw the other day, 
three geuticmen at tabic took it to themselves and blushed up to the 

'Have you heard of Klebuhr'a discoveries? All Roman history 
reversed ; Tarquin tuniitig out an excellent family man, and Lucretia 

ft very doubtful character, whom Lady would not have visited.* 

' 'Some one said it was foolhardy iu General Fitzpatrick to insist 


JIhnnVi <^ Sydiieif Smith. 


upun gning up alone iu the balloon when it was ibund there wu 
UQt tbrce to earn' up two. '' No," lie said, '■ Uiere is always some- 
tUug sabUnie iti sacrificing to gjeat priociples; Ins profeesion was 
courage." ' 

' When I hear llie ruslJes yawn at my «;rnioDS, it remindB me of 

Lord Elltnboroiigh, wbo, on s«eingf Lord gape during his own 

long and dull Eptiecli, said, "' WolJ^ I must own there ia Home Lmie ici 
liiut, but ia he not ratlier encroat'hia; on our privileges?" ' 

' Bobua uaed to say that theru was more sense aJid good taste in the 
vhole House of Commons limn iu any one individual of which it was 

' TniH it is moat painful not to meet the kindnese and afipction you 
f(^l yuu liave dfserved, but it is a ntisiake to complain of it ; you can- 
not extort frieudship with a cocked pistil,' 

* Lord Dudley was one of the mo^t absent men I think I evwr met in 
society. One day he met me ui the street and invii(;d me to meet 
myself, '* Dine with me to-day ; dine with me, and I h ill gut Sydney 
Smith to meet you." I admitted tlic tenipratinn he held out to me, but 
Mud Iwo.? engaged to meet liim elsetirhere.' 

* Creevy told me once, wlien dinin? with 8heridan, after iha ladies 
bad dcparttxl he drew his chair tu the tirt;, and eontided tci Creevy tliat 
he had juat had a furlune left hitu. ''Mrs, Sheridan and J," eaid' 
lie, ** have made the suleniu row to each other to mention it to no one, 
ajid liulliing induceti me now to contide it to you but the ab.Eolute con- 
viction that Mrs. Sheridan is at ihis moment confiding it lo Mrs, Creevy 
upstairs." Soon after thift I went to visit him in theeountry with a larg^ 
party i he had taken a villa. No expense was spared : a magnificenl 
dinner, excellent wines, but not a candle V* be had to go to bt^ by in 
the hout^ 1 iu the nviming no butter appeared, or waa lo be procured 
ioF brealcfa^l. He ^aid it was not a butter country, he believed. But 
with .Slieridan for hiei. and the charm of hix wit ajid conversation, whb 
cared for ciitidh's, !liuttt:r, or anylluDe else ' ' 

* Tiial i^ a tine idea of Clarke'* ; — " The firosl i* God's plough. Mhich 
he drives through every inch of ground in the world, opening each clod 
and pnUeriaing the whole." ' 

' In nimpoiing, as a genera] rule, run your pen tliroug'K every other 
word you liave written ; you liave no ideavbat vigour it will give your 

' Sp^akin^ of a robbery : " It is Bacon, I think, who .>)ays so beau-i 
tifiillyt lie ttiat robK in darkness break's God's Jock." How fine ilmt 

«!' ' 

' Mr. P said to him, '* I always write best with an amanuensis. 

" Oh 1 but are you quite sure he put« dowa what you dictate, my dear 

P ?■'' , 

'Some one speaking of Macaulay: *'Itake great credit to myself; 
I always prophw^ied hip greatness from the first moment I saw him, 
iheii a verj- young and unknown man, ou the Northern Cironit, Tber^ 
are no limits to hi» knowledge on small subjects as well as great; he is 



.Memoirs of Sidney SmitA. 

like ft book in breeches. < . . I agree he is certainly more agreeable 
since bb return from India. Hb enemies might perhaps have said 
before, tliou^h I never did so. that he tatlted rather too much ; but uow 
he has occasional flashes of siltiice that make liis conversation perfetftly 
delightfuL But what is far better and more importsTjt than all Ihis Wy 
that I believe MaCftulaj to be iiicorruptib]e. You mig-ht lay ribbom, 
stars, garters, wealth, titles belbfe him in vaJQ. He has an honest, 
genuine love of his country, and the world could not bribe him to 
neglect hef iotefest*." * 

' We both lallc a great deal, but I don't believe Macaulay ever did 
bear my voiee. Sometimes vi-tien I have Itild a good story I have 
thought to myself, "Poor Macaulayl! he will be very sort^ some liay 
to have missed lieariug that." ' 

Once, when he w^S devhiPg tortures for bjs acquainlance, 
after the manaer of the * Inferno ' of Dante, the penaltj he 
as5ij!;oed to Mr. Macaulay was to be dumb. In this instance the 
eayuag of Voltaire wa» faUiBed, that Monolugue ^iiss alwajs 
jealous of Dialogue. A letter of Mr. Macaul.iy, inserted in the 
Memoir, attests his admiration of Sydney Smith ' as a great rea- 
Eoner and the preatest master of ridicule that has appeared amon^ 
na since Swift.' That ridicule, if the won! is to be understood 
in an offensive sense, was never turned upon hist friends, but he 
loved to sport with tbeir peculiarities, and so well was the kindly 
spirit of his comic exas;gerafions understood, that we never heard 
of his giving offence to my one of his associates in the whole 
course of his life. * Vou have been laughing at mc constantly 
for the last seven years,' Lord Dudley remarked, when Sydney 
went to lake leave of him on quilting London for Yorkshire ; 
' and yet tn all that lime you never snid a single thing to me I 
wished unaaid.' To have possessed such powers of ridicule, 34m1 
to have used them so benevolently, is in itself a panegyric. 


C li3 ) 

Art. VI. — 1. La Crof/ance a timmacuUe Coneeptim de la Sainte 
Vierge ne j>att Hnvnir dogme defoL Par M. I'Abte Labotde. 
Seme edition, Paris. 1854, 

2. Lettre h N. S. P. h Pape Pie IX. fur t imposaibilite d'un 
nouveaa do^e de Jot relatvxmerd a la Corrcejiticn de la Saints 
Vterge, Par M. I'Abbe Laborde. Franoais et Latin, Paris. 

3. Relation et Memoire des oppoaam au tiouvfou doffme de ttmrna- 
culce Conc^iion, et a h Bulls *■ InfffahUu* Par M. TAbbe 

4. Tie immacJilato S. V. Maria: concepiu an dctfinatico deereto 
definiri posnit. Disijujsltio theolojrica Joannis Perrone, e 
Soc. Jesu in Coll. Rom. Tlieol. Prof. Monaateru Guestpha- 
lorum, IS-IS. 

5. Tfie 8(A December. 1854 : S(fme account of the dilution of the 
Immaculate Conception tf the Most Blessed Mother of God, with 
the dogmatic Bull of His Holiness, and a PreftiCf!. By a Priest 
of the Diocese of Weistminster. London. 

6. Pastoral Letter of his Eminence Cardinal Wisrmart, amtmtndng 
the d^nition of the Tmmacuiat^ OonceptiQu of the Blessed Virgin 
Mnrrf. Lomloti 1855. 

7. A Pastoral Chart/e by the Bitjht Jlep. Bifhop GilUs on the 
recent dof/maiical definition of the Imjnaadate Conception of the 
Most Blessed Virgin Mary. Edinburgh. 1855. 

8. On the Immaculate Conception. Nos. Xll. and XLllI. of 
OfcuRtonal Sermons, preacbed in Westminster Abbe^. By 
C!ir. Wordsworth, D.D., Canon of Westminster. 

9. Itume : her vrv^ Doifma ami our DiUies. A Sermon preacbed 
before tbe Umversitv, at St. Mary's Cburch, Oxford, on the 
Feast of tlip Annunciation of the Rlessed Virgin Mary. By 
Sanmel Lord BisUop of Oxford, l^i^b. 

THE 8tU December, 1854, was a higb dnv find a boUday 
in tbc Kumish Chorcrh. Rome herself was stirred uj) 
from the remotest of ber seven hiHs in jubilant espectation. 
Before tbtr da»vn her iwpulation was all astir, aad tbe peasantry, 
dressed in tbeir holiday altire, poure«l in at the giates to swell 
the tiiTong: which, from all parts of the city, was already 
making' ils way towards the great Basilica of St. Peter. The 
inliabitants were busy decking out the windows and balconies 
with stuffs of every Icxtare and colour, from the gorg^eous 
stJks and veliets of the palace to the particoloured counter- 
pane of the bumble hostelry. The sun rose bright iu an un- 
clouded sky, turning ijito diamonds, the drops of the l&st night's 



T/ic Feast of the CoRceptiom 

Tain which friog-ecl the projecting eaves, and lighting up naltiTe 
with the holiday air which pftvndecl the crowd. 

It is t'^e Feast of tho Conception; and who Icnon's tint thai 
Rome has pver prided herself on the patrtmaj^e of the Blessed 
Virgin, the Queen of Heavt-n? We reuieJnher that when cholera 
was lirst making: its dreaded appruuch, * llieological proof was 
offered in the Koman pulpits that it could not enter the favoured 
city." When the scourge came nevertheless, the notices of 
infallible preservatives with which the walla were placarded 
spoke less con6dcntly of spiws and dnifrs to he purchased of the 
chemist, than of prayers and litanies to be recited to the Virgin ; 
ami when the plague was staved, the visitors who again flocked 
into the city found her images liKhlccI up, by fear or gratitude, 
with candles such as in size and number had never blazed 
beneath them before. 

It is the Feast of the Conception: hut there is something 
more — something to distinifulsli the present fe&tival from its 
predeces5orR4 and from tlie numberless other holidays with which 
the Romish Calendar encourage* idleness and haflleS thrifL 
With eager curiosiiy the crowds throng the entrance to Si. 
Peter'sj where a plenary indulgence invites their attendance. 
Presently the swell of a distant chant announces that the 
procession is issuing from the Sistine Clinpel, and, in gor- 
geous state exceeding- that of any temporal prince, the officials 
of the Pontifical Court defile down the magnificent Scala 
Rt'tria. Behind Ihcm a silver cross is seen to gleam tn the distance, 
and burning lapers, struggling with the da^, sh>ed a misliness, 
rather than light, over the increasing splendour of the procession. 
The pastors of the orthodox Greek Church (few and scanty 
are their flocks), f conspicuous bv their venerable beards and 
gorgeous toslume. are followed by the Latin Bishops, Arch- 
bishops, and Cardinals, in their robes of stale and glittering 
mitres, two by two, each rising in rank and dignity as they more 

' It Ls high!}' prnboblti tliut the prforheni had rcct'Lved a hiol frciiiL Ifac Gorem- 
tncnt In do their tii^l to allav llii; panic which pri*(li»p(>!ies lo dlsemie, nnd reiii]«n 
(liu iiTrifiti! Hioli iinggi-uTTiBble. SiitK.equeiuly rhi? ninhoriiie" found it neceEsaiy 
ru I'hvck iliv r«'ti|i:iaus xeo] whiuh tliej- hsJ prcTinusty (^ncaumifed. PeDitentiol 
prwessiDBs were pTohibiicd on finding how inuch h^fi^foolcd pietj eoatrihuted 
Id liill ihc cfinelcriee, 

t Tlmu Empi'viir of C on slant inople, John Palt^olopif, ijj order 1<> gbwin 
u^iscance from ttie W^^gt apnlnsE ilic TiirkE, sut^scrilx^d to articles o/ onion villi 
the Laiin CJiiirth, at Hit' Council of Florcnci; in 1439, Th^e anifles -were 
ibdignantly rejeclcd by the Greek Church, with the i-xcention of a Tery sm&U 
tninoriiT, whicli hfts ptcf Biwct remisioed id eonnnutili^u wiib Rddio. and which, 
iDCci»id«rkble as it is in every refsptct, has bMO di^iiied bj the TopK yr'wh Ibe 
name of tb« 'Ortbcidoit' Ur»k Chun^li. and ia vcn nKful id bim hr temling 
its bishop (o Attend hie court, nud bv their pn-seiicc al nil jprat c$rt>iiionii4 to 
give on air of reality to bis preteuaions as ' VniTCTsal PAtrinrcl).' 


The Feast of t/ie Conception. 


nearly precede ihe golden canopy wiiich announces the presence 
of the Pontiff himself. As the prorcssion slowly sweeps ihroug-h 
ihe marble portico, (he hug^e fans of peacock and cisCrich 
featLers, the reniain^ of Royal and Oriental state, such as in 
Egyptian pictures arc seen to accompany the Fhanuihs in their 
triumpli*, precede the chaif on which the Pope is borne aloft, and 
from which he showers down blessings (we mean benedictions) on 
the kneeling crowd. The great doors, thrown open to receive the 
proce&sion, show the interior of the church decked in its g^Ja, 
amy. The chant fit is the Litanv of the Saints) draws to a close 
as t)ic pageant enters^ and i& gradually lost in the Luminous haze 
and dim immensity of the biiihling;. The procession is long, 
the attpndnnce of prelates very numerous ; mure than two 
hundred, some of whom are come from very dUtani lands, 
are said to be present; in other respects the pomp displayed 
is only whnt on ^ent occasions is usual : as usual imn the whole 
reremonv is more striking in description ihan in reality- Assuredly 
the I*nntifital 'funzioni' are not calculated for the sentimental 
travel IcT. They cannot be seen without an amount of con- 
trivance and forethought, and without an exertion of dexterity 
and physical streng;th, which are destructive of all sentimeat. 
Xor are ihey intended for the poor ; the reserved places are 
numerous, the Swiss g-uards inflexible, the hedge of soldiers 
impenetrable. The ceremonies themselves have the defect of 
excessive length. On this 8th of December, though the pro- 
CAntoii entered the church soon after sunrise, it is a quarter 
past 11 before the last notes of iheOoapel, chanted first in Latin 
and then in Greek, as is usual at the Papal Mass, die away on 
tlie ear and are succeeded by a deep silence. Those who can see 
ami those who know the programme are aware that * Cardinal 
\Iacc'!u (then in his eighty-siitth year), the dean of the Sncrcd 
Oillege, is approaching the steps of the Papal throne,' in order to 
make a solemn petition in the name of the Church. 'He is 
accouipanied by a Greek and an Armenian bishop as his sup- 
poilers and witnesses, logether with the twelve senior archbishops. 
of the Western Churchy and (he officers of the Pontifical household 
who are the official wtlnesses of such important transactions," — 
i Wiseman's Pastoral Letter, p. 6.) The Pontiff answers favourably, 
but ' laUs on all to join him in firat invoking the li^lit and grace of 
the Holy Spirit.' Accordingly the V^ni Creator Sinritu$ is tnlooed. 
And ae;ain there is a silence deeper and inore solemn than before. 
But evt-n fit the verge of the crowd iherc is or seems to be audi ble at 
moments a voice rendered tremulous by age or emotion, U ceases, 
and suddenly a movement among the spectators, rapid as elec- 
tricity, makes us sensible that the tension is relaxed, the suspense 
TOL. XCVll. hO. CXCIII. L is 


T/ic Feast of tits Conception. 

is over, the cannon of St, Angelo, re-pchoed by mortars in tXw 
streets, aad the hells of nil the churcbeK,. announce to the city 
and the worUl, urdi cl orhi, that some event of gieat mtere&t to 
Christendom is consuin mated. 

And so it is. The Pope, speaking 'ex cathedra,' lias dog- 
matically defined tJae ' Imiiiaculate Conception of tlie Virgin 
Mnry.' By thin. Eunbiguous phrase is designated the doctrine 
that tile Virgin was not only mit'aculously born of sterile 
parents' (for to this asserlion Home bad already long ago com- 
mitted h(>rsctr), hut that further she was connreived without the 
taint of original &in. This proposition has long been disputed 
in the Romish Cburcb, but henceforth it is a necessary part of the 
Christian faith. The Bull * Ineffabilis Deus,' by which the Pope 
announces to the world his decision, Um since been published 
with great rejoicing^s iu all the dioceses into which he has been 
pleased to divide this country, and has been accompanied by 
pastoral letters of tb<; respective bishops to explain and defend 
the doelrinc, and to exjiose with triumphant cominiseraliuD the 
ignomnrc and misstatements of their Protestant opponents. One 
or two of these productions which have fallen in our way wc have 
inserted in our list, but it must not be understood that they have 
been selected as the most remarkable eithei' for their talent or 
their violence. The words of the ' definition' which was reiul 
by the Pope in St, Peter'*, are thus translated by the ' Priest of 
Westminster : '— 

'We declare, pronounce, and define^ that the doctrine ifhich lioFde 
thftt the lilesseii Vii-giu Mary at the first instant of her conception, by 
a siogidar privilege and grace of the omnipotent God, in virtue of liie 
ineriiH of Je^iis CKrit^i the Saviour of mankind, was pre^erve^l iutnia- 
culate from all i^tain of original sin, hae been revealed by God. a»d 
therefore should be firndy and conelanlly believed by all the faithful.' 
—P. 28. 

Mr. Laborde, the most conspicuous of the opponents of the 
doctrine in the Romish Church, seems lo think that an essen- 
tial formality was omitlcd when the above declaration was 
substituted for the perusal of the Bull in cxlenso. But the 
latter operation, it bad been ascertained by actual experi- 
ment, could not be completed In less than two hours — a fcarfid. 
addition to a 'function' already too long for dramatic effect, 
and for the patience both of performers and spectators, the 
vast majority of whom must have been fasting'. Nor indeed 
do we see the force of his objection. The whole of the 

* Bomi«( is his Cat<.>clu£niqaoti» for tluB.Uie Bull Coxa pis£xeeltaorSzloi IV., 

by -*hifh howeYrr ihedociriue is iiii[iliii1i nrhnrThiii ifmii il, 



The Featt ofth C&ncff'tufn. 


pablic cDremoniul must in randour be interpreted mcrelv as 
type, yr al>riJ<;cd sceilif representation, of the ineasurips. actliallj 
taki'n by the CburcEi in jireparin^ and pronouncing tbis dei'isioa, 
On hearing the desired 'definition' the Cardinnl Dean agail 
advanced, attepdetl ay before, to ictum the grateful thanks ol' th^l 
universal Cliurch ; tuid the ' Promoter of tht Faith ' • stepped foi 
WS^d to Aik if it was his HoljncM* pleasure tliot Letters Apustulif 
in coiiibrmitjf wiib the decree should be prepared. ' Lrt ihem be' 
prepnred' ('conliciantur'), replied the Pope; and accordingly 
this high functionary railed the College of Protonotarics to uitneas 
the i>rder be h^d received (' testes cstis'), and retirc^d. All tbis, 
including the previous petition of tbe Church and the formal 
invocation of the Holy Spirit, is a mockery of God and taatt, if it 
is to be understood to apply in a literal sense to a document lon^ 
since discussed, drawn up, and ready for inimcdiale publiratioo. 

The Bull i* dated on the vcTy day, the 8th Decwmber, 1S54. 
It euntainA nn elaborate dcreace of ibe doctrine, to wbicij we sliall 
advert presently, and proceeds to enforce it ivilh the usual dam- 
natory clauses, proaouncing tliat ' whoever &hatl presume to think 
otherwise has suJIered shipwreck of the faith, has revolted from 
the unity of the Churchf and, if he g-ivee uttrrance to Lis ibou-jht, 
he iocure by his own act the penalties justly eetablished against 

In ibis anathema lies tbe rtjal force of all that has been done. 
There is no law where there is no penal sauction. At sundry 
times the Popes have done all they c/>uld, or at least all they 
dnied. to encourage the belief; but lill now they have cautiously 
abstained from doing' that which alone can impo&e it on the 
consciences of the faithful. In tlie anathema lies the novelty 
which tije Komauists repudiate as so heavy a charge, indignantly 
denouncing the ignorance of Protectants who accuse them of 
inlri:»dueing a new arlich> into the creed. Whether the doctrine 
in question can as an opinion or belief be called new, is a 
merely verbal dispute, for we shall shortly proceed to show 
exactly how old it is. Tha.1 it is new as n dogma of faith is 
attested bv the solemn ceremonial we have been describing. If 
Mr. Laborde had died on the 7lh Decemlwr last, lie would bare 
been, or at least he might have lieen saved; if he had died ua 
the 9tb be must have been eternally lo»t. It is no business 
of ours to find plausibly-sounding circumlocutions lo convey 

■ frtimotor fidiiiL, lui imporUnE law-officer beloDging lo ibe tacred cougr^uicm 
of nt«s ; he tE lomiftimes called ' quas'ttO'r de honoribUA catlestium,' bei'aiuc ii \t 
hiiofficUl dnlylD oppose The dsimaof the Mfidldfltc* fo^l«;.^t^lic■atiol]al!^lcaI»J^li^5• 
tioQ, in onier to kcvuri? the (Complete iaTLtligaiioD of th'^m, Thi$. vdlcv vu beld 
maay vean by Luubvniiu, uflvmrdi IJuumJCl XIV. 

L :; 



T!ie Fmst of the Cotw^tim. 

or !o conceal the extravagances of Rome's exclusive doctrine, 
Xliis is the plain fnct ; and ti> asseii. tlmt no innovation ii 
made by a decree ivbirh involves such importnnt practical ron^ 
se<)^uenc'P9 to at least one part of the Komish fiock. »ml whicb'l 
hy tlie othtir is considered to conduce so mucli (we own we tlu not 
■ee exactly why) to the Virgin's lionour and to their own exuber- 
ant satisfaction, is contrary to common sense, aQ<l to the wliolf 
tenour of the language Ueld by thn Cburcb of Konie itself on' 
this occasion. 

All this may s«em very unimportant to historians of the old- 
school^ fur whom, as a modern French writer* expresses it, alt 
history lies in a barrack or an antechamber, in the marches of j 
armies or the intrigues of courts. Fifty years ago this move-f 
ment of the Rumiab Church woulil have been treated with sov( 
lei^n contempt^ if not with iitcveTent ridicule; but fifty yeara 
ago it could not have been made. At that time Home would 
have Ijad neither the wish nor the power to assume this attituderl 
of definuce, and the change aJTunls matter for serious reflection. 

Every year strengthens our conviction that 'Church affaira'-l 
are mure important than the ancient cbrooider was able to see oi 
the modem pljjlosophei- has chosen lo avoW, The free^thinkins 
historian of the last century in hia luixiety to depress the Clnirrb^ 
for the future underrates her influence on the past, and tlie [xili> 
ticiaii of the present day, in his pursuit of temporary expediency, 
afiects lo despise the agency whose operation it suits his purpose' 
to overlook. But whatever pbilosopliers may think or poliliciansi 
may say, religious feeling, and the vanims combinations which] 
sprin;; from it, the conflict of the ecclesiastical and civil powers, 
and the collision uf didcrlng creeds and opiniutis, bave sup- 
plied some uf ibe most important springs of human action since 
the introduction of Christianity. The ' Priest of Westminster* 
assures us that *lhc &tb December, 1854, was perhaps to the' 
Christian world the most important day that has dawned sincei 
the Council of Trent.' (p, 5.) And we are disposed to believvj 
that there may be less uf rhetorical Hourish in Ibis asserlioa ' 
than perliaps the reverend writer himself intended. The esta-| 
blisbiiient of a dogma has sometimes been a great pollttr^l 
event, and in this light it is possible the bistorian will see, 
cause to view the recent seitlement of the dispute respecting 
tlie Immaculate Conception of tlie Virgin Mary, 

The doctrine itself is but a small addition lo the lietemgcnpnu«.J 
massof futtion with which Rome bag overlaid the simplicity of tKei 
Gospel, but the principles she must sanction, in order to make it on 

• Lanfrey, L'Eglise et ]eE Philosopln-s du iS*-' Siftcl*, p. 130. 


The Feast of the Conception. 


article of faith, art matters of Ho small moment, BytluBS-tepshe has 
voluntariSy taken up Jhc positiun to which it has hocn the object 
«f al] hostile controversy to drive her, and on this disatlvantageous 
^ound henceforth her battles must be fought. I n her own vincvard 
she has sown the seeds of schism, which sooner or later must bear 
fruit. What may he the numerical strene;tli of th&disspnticnt party 
we have no means of estimating:; th«t they count in their ranks 
men of considerable, ability ani! learning is sufficientfj proved 
hy the Abbe Laborde's publications which "we have placed at 
the head of our list. His first work was written when it was 
not heretical to hold, thouph, as the event has proved, it was not 
permitted to avow, an opinion unfavourable to the fnshinnablcdoc- 
trine. It made a ereat sensation al Paris, and was (no wonder) put 
into the ' Indes,' or list of prohibited books at Rome ; for it was 
easier to condemn bis conclusions hy authorily than to confute 
them bv reasoning. It is a protest against the decision then 
impending, and is especially valaahle now as a record of 
the sentiments entertained hy reasonable Romanists before the 
decree, which, after five hundred years' hesitation, still seems to 
us precipitate, had reduced them to the alternative of schism or 
silence. Whether that schism must be pushed to separation is 
an anxious question. Mr. Laborde^s 'Mcmoirc des Opposaas' 
is an attempt which in similar cases has so often been made, anrl 
hitherto always in vain, to dispute the dogmatical authority of the 
Pope without deserting t!ie doctrine of Rome. What ultertorstepa 
mav be taken by the dissentients they themselves perhaps can as 
yet hardly foresee. It is not at the present time that we expect 
the full consequences o( what has been done to be developed, 
but that the future results niay be important is unquestionable. 
Great events have risen from smaller beginnings; and so vast is 
the influence exercised by the Romish Church over the destinies 
rif mankind tn general, and so complicated and perilous have our 
manifiild blunders in legislation made her relations with oar 
Protestant govomnient in particular, that, in introducing to oUr 
readers a subject in which her interests are so deeply involved, 
we are leading them, na we believe, into a social and political, 
rather than a theological discussion. 

Indeed with the theological part of the subject we have no 
intention professedly and directly to mcihlle. Few Protestant 
readers can need any arguments of ours to discrc^lit a theory 
which is maintaiaed not only without the support, but contrary to 
the authoritv of Scripture,* and is, in fact, only the development 


• If isnoidemed by the Katnsnistiithst iVirords of Scnptarc, taken in their ob- 
viowireiiw, arc opposed to the dociTine. PaiherP^rropc'tsolntioiiof this tlifflculty,. 


Ulc Feast of the Conception. 

of prerioas tictionE as baseless as itself. But in order to uader- 
Blnnd the nattife i>f the step whidi Home h&^ XnVen, and to appre- 
ciate its con&cq uences, we must trace the history of tlip doctrice, 
from tlifi first mention of it as a vulvar error, throug^h its 8uoce»- 
«vp stn^s as a dispute;! thesis and a ' pious persuasion,' till we 
arrive at its final triumph ns a. dog;ma of the Church; and in its 
hialory is incidentally involved its completest refutation. More- 
over tlie icvesUgatioii bin a further interest, inasmuch as it 
throws light on the formation of what I'rofcssor Butler calls the 
' mythology of the Rumisli Cliur<:h,' and also on its internal coadi- 
tjon and policy. In a notable instance we are enabled to mark 
every singe of the process by which errnrs gradually accumu- 
lating have been cort3<il idated Inio an article of fatlh, just as the 
sand rolled down by some huge river is formed nt Its iTiouth into 
a delta, which at last rivals in solidity the adjacent cmitinent; 
and one example presents the type of all. The history of tlie 
doctrine of the Immaculate Conception docs not differ from that 
of the other additions which Home has made to Gospel truth, 
except by the notoriety of its facts nnd the clear light which con- 
troversy has thrown on every step of its progress, till nt last its 
triumph is comummateil, not in a dark age and at a remote period, 
but in our own times and under our own eyes, and hence the 
value of the lesson to speak to those whom history watqs £□ 
vain ;— 

' Senilis irriliTit ftnimos demissEi pi?r aures, 
Quam quffi sunt octilis-aubjecta fldehbus ; ' 

and not less clearly will the narrative expose the arts of com- 
promise and pvasiun by which the Roman bee is wont to preserve 
its own authority together with a noniiaal conformity among its 
luerabers, and will show how much perplexity, indecision, and 
discord characterize the internal state of that Church which to 
the iulmiring' eyes of some even oi our own communion presents 
so fair an exterior uf consistency and unity. 

The origin of MarioUtry is to be sought in the natural weak- 
nesses and corruptions of the human heart, and in tlio traditional 
prejudices of paganism, rather than in any specific error or wtlJul 
and premeditated deteptinn of the hierarchy. If the Church of 
Home is infallibly inspired, it is in the body of believers ihat the 

Ipgical and cgnelusive (n Q Romanjct, is to » Prot«!*inii( npthing less thsQ ibe nir- 
n;ii<ler of ihi; yoiaX in dii^ute. Ilii only proof ihat tbi'Se pasfOfcsiD Sertplnre 
cannat reattg W- oppostrd to (he doclrme. n (niil in iliat case thu [iComuhJ Chnrch 
■would [ifVLT hnvi- (|ii3lified it as n 'pious pprmission,' Hi' nrpiw ;^" Objrcttt 
gt;Kpiurai'i]UL olvmii^k 13. Virginem uoii (augcri; : ai\t>qttin miilfpacio u[ pit aul pre^ 
pm/nuri ant pritaieari poiiel hac ienitntia, ted oamino ut Jalta, itt impia, iH^ni 
jefoula, quippe qait ifib/iorun auctorCieUi roatmria habtttda Hfd.' (p. 84.) 


TAtf Feait of the Coitceptipn, 


creative enpr^ of infaUtbility resi«ies ; it is the ' vox popiili ' that 
is the * Vol Dei/ In almost till her innovations the authorities have 
followed, net taken, the lead, have contented theai&elvn with 
sanrtionino;', from time lo time, the popular notions which it was 
dangerous to oppose or convenient to encoura^. ' Ei oribua 
parvulomm ' will no tloubl be the favourite text of the diseiplcs of 
develnpment, who se^m much inclined to adopt this thcorv oftbe 
Cliurcb's inspiration, forgetful tLat It is altogether belniv ber 
pretensions, and'that the very idea of her infallibility is incon- 
sistent With this eclecticism. By the writers of Dr. Newman's 
■chool tbe worship of the Virgin is doscTibcd as springing oooe 
con say whence, pen'ailing the early Church as the perfuine 
stents the Slimmer air, and denvin* additional crt^ibilitv from 
the absence of all support of authority or reason — a mode 
of ar^ment wJiich, if it had occurred to the ancient divines, 
would have saved them, and us loo, a great deal of trouble. 
lo 421 the Council of Ephesus gave the titte of * Theotnkos,' 
or Mother of God, to the Virgin. Its object waa not to enhance 
the dignity of Mary, but to vindicate the divinity of Christ in 
opposition to tbe heresy of N'eslorius; and in this sense ita 
decree was limited and explained. But it is certain that the- 
epithet, or rallier title, wbich in assertion of the orthodox 
doctrine was henceforth introduced into many passages of iht 
Eastern and Western liturgies, strpngthened the prevailing ten- 
dency to exalt the Virgin Mother. Its continual rerurrenre coa- 
stnntly suggested to men of warm feelings and strong intngina- 
tions the argument of congTUity or fitness, and led tliem to 
devise by their own unassisted conjectures wbai it was fining fori 
tlietn to believe and God to decree for the exaltation of one loi 
litghly favoured. Tbe growth of gaint and image worship aug-i 
mcDted the zeal with which the Virgin, the chief of sainta, ' 
whose image was the most attractive of images, was adored. 
At tl«e opening of the ninth century • the legend of her ' Assump' j 
tton'was universally received. Its details were confused and, 
contradictory ; but nothing less than an assumption would satisfy 
the faithful, and to gratify them the Church appointed a festival | 
in its honour. New titles, new attributes, new religious rites. 
Were emuloualy invented, (ill at last (savs Sarpi), alxmt the-j 
year 1050, a service to the Virgin was introduced, such as bad 
hitherto been reserved for the Deity alone. f To be wise beyond 

* An curlier dale is often ami^(;4 ; ii ii 'unposEihli; ut ArHvr u any iccancyaa 
dirte potaU, Some nuthorille* give »s ibe date the time whioi iho doctrine firtt 
Uinictvd sKeniioa, ^ids t3»t when it wu gituvciLlly admiu«d. 

t * l-'ii ulfiuo ijuuliiluuin (listiiuo ptr eaUe bore mcoDJche alln B. Verging,, aella 
fhrmii oTte ils &&dchUGinin tcmjw c-ni imtin^ MtuaelD celcbrarm in hgnor dells 
HseBiadiTink.'— 3sr|H, SlJi S««iaa, Anno Ui6. 



The Feast of the Cvnceptiffn, 

wbat in written is the peculiar enure of the Christian Churc)), as 
the pmsiinity of the Canaanitish idols wss thu stumbling- 
block of Israel. This love of speculation, combined with zfal for 
Maiy, soon niadcr the futtliful dissatisfied with the primitive doc- 
trine, which did not attribute to the V irgin an origin to di&tin^uiah 
her from other ehildren of our common parents. It was fitting, 
they urg;ed, tbiit li^r birth should not be less iniriiculuu& tliaii 
that of John the Baptist ; it was fitting that her holiness should 
amount to absolute impeccability ; it was fittirtg that this impe<s 
cability should be secured by a gnuctiHcation whirh liad taken 
place previously to her birth. These and simitar ** pioua beliefs' 
grew up in the Church, sing-ularly unsupported by Papal or cnn- 
ciliar sanction, and it is remarkable thnt such sanction as was 
given was for tbc most part late, inconclusive, and indirect* But, 
upvertheles?, they wereadyptod by the principal theolo^ianB, aad 
must be considered as the doctrine of the mediieval Cliurch. 

This successive germination of one idea from another, and the 
gradual transformation of each into an. article of faith, constitute the 
process wiiicli Mr. Newman Ijas dignified by the name of develop- 
ment^ a term speciously devised t<i imply tlie conclusions which it 
was ills business to prove. Professor Butler' complains of the 
ambiguity ol a word ' which is equally employed (in its commou 
application to the growth of org-anic structures) for the unfolding 
oi original elements, and the further iacorporation of foreign 
material.' But it is this ambiguity which ^ivcs it its value when 
applied in a metaphorical sense to the theory by which Mr. 
A uwinan endeavours to raise falsehood by lowering truth, and thus 
'to solve the difficulty which is occasioned ' (to the Romanist only, 
be it observed) ' by the difference between mcdiEPval and primi- 
tive Christianity.' To the cause of truth the introduction of such 
a term as ' development ' can only be injurious : it is vague and in- 
adequate when used to express the dedoctiong of a strictly logical 
process ; and wlicn applied to designate llie doctrines tbat have 
successively j^aiued currency in the Iloniish Church, it imputes a 
logical sequence to ideas which are connected only by order of time 
or by accidental associalion. The various inventions which we have 
enumerated, in honour of the Virgin, are * developments Dot of 
tte arcbangefs salutation but of the wish to exalt the Mother of 
God, working ujHtn minds which were not restrained by the silence 
of ScriplUKr, nor even, at last, by its express contradiction. When 
mediiEval theolo'gy had reached the point of attributing to the 
Virgin a sanctlfication previous to ber birth, it is obvious that tlic 

• Lettets on the DcTelopment cfT Clirisliaii Doctrint, by ProfeesoT Bntler, 
p. 99. 


The Featt of the Conception. 


neXI step must be to supp<)se that she was oot born citlier in 
tual ur original sin ; tbiit she wus not bom * sanetificata ' but 
incta.' Bui this, ilmogh it might appear to the vol^r the 
natural complement of their creed, was iinmctliately perceived by 
those who considered the matter more deeply to be a radiml change 
of idea. Ilithffto the teaching of the Church had only contra- 
dicted Scripture. Henceforth it would contradict itself. The new 
Ii_vpothesi« was opposed. Find from this opposition we are enabled 
with siifticienl accuracy to fix its date. No fact incicle^iantical his- 
tory can be more clearly proved than that for the first ten centuries 
after Christ, 'not the faintest traces of it are to be found. N"o 
canon, snys M. Laliorde, ' no fact, no dispute, no writitiE, reveals 
its esistence ;' and an overwhelming" array of early fathers and 
of popeA may be musterc<l, who m express terms magtitain that 
alJ, with the sole exception of Christ, arc included in original 
ain. Rut neither the silence nor the testimony of the fathers will 
convince those who have disre^rded the silence &nd the testi. 
mony of Scripture. Both, say they, only prove that^ at that time, 
* there was no question of the V'ir^n,' On what hypothesis, asks 
M. Laborde {p. 87), could there be no question of the \'ir^in ? 
Tliat her I iiirnacula te Conception was from the first universally 
believed? — Impossible. Ttiat men for a thousand years held 
(UfTer^nt opinions on the subject, and never compared tlieir senti'- 
mentfiV — Absurd. There remains, therefore, the only other 
possible hypothesis, which is the true one, that the doctrine was 

But Rome \s not so easily beaten, and s.he ever loves a 
double defence. Though the comparatively recent introduc- 
tion of the- doctrine is admiltwl, at least infcrentjally, by 
almost all its supporters, yet in express terms it is generally 
denicil, and the }*r»pe in his Bull, which is more argumentative 
tkian is compatible with infallible knowledg^e, or than is judicious 
in 811 weak a cause, labours hard to extract at least the ' perm ' of 
the doctrine from the Scripture and tradition. The passages Irom 
Holy Writ (amongst which, Noah's Ark, Jacob's Ladder, and the 
Bnming' Bush are cited as types of the Immaculate Conception) 
are such as cannot beapplicfl to the V irfin at all without begg^iog 
the whole (juestjon at issue between the Komish and Reformed 
Clnirches; and if thev could be so applied, have no more refer- 
ence to the present subject of dispute tban to any other perfection 
wbich a heated fancy may choose to astxibe to her. The quota- 
tions from the early falberSj given without references, are truly 
described ty M. Laborde < Memoire des Oppoaans, p. 79j as mis- 
conceptions and misr|uotations, impostures put forth to deceive 
the public, and such he undertakes to prove them before any 



The Feast of the Conception. 

council or conference, in tbe preseoce of all Christemlnm, The 
Pope's nninspirpd supporters are not less bold in their nsscrtinns. 
Garbled quotations (Labortle:, p. 54), interpolated and spurious 
passag^es, sing'ie pbraaes extracled fmm authors who in dirrct 
terms have held the contrarv opinion,* have heen brought forward 
wilh the most perverse ingenuity and perseverinof effrontery. But 
as an uverreaL-Eiing' litigant endeavours, by all the arts of chicane. 
to contest every step of the suit, in order to defer the hearing of 
the cause,, so it is ever the policy of Romish polemics to defend, 
with the mo3t desperate tenacity, the most untenable positions — 
no matter at what cspense of randour, sense, or truth. By this 
means Rome's owd voUiries, shrinking from discussion as from a sin, 
and, as Bishop Gillis says, ' anxious only to believej' are satisHeil 
that their tpacbers ha-ve much to s»y in tdpir defence, and on the 
other hand, an air of littleness, perplexity, and nbsctirity is thrown 
over the dispute, which disgu&ta the inquirer, and induces bim 
from sheer languor to Jismiss the question os unintelligible. We 
will not weary the render by pausing longer to sweep away the 
cobwebs which sophistry has spun over a matter of historical 
fact. For their exi>nsure we must refer him to tbe works of M. 
Laborde and the leameil and able sermfins hy Knglish divines 
which we have prefixed to this article. That arguments bo feeble 
and btatemcnts so untrue should hnve bc'en employed at all, is a 
curious fact in the historj- of the Romish Church, and would he 
Conclusive against any cause which could be fairly submitted to 
men's dispas&ionnte judgment. 

It might be difficult to fix -with certainty the earliest in- 
dication of the doctrine; but it is perfectly clear that it first 
attracted notice about the year 1140, when St. Bernard wrote 
his celebrated letter to the Chapte.r of Lyons to reprove them 
for having introduced into their Chnich the Feast of the Con- 
€M?plion. In this much-quolcd document he argiies under the 
impression that this innovntjnti i$ a proof of their t>eUef ihat 
the Conception was immacnlalc, and accordingly he proceeds 
to reprobate that theory as absurd — for why, he asks, should 
not the same honour be assigned to the Virgin's mother, and 
so on for ever? — as superstitious and presumptuous, because 
not authorized hy the head of the Church- — and abnve all, as 
new. St. Bernard was the most learned doctor of bis time, 
and could not be ignorant of the doctrine and history of his 

* Among othf rt. St Ai>s«Ina, irho is nid to tmre introdaoe^ the belief Into 
Eagload, t*xprc«»ly boldi ilie ctmtniTy doctrine in ■ letter irrittai fWiio Koine in 
1D9S. A po^^gL' fruni St, AugiiEtiD it quouid by the Romuuiu m bvoumlilo lo 
tht- opinjpu, wbicU, on cxatniiuitioD, hu nnlhitig; whatever to do Dith h. Dad 
relates golely vo ttie persnutl sirUfssneM of the Virgrii. 

Cbuicb ; 

The feagt of the Coriception. 


Church ; be was also milM remsirltable * for lits derolton to tlie 
Vir^Q,' ani) therefore coulrl have bad no indncement to nppoae 
the thenry of her Itnmnculatc Conception if he had not been 
rernlteJ by lI& novelty and unreasonnbleness. 

It is 3ti inslanrc of the unscnipuloua dexterity of the Chureh of 
Rf>tJie that in the cipw office of Ibe immnculate concrplit>n Is intro- 
duced a portion of a sermon by St. Berajinl ; and also in the Ency- 
clical Lelt^r of the present Pope two jwssajjes remarknble for the 
boldness with which they transfer to the Virgin the attributes of 
Omnipolface areciufited from the works of Ihe same fatlier; and 
thus, in the minds of the ua1eam{>d, ttie name of St. Bernard, the 
jr*en.I Jmpugncr of the doctrine, is associated with its tlpfertce and 
final triumph. The Scotch bishop shows himself still more ea*;er, if 
not more artful, in pressing the saint into the service of the cause he 
opposed : for he assures us (p. 5) that, notwithstanding this l^tler, 
St. Bernard did virtually bold the doctrine he reprobates ;• nest, 
thftt he Would hold it if he lived now ; and lastly, that he was the ' 
only fnther who spoke against it for nineteen hundred years. N^ow, 
it is perfecdy indifferent to our arjriiment whether Si. Bernard 
held the doctrine or not. His letter affords a proof which cannot 
be gainBaid, and which is all we wish 1o deduce from it, that 
at the time it was written the doctrine which it combats was 
nnff. Dr. Gilli*"^ defence, which we should have tJiought better 
calculated for a meeting; at the Dnblin Rotunda than for the 
pretB of Edinburgh, is a melancholy proof what argument* 
may be addressed by their pastors to British Roman Catholics 
in the present excited state of religious feeling. Its last assertion 
U the jno«t Curious instance of jesuitically pspressed truth or 
cxtravajTiintly bold misstatement that we remember to have seed. 
Si, Bernard is popularly called the fatt of the ' fathers ;' and : 

• It M not posubli.' HOT Bl nil rn'ccsjsrj" la E" 'nt** the BUhop's reasons for thii J 
■wenioa. TJie l«ller <rf St. Bernard h perfectly dear mi the siiuject; it ta verj im- 
poriAat^ tar n ii <vnalc)]r thic letter irliLcli hu prevented ihe dcSnitian of the 
do£:ma centu riot ago. tt is the IT-lib in itia collcuiiaQ.iuid doscrvee to be Nsd 4t 
leiiftlh. The fallowing are n few of ttnf mosi iin[">rwpi pBis«a«»= — 

' tttidc iRiramur satis qnid Tttaiii fnchi htx tempore'!) a ibtit^dam vffilrdin rolaivB 
mnurc Hklon^m optimnin mvam iaJucendo ceUbritaletn, q«am riltit teelttitt iuie£(| 
nirn prt'liat ratio, nvii cavoHmdaC antiqaa Iradilio. Nuniuiil jjalribiif lioctioresBut 
dimrtiores sumiis? Pt-riciilose prirtunijinTtf .luLoqiiid ipsomni in itJibui ginidcutia 
pfn:i*ri*it ? Nee Tei-o id tale rat, quod riai prajierenndum foerit, p^Irum 
i^iuvmt atntiiiio diligeDtiam pra;irni>te Aiiorjain nulla ti ra- 
tio nr p lac ebit contra ecclizaiic ritnm pMrsiuupiA aovitai, ouHit letQcrit&tiSi soror ' 
■Upenlilionift, filia levltatij. Nam *i cii? vidchitnr CDn&uli^iula erat priug 
■jpOMoUcR Bedit aulorilit, et xmo. its pncdjiitanlvr ntfiiie incouEdte psncomu 
BCqQenda j^implii'iliis impmiorum. ...... Quid Italian propti^i' cnmletrt. 

eatwam, i:Uiiia alriqne pifireiitt igus fettos boDOivs a».M^Tat dcfcreudo* ? Scd Je 
Bvia rt proavis idip«nm posK-t pro •iniiH cau^ quiltbei flRgitare, fl sic tendereiur 
tn lafinitDiB. e( festorum uon eiEOi comenu.* 



The Feast oftite Conception. 

if tbe word ' father' !» u&cd in its strirter application, iu he is 

)fl\ie. first who mentions tlie doctrine at all, so lie must necessarily 

lie the Wc who spcalfs against it. If father, in a looser sense, 

is used to designate any ^reat doctor of the cbui'cb, hoW shall wc 

qualify so strange an assertion respecting a dntrtrine which lins 

been disputed for six hundred years, and wliich ^11 the ^reat 

►teachers «i the age succeeding that of the saintly Abbot of Ciair- 

Vaux continued iinanimouBly lo condemn : Peter Lombard, Bishop 

of Paris, knnwn in ecclesiastical history a& Master of the Sen- 

■ tenccs, ami all hJB tomraeDlators, Si, Thomas Aquinas, 'the 

L^neelic doctor;' his master, Albertus Magnus; our couDtryman 

llexaodpr Hfiies, the 'irrefragable doctor, and his pupil St. 

iuonaventura, the great doctor nf tlie 'Seraphic' or Frapciatan 

order, ^hich suhseqiiRiitly identified its cause with tliat of the 

Immaculate Conception ; and all the great founders nnd shining 

lights of the scholastic theology rxincurred in hulding in express 

lerms the contrary opinion. 

But if the doctors of the 'School' did not favour the new 
theory, llicv prepared the wav for its reception hy the subtle 
and alislruse speculations ot Ijuman reason which ihey sub- 
stituted fur the careful study of God's word, and eveu of the 
works of their predecessors. It was the temper of the day to 
believe that by syllogisms duly constructed it was possible to 
enlarge the boundaries of knowledge. In physics men studied 
not the wonders of God's creation, but speculated on the means 
by wliich he might have effected it ; in theology they sub* 
stituted Aristotle (8arpi complains) for ihe Scripture, and, in- 
stead of humbly inquiring what God had been pleased to reveal, 
they strove to ascertain by reasoning what it was consistent with 
his essence and dignity to ordain. In the yearl30G our country^ 
man Duns Scotus, or John Scot of Duns, of the order of St. 
Francis, who fdled the chair of divinity at Paris with such 
renown that he was known by the name of the 'subtle doctor,' 
■was the first divine of note who proposed the doctrine of the 
Immaculate Conceptionj not as a deduction from Scriptare, nor 
as a tradition of the Church, but as a subtle speculation to be 
debated as an intellectual exercise. In the middle ajjes 'pure 
reasfjn' laboured as hard to deface the fabric of the Cio&pel bv a 
scaffolding of its own as it does in these days to overturn (he 
building alt*>gether. His words are very remarkable ; iliey prove 
beyond a doubt that up to that time, from the <lays of Si. Ber- 
[liard, the doctrine bad found no favour from tbe doctors and 
leads of the Church. 

'Cod,' he says, ' might have urder«d it so that the D'ewed Virgin 
ne%'er was tu originaJ sin^ he might liave ordained that she abould be 

Thfl Feast of tli« Conception. 







in It for not more thau an ini^lant; he might have ordained* that she 
•ihoukl remain in it for a long- time, and was purified fromjt only at tlie 
last niomeiit. Which of these ]x»i«ibil)tie5 is true He only knows; but 
it seems riglttt to attribute tu Mary that which is most extelknt, pro- 
vided always that it is not re^uguant to the teachujg of Scripture ut 
t)sm <iecre« of the Church.' 

ScotuB died in 1308, and probably never knew ■what fares lie 
had sown in the Cliurch. But the seed fell on gjonnd only too 
■well prepared to receive it, and brought furtb a plentiful crop of 
formalism and strife. The proposition pained adherents and con-' 
tinned to he dehnted in the same spirit in whicti it wa& put forth, 
as an intellectual tdcsis. The affirmative was defended almost ex- 
clusively, ml tlie beaten ground ol fitness. The argument was. 
summed up by the BchiK>lin«q in the following formulary— i 
* Potuit (Deus, scil.) decuit, ergo fecit.' AEaal what may nut bff 
proved by this train of Tcasoning if man is to be the judg;e 
of w'lat it is Itlting fui God to do? How dilferent (exL'laimS' 
M. LabuTilc, p. 32) would the scheme of man's ^alvatiun have 
been, if man liad been consulle<i as to its * fiioeas' t And of this 
indeed those who thus argued for raising the Virgin above the 
lot of sinful bumanicy unronsciously gave proof, nut perceiving 
that Ihpir zeal, which they attributed to a desire to do her 
honour, was but another symptom of the revolt of humaa 
reason against the rnvstery of the redemption as revealed 
by Scripture, and of man's desire to bring it into harioony 
with his own imag'inatlons. On the other hand, those who- 
maintained the negative, were many, learned, and vehcment,- 
and religious rivalry gave to the dispute all the zest of i 
politii^l contesL The Franciscans made it a point of vanity 
and interest to defend the theory of their great theologian Scotua. 
The Domiqicans sided with their angelic doctor, Thomas of 
Afjuinum, not yet a saint — but a saint, Sarpi tells us, this con- 
troversy made him ; for the pope, John XXII,, in order to punish' 
the Franciscans for taking the part of the Emperor Louis of 
Bavaria, whom he had excommunicated, determined to mortify 
them bv canonizing the great doctor of the rival schoul of tlieologv. 
But Dotwithstandinc; the beatification of Thomas Aquinas and 
the fr«jwns of the VfttJ<an, 'the pious opinion' (pia scntentia), as 
it i» calSed by Father I'errone, gained grnumi, especially in Paris, 
where the strife was hottest. Towards the cltrae of the fourteenth'! 
itury Johannes de Montesono, a Spanish Dominican, publiahed- 
irteen propositions, by one of which he included the Virgin 
under orifiinul sin, and by another (iolcnded no doubt as sub- 
sidiory to the formerj he affirmed it to be contrary to the falili 
tu assert anything tu be true which was contradicted by Scrip- 



XJte Fvasi vf the Conception. 

tare. All the fourteen were indignantlj condemned by the 
Sorbonne. Tb« Bishop of E>-r«ux, who defended him, was 
obliged to recant, and to confess Limself ' male consaltuB and 
male infcrmatus { and a p^rseculion <n~a5 rai&pd agnlfist the 
Dominicans, who were expelled the university, denied the exercise 
of the priestly office, ami were insulted by the mob in the streets ; 
till, at liLSt, they purchased a peace trom their i^pprcsSQrs by 
concessions net move sincere than those extorted in a subsequent 
age from Galileo by the Inquisitors. 

It is remarkable that the party which tot>k the antipspaJ side 
in church ^vemment were thf must vehement supporLcrs of this 
(now-a-days ultramontane) doctrine respecting the Virgin Mary, 
and so entirely had divinity becuinea mutter of human speculation 
— a branch of metaphysics uncoimected with, any revelotion of 
Gad's will — that in the Council of Constance, which sat from 
1414 to 1418, GersoQ,* as Fleury tells us, the great advocate <if 
Gallican liberties, proposed (but happily fur the Council in vat n) 
to make a derlaration in favour nf not merely the imiliaculale 
conception of the Virgin, but also that of St. Joscpti, TLc ' pious 
opinion ' was taken up twenty years Later with more succe&s at 
the Council of Bale ; atld that it was there confirmed (thqugh not 
indeed enforced by anathema) is no slight proof how much 
it had fj-amtd in the mean time in public estimatioQ. For the 
Council, having been declared schismalical by the Pope, Eugeaius 
IV., wasaoiious by the popularity of its acts to canvass for support, 
and, by deciding its adhesion to the new doc:triiie, hoped to 
enlist the sympathies of Christendom in its favour. But the Pope 
was triumphant, and neither be nor his successors would acknow- 
ledge ajiy decision of a Council which, even before it« open rup- 
ture, had done so much to limit the authority of the Roman see. 
Kor a time the ill-omt-ned patronage of the fathers of Bk\6 threw 
tlie cause of the Virgin into discredit at Rome, and that her 
ultramontane advocates should now quote the decree of these 
scliistnaLical doctors shows how difhcull they 6ad it to obtain 
support from more orthodox quarters. 

Hitherto the Romish see appears to have been neutral in the 
dispute, if not hostile, But neutrality soon became impossible, 
and the first step it took was in favour of the ' jiious persuasion.' 
In spite of Su Bernard's remonstt^mce, the festival of the Con- 
ception had been retained by the CaDoi;^ of Lyons, aud was sub- 
sequently introduced into many other churches^ though as yet 

' Jeftn Cbarlier was liora ui. tie tillage of Gersoa in CLaiojiikgne (whi.-ni» the 
nfttnc tij which he was cQiumoiiIy knowTi). Hi* works were pnnlwl in UiJIbihI m 
I7(W, in a tcIb. folip.^FlMiiy, ' Uiit.,Eccl.' Ut. cLu. Pfo. 206. 



The Ffoji ofe/ie Concsptiou. 159 

unsarictifincd by papal authority. In the vbai" 1476, a period of 
public lalamity, when Rome was terrified by e^ctraord iuary 
inuadalions of the Tiber, and ^lesolated by the pestilential rcvcivt. 
which the receding Hoods left behind them, the reigning Pope, 
Sixtu« IV., determined to take aome step to propitiate the 
Blessed Virgrin, the protectress of the city. To this he was 
impelled by the soperstition of the people, who were clamouriog 
in Diutinons devotion round the' fthriocs of their i^tronees, and 
perhaps hy his own, for, though in Uis moral conduct one of the" 
worst of men, he was not uninfluent-eil by the I'onualislic piety 
oi bis age, and, as a Franciscan, he was willing to gratify iha< 
conlroversia! vanity of his order by favouring the doctrine it ha^J 
etpoused. He established the feMt of the Conception, and 
lanctioned the use of an ofUce for it, composed by his secretary 
NojSramla, in which tt is styled ' immaculate,' but which was sub- 
sequently withdrawn. 

It will be remenifaered that St, Bernard objected to the festivaU 
chiefly because he supposed that it implied a belief in the doo 
irioe which he considered ra3b and unfounded. But as the 
feast continued to spread rapidly, wliile the doctrine remained 
unsupported by any authority of weight, it became necessarf'.^ 
fur the peace of the chureb, as well as for its credit and con- 
sistency, to repudiate this inference." It was observed that ' 
many other obvious reasons mig"bt be a^sijKoed for celebrating ■ 
the i-onception of one to whum so remarkable a place in the 
economy of the redemption was assigned. It was remarked 
that the Assumption was celebrated by its special festival, 
tbou^''h the AssurnptioD was nut an article of fajth. The ex- 
ample of the Eastern Church was quoted, which appointed a 
festival for the conception of St. John the Baptist, though no one 
ever attributed to him the high privilege which is now the sub- 
ject of dispute. The feast it was found might be celebrated bj 
the faithful in ^ differeid senses.^ Those who objected to receive 
it as a confirmation of the Immaculate Conception understood ic 
as a. homage to the tpi'ritual conception or sanclification of tiis 
V^irgin, which was now an admitted point of orthodox belief. 
From the first, in short, its ambiguous character was established,, 
and it thus became the prim« agency in that legerdemain hy- 
whicli the Koman Sec presented the same object at the same time'l 
to the belief and the disbelief of ditferent classes of her subjects* 
The festival was iostiLuted by a Pope who probably desired?] 

* BclUnulnt; anil ptlter great Qiitlioritiea are it^'Qt^ **> prove thi*. Bul it iS clear 
thai u long an ilie Cburcb diO eujoia tbe leut,aad did not eutarce ths dnclriiie, 
it must titu^ ]uninttun4.-i then; was no aeoeuuY conaexiciii b!iwt'iui the two. 



7he Feast of the Conception. 

to prepare the way for the introductiun of the doctrine ; it was 
encouraged Bubacquently by Popes who did not wish nr did 
not dare to confirm the doitrirte, but were fain to Ratify the 
turbulent piety of its adherents by privileges which they frranted 
easily to the feast, because the grant did not invoU-e a decision of 
tbe questiun. Apd now the feast and its privilege?, having- been 
employed for four hundred years by infailible authorities to 
mean somethinn^ or to mean nothing as occasion required, arc 
quoted by the present Pope, not less infallible than his prede- 
cessors, as meaning everything, and dn in fact constitute the whole 
of that which the Hull ' Ineffabllis ' can with any truth quote as 
the tradition of the Church. 

Pope Sistus, though he bad meant to proceed tentatively and 
cautiouslyi fonnd that be bad );one a little too far — he bad given 
en cou Fakement enough to the advocates of the doctrine to make 
them violent^ but not enough to make ihem victorious. He was 
alarinBd at the tiimuU he bad created, and in terms of the most 
iiidicnant displeasure he thundered out in tbe bull ' Grave 
nimis ' the strictest prohibition to discuss the matter at all, and 
deuounccd ezcotnmuiiJEation against either party which should 
presume to tax the other with heresy and impiety. But to 
silence theologians inflamed with the furv of controversy is 
beyond the power even of a Pope. Tbe zeal for the Immaculate 
Conception only increased^ and tbe agitation became so dan<|;erou3 
that Lei> X. applied to the theologians to devise some remedial 
measure which be intended to submit to the council of the 
Lateran, but be was diverted from his purpose by the tumult of 
tbe Heformation, which (according to Sarpl) sobereil tbe dis- 
putants for tbe moment, ^ns the advance of tbe enemy calms the 
factions in a besieged city.' 

As ibe lime drew near when thp CHcumenical Council, which 
from the first stage of the Reformation bad been demanded by all 
Christendom, as tbe solution uf all doubts, was at la^t after years of 
delay and difficulty about to be assembled at Trent^ both parties 
looked forward with con5dence to the final settlement of the dis- 
pute, and each anticipated a favourable decision. The Duniini- 
cans, as we are told by the great historian of the Council, relied 
on Scripture, the writings of the fathers, and the older sciiolaslic 
writers ; the Franciscans appealed only to the wide-spre^l popu- 
lar belief, to revelations, and to jniracles„ Launoy speaks with 
the same contempt* which is implied by Father Pftolof only, of 

* 'Veritas Dei bominum mcudaciu qoil eget,' LHunov, b Jauseiiisl, in tliv««*rii- 
tecDtli century wroie iwo crifatuwi on itnj loipuiculaMf Cotic«|)tiou, which taa\ 
bv cnlM aDtvuBnerable. K. L&borde Ecems a LLtde aetili:d[ at being lold bis 
ar^iEieiite are tmty a reproduction of Lo.unoy'5, tiiiJ urge^ that Ilu: qnotidu is 
not whether they are laiinoy's, but irhetber they are souod. 


Tfie Fmtt of the Conc/tjition. 

ttiis supcrlmoian testimony, wbicb to Protestant ears would sound 
tlie weightiest that could be offered ; but mimrles in the Romish. 
Cliurch have alwavs btflil a part of ecclesiastical machinery, an<3 
botU the writers above quoted were too familiar with such tricks 
to attach niui^h consequence to the per form ojlces of a tbauma- 
turgie IViar or the viEions of a delirious nun. 

la the 5th session oJ the Council, in ihe year 1546^ the question 
of original sin was to be debated aod defined, and it seemed in- 
evitable that Ibe Fathers must decide that the Virgin was or 
was not excepted from its operation. In vain the Pope's legates, 
whn presided over the Cuimcil, reminded both parties that they 
were met to condemn the tenet* of tlic heretics, and not to tbrow 
stumbling blocks in the way of the faithful. The matter was 
warmly debated. Giovanni of Udine urged on the part of the 
Dominicans this dilemma:*^ — - 

' Eitiier St- Paul and the fathers believed this exemption of the 
Virgin rr>m the commfln condition of man, or ihey did not. If they 
beii'trver! it, ami yet in deliveriug tin; whole btwfy of Christian doctrine 
made no mi-tuion of il, why wi]l yon not imitate iheir reserve? If 
they did not believe it, why do yon introduct; ftuew belief!' ' 

The reply on the other side is remarkable, as showing a clear 
appreciation^ by the supporters of the doctrine, of the only plea 
on which it run be defended— the posicssion by the Church of 
an unlimited pi .ver of development, or rather (for development 
i« ni)tsuflicient)of creation, rather LombardcUo, a Ftnnriscan, 
retort e< 1— 

'■ Thai the actual Chureh had no less authority than tlie primitive 
Church, uud tliut if the onanimous consent of che latter hud taught 
her rneiiibefs lo ^ppak of original sin wjiliotit excepti'm of llie Virgin, 
the coinsent of the fonner, which is proved hy the; universal accepiwipe 
of the feaM [here? is anolher instance of the part played in the dispute 
by tlie fvost], should leach u&uow not to omit the exception.' 

^le legate:^ in their perplexity applied to the Pope. A 
dispute in an infallible rhurch is a scandal, but it is less scinila- 
lous than a schism. The Romish see, besides its primary object 
of obtaining' a dogmatical decisinp against all who had renounced 
il3 obedience, had another hardly lcs.s important^ which we 
would recommend to the attention of those English divines who 
believe that unity exists in the Romish Church, and that after 
b«r example, by a stringent dogmatism, unity may be preserved 
in our own Church: this object was to avoid giving any decision 
which might drive from ber pale any who wer<? willing to retain 
their allegiance. Now to decide against the sense or the nonsense, 

* Svpi.vd. t&89. p, ISG. 



T/(5 Feast aftfw Conception. 

as WiLkes- has it, of so large v; part of Roman Catholic Europe 
was Lmpo6sible> To oppose the IcamiDjj aDiJ reasoning of tljc 
powerful ociler oi SL Dominic, the giuu-djaii^ of llie IViitii, xUc 
cUriKrtoiis of the Hulv Incjuisitiuu^.waa.aut less so, The (iactrtoe 
ViAM too new to confitTri,, tou pupiJai' to condeuiD. 

The letrntps receivsil positive uidera (roiu tlie Pope to put an 
end to tho dispute as th^y hest coiilil, and to CDJurcc* tiie silence 
Gitioiacd byiSixtus IV. Accordingly they proposed (it was all tliey 
could duj that the in^piseil Counril should declare it kue^v nolUiug 
about the matter, by subjoining to tlie decree on originiil sin thai 
it iot^iiilcd qeitber lo iuoludc nor to exclude tbe Vifgiii. Tlic 
Franciscans sUrtJ^gled hard lo in|j>}duce the i^inod's approhnliuii 
of the doctrine ns a ' pious belief/ but they wt^re foiled by the 
oppasitjoa of the legates who positively objerlpU to coDlirm 
iudireetly a doctrine to whicli they had refused tlieir direct 
sanction. Nevertheless afttr endless disputes they were strong 
enough to i:xny tlie woiding o£ the decree in llie form least 
unlavciurabJR to tlteir own views. Tlie Virgin was ' not in- 
cluded' in the g^eueral condeui nation of the children of Adjani, 
find those who pleased might hence infer her ei.clusion.* But 
to leave an open question is not ihe most dignified, resource for an 
infullible anthority, nor the readiest mode of silencing n dispute. 
The laity took up the matter, eager to propitiate so puweiful a 
patroness as the Blessed Virgin, and delig:hted to wnrL out thcir 
salvatioii al so cheap a rate; oppusilion seemed to give the doc- 
trine fresh value in their eyes, and they were glad to savt them- 
selves the labour of reflection and discussion by acquiring the 
merit of an unreasoning faith, 'i'hey forme<.l confraiiemities to 
do the doctrine honour, and they instituted orders of thivalrv lo 
m.lintain it by knightly prowess a^rainst all gainaayers. The 
faculty of Theology of Paris, which ever since 141)8 hail made 
adhesion to the dcclrine a uecGssary qualification for a degree, 
far outstripped in. their zeal the orthodox standard. For a cen- 
tury or more they embroiled the church, and in disobedience 
to Popes and in de^anre of councils continued to dispute and 
to persecute. IVloK than once they incurred e^cummunicatioo 

• Sm foJlavicini. lib, vii. cap, 7. His lestimory prort^howuixioiu ttte Synod 
and \tf- prcsiiltuls wtre lo repuilible tlieiafemnce ■which J'iiis. IX. dTawa from their 
decree, II* is nnprv willi Sarpi'sarrogaace in Epcokiiig t)isrc!,pi.-clfuUy cf adoiitrine 
^bich forthiy^buuclrvilyeara bftil ap|)eRrad Mnie or probublt' towmaii? Itaruwl 
docConi. At Gvcny lurn w« mtsel 'nilh niniiltT ailmifsiom from iu BdTocRlcsnf 
itii compiLralivc novelty. The fQllowiiig are the words of tha decree :—' Dedanit 
uunen tuvc ipsv S. I^vnuilus noii i-xsc ^mk LniemioTiis conipreheiid^re In hoo iKreto-, 
iibi lit peQcaio- ori^-nQali apitiir. l>«'iiiaiii ei irtunapnlaiam Virginem Mnnam EVi 
{centnricvm, eolI ubBurvanilas eui: coiiKtJuiiioui» felitiA reeordntiotiiiSix'H I^^kfiiElV., 
»i>b pcEitis iu lis eonstitutiaaibiu cuutaoitis, 'tiutti'Luiivral-' 


T%e Fent efUm C a m uf tiam . 163 

aad tke pa{t of sdusm, bnt scIubk in waA a. cwneis waem healed 

Scimulated hy this example, wmar frfbrr of the most fiiiw 
universities of Eiirope emalotHly profesMd dwir adToeaer of At 
new A>ctrine. linioefortfa the mrradTe recwn fa a ottoB^ Inrt 
R-iatnphs and co D Twr si ons. Bat Aeae trinntphs and vuiTeiskma, 
as M. LaAtorde i^narks (p. 93), jmnc too nniHi. Eb sfauwiag 
br how manj the pioas belief was ncnved in die nxteeaA 
centorjr, tbey also show by how manr it had in die fonner 
oentoTf been mikiiown or rejected. 

It is acntdj mnaifced b_v Sooth^* that the di^mte bad a 
greater ^ect in promoting Mariolatrr tbaix coold bare beea 
prodaced by the tame acquiescence of all Eoiope in die new 
dof^tTRK; Its opponrats, dreadin^ the sdgma of impiety cowanb 
Ae-modierof God, ried with its sopporters in riic eia^geiatioa cf^ 
their worship of her, and the extrar^;ance of their 6ctions in fas' 
bononr. The DfHninicant, to re^un their popolxritT, in renled or 
Terived the legend of the rossTT, and endearonred liy feasta ^id 
confraternities, and other institations connected with it, lor JH of 
which they obtained a liberal conce ss ion at indolgCDces faim tbe 
holy see, to raise a coimterpoise to the 'Immaculate Conc e ptiiMiL* 
Like all who eompete for popular faronr, they outbid die extra- 
vagance 'and tbe mischief of their rirals. The new pinam tank 
effect, but did not act as a comiterpois o n. ^e* nT^r ^iJ"'*"*! de- 
rotion of the rosary supplied a cheap sobstitnte for molality 
and religion, and completed the system of formalism with which 
Rome has got rid of tbe weightier matters of the law ; but die 
devotion to the Immaculate Couoeption only became deeper, and 
the fury of the dispute W3xed hotter. Towards the close of 
the centory Pins V. foand it necessary to prohibit by a new 
bnU * Super speculam* all further discussion of the subject ta 
mixed assemblies and in the rnlgar tov^ue, bat he left to 
learned acrimooy the safetr ralre of Latin and the dirimn' 
schools. He endearoQied to satisfy both parties by asneninif to 
the feast of the Conception a new serrice which ooald oiffeod 
neither, and he allowed tbe Franciscans to use tbe office of 
Nogmols in their own churches. Rus V. had been an Inquisitor, 
and was of course a Dominican. 

Paul V. and Gregory XV^ harassed by the pious impo rt uni ties 
of tbe kings of Smin, who showed their derotion by making tbe 
interests of the Blessed Virgin at the Court of ILome a matter 
a£ secular diplomacy, gave bulls, enhancing the digmty of the 
* Feast ' and confirming those of their predecesson in the 

■ Viodicic Eccksbr Angltnmr, heUa X. 

H 2 mun^ 


Tha Feast of tite Conception. 

main, but in their laofruage more favourable to the fiisbionable 
d<»ctrine, Grtgorj in a letter to tlie King of Spain esplainwd 
that it was not in bis power to do more, adding (in dir«:l 
contradiction, to the assertion of llie presrnt Pope) tbat llie 
dosiJi^tical decision' which the Kinrr desired could not Ijp 
given^ heoaute tfif doctriue was not reuea/cd by God;* and by a 
special Bull (Elxiinii atquc sinrrularis) he gave permission to 
the DMinJiiicaiis to continue their disputations on ibis subject. 
Alexander VIL al last published a BuU ' Sollicitando omniuiin 
ecclcsiarum,' whic!i Father I'enone boasts siJenred the contro- 
versj'. The fact is that tlip zpal nf the combatants by a patur?! 
reaction had relaxed. Alexander's Bull, though stronger in its 
language, did not differ In substance from those of his predecessors, 
B)* all these Bulls it was forbidden to express the opinion that 
the Virjiin. was conceived iu original sin, but it was nevertheless 
declared lawful to hold it, and unlawful to censure it. Shall we 
still hear coinplainls fmm certain lingiish divines thai our own 
Chiireh speaks witli the ' stammering lips of ambiguous for- 
mularies ? ' 

And thus the matter lonj^ rested. It is liardly worth noticing 
the Bulls of Clement IX. and Innocent XII., by wbicb^ in 
loinpliance with the devout importunities of the faithful, thev 
augmented the honours and privileges of the feasl.f In the 
liberal indifffrenre of the Instieolury Ganganelli (Clement XIV.) 
and Braschi (Pius VI.) were harassed b^ no such importunate 
piety^ nnr would they themselves have restrained a smile of 
philosophical conteinpt had they be™ so solicited. Indeed it is 
a curious proof of tlie temper of the times ami the pliancv of 
Rome that the latter Pope liad prepared u gradual retreat for 
the Church by relaiins the obligation of attending llie fenst : 
but the triumph of revolutionary France swept away for the time 
Eiij spiritual as woll as tern]>oral power, and leaves it uncertain 
what further measures he contemplated. 

At the cnmmenteuient of the present nenlury the Papaev 
had sunk to a point of depression from which it seemed to 
buman foresig;ht impossible it sliould ever rise. To ' liberal ' 
statesmen a Druidical persecution would have seemed nearly as 

' Gpist. a.i] TicgL'ni HUp. There wis ■ dnptite raised wb«clLvr in Gregory's Bult, 
' immacubie ' sliould be coTiB'nfpii with ' Virpiole,' or ' cuactptidiiis ;' and iu uuf 

of iIiL* pubtisbnt copiefl of the Bull x\iv vord wm tran^poseil iti aiAft to favoar ihv 
IffltliT versJON, allbciugh the Popt ifi llie Hull eipre>*Iy forbndt the use of the 
epithet imiHaciilaie us sppiiirf tu ilnf coDctpiiuw! Singli are liumish poJonaics. 

t A Bnlt ivf Clement XI. ha« be^ii qugied fey a Pruii^Am wHicr to prove (hit 
Chat PutitifF did IU faet dL-cide tbe dispute. The Hull iu qucKiioa only uuioiiM 
ntletidaiice on tbv /eat of the Conctplim, and ye liavi? alruudj choKii liutr iLcx- 
ti^TOUsI]' (he fi;:isl is emplojred to nteoa «Tiinriliiiig or oothiug. a^ ai.-«B^ioiJ miV} 


The Featt ofUte ConcepliM. 


pmbable as a Papftl aggressloq — tbe flamen of Jupitn as formid- 
able OS the Pope of Rome. Our wittinst writers represented 
Rnmnnism as » worn-out superstition wbich nolbing but an in- 
judicious persecution coulU keep alive, and thev overwbelmed 
in one unfliscrioiinatinir torrent of conletnpluous ridicuSe the 
votaries of Kumc and her opponents — with this disrioctitin only, 
that the une tbej addressed in pity, the other tn anger. *To 
dreail the thunder? of" the Vatican in a remote village' was ridi- 
culous. To 'hold the argtunent of divided allegituice' WAi worse 
thsn unreasonable — ^it was proviacial. To suppose that Ro- 
manists believed anv article of their own rreed was insulting to 
human nature. And thislaijgiia^ fontinued to b^ held li^np after 
a strong and steady reaction had begun. The policy of Rome 
was at that time little understood in this conntrr, and her pro- 
ceedings attracted little attention, Pius VII- had gained pnblic 
sympathy by the dimity with which he had boroe misfortune, 
«nd llie tirmness wilb which he had resisted the common tyrant. 
He had been schooled by adversity — coutd be be a big-ot ? he 
bod l>een restored to bis dominions cliieSy by Protestant arms- 
and Protestant influence — could he be nngrateful ? Cardinal 
ConsaU'i was a man of talent and a Biati of the world ; he was 
not in boly orders ; he despised the Roman Court and his 
brethren u( the Sacred College, and wa^ bated br them in turn. 
He was civil to the English ; that is 1o say, he frequented ibc 
'salon' of an Knglish lady of rank,* and he did not prevent the mob' 
of travellers from meeting together for worship in a large roonft 
which they hired for the purpose. Less than thiK would bava* 
secured the character of 'liberality' from our writers of toun — a. 
tlever but careless tribe, who usually formed their opinions of 
the p<iUlical and social state of Italy before they reached it,* 
and wrote tiieir descriptions after they left it. But Fius VTI. 
and his minister. iK>th very remarkable men, had read the lessons 
of adversity in a very different spirit from that whicli our author»| 
imputed to tliem. They had deeply meditated on the meant 
of restoring whnt they identilied with religion and social order,' 
the power of the Church of Home ; and to effect this they re- 
solved a^ sogti n& possible to build up all that bad been pulled'' 
down — to avoid giving; the alarm by grasping at shadows, but to 
neglect no opportunity of seizing the substance. The early 
restoration ol the Jesuits, while Europe was too much occupiec 
to suspect sucli a projccl, and before it had lime to remonstrate^ 
ognitist it, was a muster-stroke of dexterity, and an earnest of 
their future policy. By Pius VLI.'s successors the reaction ws 


Xftp jF'ea^ pftiif Comxption. 

pushed on witli a steady and skilfiil hand, and it is retnarhable 
enough in its proeress and imporlajit enough in its effl&tts to 
deserve a chapter of its own in tlip tiistur^' of the Cburch. Bui «o 
Utile was all tills ^TuesBcd In Enjjlantl, that as late as 1627 Sidney 
SmiUi writes (m on essaj on the 'Catholic Question*) — 'The 
fad is, there is ik* Court of Rome and nu Pope. Th(;tB U a 
Waxviurk Pope aud a waxwork Court of Rome; but Pojiea ot 
llesh and blood havt long since disappeared.' Within two jcarn 
the Relief Act passed, of which we will only say that it lias die- 
appointed every hope of the K«od, and falsified eVery prcdiclifm 
of the seU-slyled wise. Within a few years more a wast^oik 
Pope eoavulacd all Germany by i-evivin^ tlie controverM uf 
mixed DiaiTia^'s which had bcL-ii settle-d since the Thirty years 
war, and denounced the ' bliisphemous folly ' of tolenuiya. 
A^ain a few years, and another waxwork Pope suspended the 
business of this country Jfar a twelvemonth, overturned the ad- 
ministration, and has ever sinte added to the difBculties of foim- 
ittg a government by the famous Papal aggression. In ihcf^ouiie 
of this icaction, conducted with so much boldness and pors^ 
verance, the violent party * have, as was natural, obtained ibc 
ascendency, and since then it has been tbe policy ta natiier 
the pleasure of that party to depress the moderate sectton o£ 
their co-religionists by ptomotinfr on all occasions the adoption 
of ejitreme opinions and violent ineacures. In the preseot 
case, preferring their own triumph to tlie permanent interests of 
their Churclij they have frjr some years preitseJ for the dogmatical 
decifiion 'so sw&ct,' as their Iri»h organs tell us, * Co. Caitiolic 
tniods.' During the Pontificate of Gregory XVI. frequent 
pctltiodfi Were addressed to him on the subjctt; hut he was an 
eminent theuluij;ian, and thoroughly acquainted with all the difli- 
cuhies he must entounler. He wished to gratify [he lealoiw, 
witiwut comproinisiiis; the Church, and had recourse to the old 
subterfupe— he encourajjed the doctrine, but forbore to enforce it. 
lieaidcs soiike slighter marks of favour, ije jiubljshcd Ills *■ In- 
dultuw,' by which he perinitled every bishop or superior of a 
convent to ajiply for the indulgence of introducing the service 
used by the Franciscajis ou ihe feast af the Conception into their 
respective dioceses aud coiuuiunitie£,f 

This, however, was the coram en cement of the last act of 

' Tout 1e tdonde n'l^t it pa« tt^moinde I'l^sisCeiiccdHDS I'^giiwil'uD psTti a^to-uar 
arifle An nouvvantos el ile irouliles, donl Iv fBiiaiJBaje tomiaii ni ri;gk" iii frtin ? 
N'ett-U p'i'ftitont tjtte t« ffwti t tent ia •^qw dtr Sunu a ta Jitcnilhn^ — Laibonle, L'lm- 

~ llfit Cuii^rjitiim , p. 10. 

Th« iuLlulKeDCt^ was Iwofold :— to »dil In the prefwe <«> tSie MsK, ' et te m 
'■touceplioub' imaiacuUiri;' and in ihf liumy of Lort:[D 'regiut tinv Iibe ori^nili 
cynecptUi' Eacli ■of lliBBt kbg tu be upplii-d for separa-U'Iy. 


27if Feast .of the Coticejttian, 


tlu* |irotmctet1 drama. In 1843 the Gmi>ral of tbc ilominicans 
r**«nlv(Ht tn tii-rininate the loiif; tlispiite hj ajiplyinp in tlie 
aaiucof JUisonlGr IW jiorrnlssion tQado]>t tlic service, whici hencc- 
foitti would stiuup liie fiillowers of St. Thomas as clmmpions cf 
tlio Tminarulate Concept Jun. Wliellior he spoke the ^aersl 
oonviction oi his brothri^ii or only tiis own, what feelings, ^od ur 
bail, of party spihl or of conacience* lie sarrificwi, cau never be 
ktioivn. Tiinl the ojiiliioii was nol unaaiiniiusly «nlPrtaiticMi bj 
thy onliT " we may infer from Ihe precaulluiiii which he took oa 
tUe oci'asiuti. la subniiuing; bis petition be propnaetl tht? follow- 
iag ilmibts for solutiuD to the 'Sacred CoDgregation of Rite«.' — 
(i-'ffj-o/ie lie Couctpdt-, p. 2tiSJ.) 

Can the General accept ihe new office for the Virgin, oa 
brbalf of his urder, wLtbt^ut coosulling the super^s of il» con- 
vents (the ' supcriures iaferiores '), ur a cbapt^T-general ? 

Can he Jo &o notwithstaridiiig any rule which mny have beea 
«*tablisheU by a chapl«^generat to forbid tbc inUcducUoD of 
any innovatiuo e&iicpt by capilular authority? 

Further still, can be tlo so even if such a rule has been 
SB.nctinn>t;d by tlie Holy See } 

Will tiis at'ceplancc of the service be permanently bindiag on 
tbc onler, seeing tJial ihc si^rviw; is only pcrtaitlcd, and not eii~ 
joiriefl, by Ihe Holy Sec? 

VVill all the members of the order be bound to adhere to the 
aew survice, t'VL-n those who entert^ii opinions contrary lo tUe 
doctrine, and tbinir wba coaoeive that tliey arc restrained by 
tLcir «Bth from h<ildiDg any dottrincs but t)iosc laugbt by the 
great light of ibcjr iirder, St. Thomas ? 

Alt tbose questir>n£ were aoswered triumphantly in tbc 
affirmative by the CoDgregatlon of Riles ; their decision was 
rapturously approve by the Pnpe, who further stnoothnl all 
diJHculli'L'ji and cloarcil away all doubts by offtrio™ the Papal 
<li»peji&fttiiiD fur all broken outbs— ' if indeed t)ic teaihin]^ of St. 
Tbomaiis ijpposod to the doctrine of the Immaculate CoDcepliuii/ 
Jf\ iwiecd ! alas for the order of preachers ! and if n«I, they have 
tntsuaderstood and mislnterprclfd their own Angelic Doctor £ar 
wore than <')(X) years. And tbus, too, indirectly tbe constitution of 
tbc order is overturned (for even monks bave some liberties and 

* ' Vae p«recnine fley£e en dipnlW,' Myt M. l.nSordp, ' m'a nMurJ que les Domini- 
eaiu de \». Mineirc y tlenneiil ttiujiiun U docirin^- ilc St. Tlinnws, ei mcngngcoit 
m^Hlfi L Im voir.' Wc tUuk it Itig^lilv pratHiblc that iiujjv Domtuicaiu «l (he 
IfiiKrva aa4 eU<;x1iere tin nnt lutiMnbt' in ihvir heart) tn iht-Lr G«ii.<.-ml*s ilmnon, 
hut 11 is ■very miMkel)' dm at ilitf stngp of ihe proci-odingt tliey would huvt 
«oif>miticd ihtmwEvn by djfclaring Utcir imiimiints to a, stmn^er vlio^ miasiriD 
WM Ml notorioiu oui »o obnCW-iuoe (o llie goyeiriiAii'iil. 


77m! Feast of the Conc^iion. 

some prlvileg'es la lose)» and all power of tUouglit and aclioa 
is transferteil to the General. 

On the accession of tbc Domiaicaas, no matter how obtained^ 
the last barrier that withstood the zeal of ibe violent party was 
removed. Since the pubUcEitiDn of the * Indultum,' the applica- 
idons for the permission to use the new office had been veiy 
numerous. Perrone tells us timt before the end of 1847 they 
amounted to 300, It is 3 chsracteristi*-- trait uf Jesuit jtolicjr 
that the Society of Jesus, although from its earliest iiifanry it h<id 
exerted its utmost energies to promote the doctrine ivf the Im- 
inaioi-late Conception, did not cginmit iUelf by declaring its ad- 
hesion as a religious corpomliuii till the year 1344, a year 
after the Dominicans had withdrawn their opposition. This 
step, on the part of that cautious body, mode it clear to tboie 
who watch the sig-ns of the times that the iinal triumph of the 
doctrine was at hand. 

Pius IX. on bis accession gave early indications thai, notwith- 
standing* his supposed liberality in secular matters, in all lhtn|;s 
spiritual he deferred to the uhramoDtanc parly. Though A 
reluctant reformer, he was a hearty zealot ; and In lii» exile at 
Caeta he turned bis eyes towards the heavenly patroness of 
Rome with all the hope and trust wtiicli he could never more 
repo5c in man. It is said that he was much influenced by 
the propliceiea of Leonard of Porto Maurizio (a visionary 
canonized in the last century), which promised the cessation of 
wars and the extirpation of heresies on the dogmatical definition 
of this pious doctrine. (Laborde, Memoire des Opposans, 
p. 76.) It is further believed that he was strongly Impressed by 
a dream or vision to the same effect which he imagined to have 
been vouchsafed to biuiself. This story will perhaps be rejected 
hereafter as 'improbable' by the historian, who rarely allows 
enough for the inconsistency of human chariicier ami the littleness 
of human motive. But jt is by no means unnatural that Pius, 
harassed by the vicissitudes of his Btormy reign, at one time liymned 
as * immortal' by street mobs from morning to night, at another 
escaping almost by miracle from his nwn capital in the disguise 
of a. menial, should have become somewLial superstitious. It is 
certain that, if he was not influenced by the prophecy himself, at 
least be tliought it important enough to impress others, for he 
suhsc(|Lienlly caused it to be ]>rinted and placarded over the walls 
of Rome at the time of the definition. 

As a preliminary step he addressed an Encyclical Letter, dated 
Caeta, 2nd of February, 1.S4D, to all archbishops and bishops, 
desiring to know their opinion and that of tbeir clergy and 
ilocks on the question which he was about to decide. The 


The F«ut of At Cataptiau 

aasven to this appeal, 602 in Dninbef-, Canliosl Wi 


hare boeo since* collected and irrtnted m nine qnano rolant& 
Of tb(>sc ouly four express anv objection to the AtBaitiam 
(Pastoral Letier, p. 2), and only fiftj-two dcmnr to its oppor- 
tnncuess at the present moinenl.* In Ireluvl, as we migfat have 
expected, (he affirmative was maintuaed wilh prodi^oos hmiu- 
mitv : add iji order to mark the feeliiu of the cteri^ oa the 
subject by some striking demonstraiioa, the StdckI of TbnHes 
in ]850 decided on placing; the Cduntry ooder Ibe especial 
protection of * our I^dy of the Immaco^te CflaceptioiL' M. 
Laborde protests tbat the answers were not given widMMR hope 
of favour, nor wilhoat fear of off«?n<*, especially in FraiteK, 
where the more moderate among* the clergT are cveTced br 
the violent party, and the * insolent joomar t vtii<^h is ihe^r orpan. 
He retttonstrates that the qaestion put by the Pontiff' is asked 
in good faith, and tbat his Holiness in tntlb desired to knoir 
whether he was about to express the unanimoos wish of the 
Church, or to sow the seeds of discontent and schism, Tlus 
is more plausible than true. The Pope and bis divines mtist 
have been well ossnred what the answers woold be, before thej 
ventured on sendin;? the Encycljca] Letter : and at all erents, 
after such a step, it was impossible the See could lecede with 
dignity. The persons addressed tntlst hare perceived tbat candour 
on tiieir part^ was not desired, and would not be acceptable. Tbe 
archbishop of Aucb, in whose diocese M. L^borde's pariafa is 
situAted, replied without delay by assuriniir bis Holiness that all 
the cler^' and faithful people of his fold onited with their 
dioresnn in earnest prayers for a speedy and faToorable decision. 
Against this M. Laborde urgres thai 'his Grandeur' has not 
deigned 1o consult any of the cleiyy <«" faithful people of tbe 
diocese, and that be, M. Laborde himself, and, as far as be 
believes, idosI of the cler^v and failfifut people of bis atqtiaint- 
ttnce bold a contrary opinion, ami heanily deprerabe a deciiMMi 
which will place them in the position of schisniaticSf and conpct 
some of the mo$t useful of the clergy to choose between their 
benefices and their consciences — to become outcasts from the 
Church to whfise service tiiev are dedicatedj or to preserve a 
d) scon tei> Ceil, insincere, anil incredulous allegiance. 

The Abbt', having addressed a remunstmnce to the Arcbbisbop 
in rain, wrote a Latin letter of expostctlation to tbe Pope on hll 

• H. Labontt uuistf on giTiBg traallcr nnmbers. Tho*e in iJu* to»t arr ukca 
tiofa Dr. WucDun. «ba ku tbe Tolnma in iua pooemon, and muU Im aUr to 
givi: thv uiunben carmHlf . Nirsriy thru hBOdnd preJaiM, »om^Mg to H. Lm* 
borim, u(ipejr to have retnmeal do sns-rer. 

t The ' Univera.' 


own bebjtir and on that of nn unnamed ronstituency {* pro mullis 
laia« etclericis iinn mccum SMkliciitjlma'). Tiiji protf-st, though 
respectful ia its form anil piufp&sing a firm belief in Lbe orlhiiclua 
jkilh, is very atron": in its oppusiliou sntl plnin in ils Langua^. 
It refers to tlie writei's first publication, a copy of w]iich vrna 
enclosed with it, and mamlains tiie rig^ht uf the Church to ^ %vitb- 
stAiid Peter to bis face.' 

The author must have been aware that this aildress could have 
no other effect than to make liLs rupture witii Llic? Pope inevitable. 
Further hope he toulj have none- — so, 'with hope, farewell fear.' 
Wijen towards tbeclose of 1834 the prelates, invited and uninviCed, 
were drnwint; towards RoJne to assist at the ^eat ceremony 
which was anjiounc-ed fcn' tlic appruaching feast of the (henceforth 
to-be styled * JniTiuiailuie') Ciinceptiou, he dettermined to be 
present, ami, with his cane and unibrelJA under one arm, and a 
paek*-t of books for distribati(»a under the othor, he &et out alone 
to protest ii;:aiust the despotism of the Pope in the face of all 
Christendom and in his own capital. Tliere is something ludi- 
crous in the dispru]>ortii)ti of the means to the end&^ unle^ tlie 
employment of tlieui is justilicd by success or ennobled by sojue 
tmg-ic result. Had thoAl>he Lahorde been humed in the PiazEt 
del Popolo, as he would have Ixien a. couple of centuries ago, or 
bad be liecii shut up to pine awny in a solitary dungeon or ua- 
wholesome tvonvenl, as he would have been even in these days, 
liaii not lits presence nnd his person been well known at the Frciu:U 
legation (Memoiic dcs Opposnns, p. ^2;, itnd bad not a Freorh 
ofllOer cainm!ui(icd in the 'Place deltome'il, p. 3D), he would have 
givena weight and di^^nity to his mission which tlie words of sense 
and reason tliat be cumc to speak (such, alas T is human nature) 
are insuAicient to confer. The Pope took no notice of bi$ re~ 
iDonstraoces, bis letters, his ]irutf;its. He was loo dexicroub to 
be^^in a persecution which he rould not carry out. No Frentii 
intervenlion was needed ; the Abbti was merely 'ii'dered to quit 
the town, and tin his relusal his papers were seized, and be wns 
escorte<l by gensdarmes to Civila Vecchia, where he wax pm ou 
board n Papal bri*;^ thcie to lie in durance till ttic steainboat 
could convey him back to France. He entered Civilk Vecthia 
while the bells were all ringing to announce the gre-at event golns 
on at Rome, The long suspense is ended. Roma iocnta est. 
She cannot withdraw her words, nor her ibllowers dispute tbein. 

It is a matter ol controversy between those who have written 
on the subject, and even among- those who were eye-witnesses, 
whether the enthusiasm attril^tuted by the admirers of the bull to 
the people of Home ou this occasion was rrnlly displayed by thrm. 
It is, indeed, no wonder that the middle classes for the diosI 


TVm J-'easl of the Ckmcepticm. 



purl stood alonf, sneering and suIIpb; in an ecclesiastical gitVfitD- 
meut liisnH'cclion implies sceplicisni : but no onp ivliu knoim 
tliv (Mipulace ul' Ktiuie t-aii be surprised that tiiey were ea^ts to 
flock to R reramonr wbilher they were attracted by a Knlidqy, a 
greai spectacle ptenteous IndiilgenceGi, aniJ tiie bope of pleastag 
the Viryin, If indeed tbere were any among ibrm suffi^^jeotly 
cnlifjlitened t*> understand the real puqwrt of what was yntiii": mi, 
M. Laiiorde is probably rig-ht in aaserlixi^ that ihej wuuM be 
burl anil standalised by Icaminf* that a doubi had ever existed 
about what they had always so hrmly believeiL But the R<mjan 
peasant U no tbeolo^^Jan. Wa gljuald have thuu^ht it tnattered 
little what were his simple tliounrhla and feelings on the oecfision, 
V»ut the Papal Ciovetninciit, relying^ on popular feellBg as the 
chief proof of their favourite doctrine," and, wilh a nut unnatuial 
inconsisl'Pncy, desirtjus to rreato the 5>ymptom by which they pftt- 
Jesfi. to be ^ided, h»Te spared no pains to ejciie enthiisjasni, aud 
by every kind of eccleBiasticnl entertainment and spiritual reward 
t(> attract crowds to tbe churches ; and few indeed can Lav^ been 
so caTDlcss as In have failed, in spite of the )a<.ili>ies b^kJ out 
by the * iiiviti saffri/ to work put their escape from I'lirgatinn- in 
the course of the last six months. 

Jl is ni>l sw easy toeiilcr into the foelmgs whith have prompt^ 
tbe shout of triumph with which this decree has been retejped by 
tbr Romish Church in <;eneral ; and it is impossible to sp^i-nk of 
them so as to avoid the charge ol misrepresentation. The theorv of 
Romish practical divinity seems to he miiinl^- ^onndcd on the reci- 
procal ioterchang-e ot hi^majre and palronage, Dicrt arecoijiitl<?s§ 
legends to attest the gratitude of patron saints, »nd more especially 
of tbe Blessed Virgin, who hai-e requited mere acts of deference 
rather than of worship by miraruloosly roscuing; the sioner id 
some critical moment from temporal or eternal perdition; and 
without attributing this iden in all its grossticss to })ersoi)& of 
education^ it seems cleai' thiit, from the l^riesl of U\>stniin$t«-r up 
Eo the Po^>e, there pre\'ails a notion that some great claim upon 
the Virgin's favour has bi>en established bv the Church » decree, 
which she will ari{uit by future benefits. When the mass was over 
tbe holy father was carried intothe Cnpella del Choro, and a richly 
jewelled crown was placed on the VirgiD s head, in token that 
be bad tbat day presented ber with ifie only jewel (this is the 
Fnv[>uritc metaphor) that was wanting to her coronal : and in 

" The * contcDini* popali," paaaning morelj- the gi^ncrtil pnpvuJcnc* of the brJief, 
it felied on by lliu ItaiHau Cathulpc writers on tliJs subject to » Jegna; wlttcii is 
hantlj cii?iULIc. Tlie Ab\te Labunl? lia his tint worL, p. 29) ulu, * WbiL duiv it 
■iftnifv wbat ibe futMul think Y Who lold tiie biUifuJ i Arc the fiutMuJ lo kuJ 
their puto^n, or ought \he pastun to lend tfawfioeka? ' 



The Feast of the Conception. 



reply to an address of the cardinals, he said, we are told, ' with 
truly filial simplicity ' — 

' " "VVe bave done rouch for her, we have prayed much, dealt and labqurHi 
much Id increase her glory ; we have done eo much (though we dioald^ 
not perhaps say tliis) that vn cannot Bee how more can be done on eaitk 
to enhance ihe g^lory of our tender motlier — ihis glurioua and powerful 
Queen." These wurda will never be furgotleii by the bisht'ps »ho had 
the happiiic»i of hearing the tones of faith aod love wiih which tbef 
were pronounced.' *^Pref'ace to Still, p. 30. 

Another source of rejoicing ia the expectation which manj 
Romaii Catholic writers confidently exptefls that the ' definili* 
will have the effect of extirpating heresy,' If they mean that th< 
conduct of Heme on this occasion will be rewarded by a xniracU 
•which is to be wrouijiit by Heaven to fistabliah her flomioion, 
tbift is at least int(?lligjble ; but in as far as this triumphant result 
is to be brought nbout by human means their languafje is inex- 
plicable, Bossuet, in his project for the reunion ol the IWft 
churches,! 's eager and elo[)ueut to explain that the dt«,trine of 
the Imniaculate Conception can occasion no difficulty^ as it ts not 
an articie of faitk, and its recent introductiun into the creed of 
Rome as suuh is but a barrier the more against the entrance uf 
Protestants. Moreover, the manner of its intrmluciion, far from 
Converting schismatics, will rather have the elfecl of drLvlng into 
schism many of her own adherents. But the shout of exnltatioa 
with whicli the decision has [been received by the violent parly 
throughout Europe is inspired by something more than devolion 
to the V'ir^in,or even the desire of proselytism. To some it is the 
triumph of a conlroversiali&l. The Generals of the different 
orders of St. Francis were admitted to return thanks to his 
Holiness for Slaving decided in fai'our of the doctrine which 
had always been atUocated by their order. (By what strange 
confusion of mind can this language be reconciled with the 
notion that God has vouchsafed a new revelation to his 
Church?) To all it is the 'lo Faran ' of their triumph over 
the more moderate of their co-religionists. For that, in this 
country at least, there is a moderate party, we have the evi- 
dence of a court of justlce,| tliough' from the submlssiveness of 

" The Popi' has alrcai!}' bad an earaesl of his tempciml rewnrd. On (he liJtIi 
Mdich, nhcn FTpm'iiiine sum« pupil<i ofihe Projiagantla, in n. ruom wljoiDiuff thu 
Aneknt liasilica of St. Agneac, ho with Eev«nil odicrG wiie prccipitaied iuiu ut old 
cellnr, hy lh«! fallmg in nf the floor, bat <-Bcap«(l wilhout Injury-. The Senate, ia 
gratiiuile for the safery of thrir * AmniiMim* Ptiniifict-.' pnvi; orders that tbanka 
■bould be offi^red. 'all'' Imtiuivoiatu HaniUtntus Conxiione, ii|i;<tl;iliiti- llil divoto 
VnAwi' SiC. 

t Irfimr (a L*■ibnitz^ Isl Januarr, ITOO. 

X Viitt: Boyle c. WiseiuEui; tT'\et[ at KingEtua, April S, 1855; mi txIrBunltn&ry 
trial, wcU woTtb the reader"! atu-ulitm, 


The Fcatt ofifte Ometption. 


tbeir btlittide wc should banlly have disco%iered il. 1 1 is also 
a note of defiance to the Protettanls. Credulity tuflamed by 
parly spirit desires only to &bow li«w much it can believe, Tlie 
RumisS Church has gained so much in power, it needs tie* loTierer 
spek tu allure and conciliate, it may venture when it pleases t(i 
defy iind reppl. 

Hvvin^ thus traced the histnry of the ' pious persunsion' from 
the (irst heKitatin^ accents with which it was ushered into the 
ttiorld up to the loud note of jubilee with which its triumph is 
celebrated, we 9ha.ll proceed to consider how the position and 
prospects of Rome are afletted by it^ reeogmition as an article of 
lailli. M. Laborde sees with the clear-sightedness of a good 
logician, and deplores with the zeal of a good churchman, the 
danger which bis Cburch incurs by taking up an ndvnnred posi- 
tion which ihe cannot defend, and from which, infallible as she 
is, she rannot retreat. Opinions oscillate, action is succeeded by 
reaction. When faith is not inflamed by parly spirit, it may not 
always set facts and logic at defiance. The time of resipiscence 
may he not so far distant as it seeina. Even now, though the 
Papacy is riding on the ascending swell of the wave, may we not 
see the foam that fringes the crest of the billow, and denotes the 
impending' break and fall ? 

it is strange that in every controversy with Rome the first stage 
lit" the dispute is to ascertain precisely what is her doctrine op the 
question at issue. Canons and doctors and tuurisls arc quoted on 
one side, and on tlie other are retorted the most contemptuous 
charts of i^j^iomnce and misstatement ; and yet Hume professes 
tn define her creed beyond the possibility of rnisapprchensinn 
by infallible decrees. We ore not now fomploininn; that — 'all 
ihines to ah men '—she varies her teaching from the coarse 
prie4tly despotism which she ini[Kises on the Irish or Italian 
peasant lo the refined semi-Prolestflnlism she presents to the 
enlightened and perhaps wavering citizen of the world. It is in 
her fundamental doctrines, and even in the very theory and con- 
cepliun of her nature as a Church, that we find the subjects of 
iiitcnninahle disputes. 

To a plain understanding; it would appear self-ei-Jdent that no 
authority could j)rofes* to be imniutable in its system, and at one 
and the sarnc time to be in a continual state of development or 
cbkng:c. A merely human and fallible authority must make its 
election between these two theories. That an infallible authority 
should rest on both at once, incompatible as they are with each 
olber, is contradictory to our idea of infallihllity, Nevcrtfiolcss, 
from very early times each of these theories has been maintained 
by Romish controversialists, and when occasion calls, as in the 



present jasltinrc, both at once have been sopported in the loftiest 
tone, anil witb that louiJness of assertion wbich, on tbe wbolv, ia 
Rome's best rpfuge a^iainst argiiment, 

Tijis incoiisistem;)', tlioiijih it cannot he justified, is easilr 
eitpliiined^ Tbe Churcb of Rome, tn iJefenre of encli innoraitrm 
as il crept in, was wont t>> proli^st its absolute idcntfty witli ihe 
truth once delivered to the saints; and when herdailv irtcreasiDg 
dive rgeocy from the written wnnl obliged her Ut invoat tbe tb^oir 
of an uttwrittcn word, till at ]aat she rmsed traditioQ to a co- 
ordinnle authnrity with Scripture, she only became more loud in 
her protostations that no rhange bad beiMi made^ and tbal none 
was possible.* Ateordiogly a mass of consisleni and continnous 
tebtimony may be adduced. f]tnn the earliest times^ tn prove 
with civerwheltnin^ vehemence that Rome knows no ' variahle- 
ness Dor shadow of turning-/ On the other hand, her divin« 
ofti^n felt tliat, a<liii]tlin^ tlie principle of tradition, ihe facts of 
tradition were insufficicat to bear the huKlcn place^d upon ihem. 
They sighed for some more powerful and rfadjer weapon of 
defence. Infallibility is an active principle, and ran with diffi- 
culty repress its consciousness of creative vigour ; and thus even 
fvoin early limes we find indications of the doctrine, which, in its 
full development, is thus expressed by one of the organs of the 
ultnuRontane party; — 

' Tlie essential princifjie for which we [HoTnanisiH] arc contending is 
no modern iuventiuti whatever, but as old a? [Homan] Catholic ilieologj* 
itself. The principle js that the Church [of Rome] pnssewe* the power, 
nud has from time id time exercised it, of raisi?iff into the rank of dots' 
tritiEs of &]th propqaitions which previously to lier delinicion were not 
such.' f 

Tlie former of these theories alone is consistent with the pro- 
fessions of the Roman see. The latter only is reconcileablc 
with facts. The Coiincil of Trent did not hesitate whirh to 
adopt: facts may be denied or may be disputed with ceaseless 
pertinacity. A principle once admitled by an infallible Chnrrh 
IS eslablisbed for ever, Accordingrly, in confirming each liti- 
gated point, the Council, in total disregard of historical fact, 
asserts it to have been the unvarying doctrine of the primittve 
Church, In oar own times, when Dr. Newman subjected bis 
bold exposition of the theory of development to th^ Roman 
censorship, Rome, atill faithful to her traditions, declined tn 
^re any opinion, oc tbe pretext that when be wrotr It he 

TheCfnne-il of Treut «tablJBl]es the coordinate aathority of Tniditioo, and 
rigoroustT i^xcludec all oihersguTPeofiiinnii-— Cfliicil. Trid., ^ iv, tWCant'o, iSpLril. 
t Ditbliu lUvicw, vol, ixiii. p, 37S, qnott'd by Dr. C. Wonlffwortii, ■ Letu rr W 
G«ndoa,' p. 1. 



WQS still a heretic, and by this ilcxteroiis inaDngement slic 
crmtrivrd to relain nil the xdyanta^es which mighl accrue from 
bia doctrine without inrurrtpg the dwagpf of it* adoption, or 
the difticulties of its defence. Now fur the first time she has 
■boadoued her cautious polity — for the first time she has taken 
QK berseif a risk, tu which «he was impelled by ni> nt^ii'saitv, 
and allured hy no advantage. Or is it thnt, powrrl'iil as she 
IS, she is unable to resist the xinward movement of her more 
violent diactples? Is it, as Dr. Wiseman* tells us, that 'ahewns 
ved, and almost uplifted, hy the heaving and swelling piely of 
Qwn hcst cbililreo'? Whether, at tlie present time, wlien 
a knowledire of history is so g^neraLlly difTuaed. and in tlie case 
of a doftrine ilie prop^reas ni which ciuj be traced willi so much 
prorisioB, it would have h^eo advUahle of possible to imitate the 
boldness of the Tridetilint" fathers, it is idle to speculate, Fua- 
sibly the swcllino^ and heaving piety of which Dr. Wiseman 
speaks would bn sntUliod with rkothing le$» than the estabJishmeDt 
uf the priuciple itself of development, whicli has alwavs been a 
favourite with the movement party, and which various cirtum- 
Stani:?$ corn bine to strip far the pr^settt of its siBpett of daOH'Pr. In 
the preaenl state of a portion of the Anglican Church 'develop- 
ment' 13 found to be the only bridge to span the puif which 
separates a well-educated Protestant from the errors of Rome. 
In the beoinning of the century the convert to Rome, if auch a 
phenomenon was then Co be found, sntisfi^l \ns mind uith the 
Eoundness of her doctrine, and having found her, as be hfliovcd, 
witliout error, admitted as a secondary consequence she was in- 
capable of erring^. To such a digtriple the theory of develop- 
ment is a shifting quicksaml that threatens tlie shipurci k of Iub 
liuth. But the modern convert has been first attracted by the 
doitrine of inf^dlihility J nothing less will sufiite to ^ive rest to 
bis doubts, or to coiiiplcle his ^ ideal of a church ;' and in favour of 
i one doitrliie he is wiHio^J to sacrifice the objections his reascm 
sea to ail the other tenets of Koaie. To sueh a student no 
development, however ample, presents any diftlculty ; and Rome 
ba> naturally been inllucnced hy the opiniuns ot her adversaries 
ami converts. She heiiitates no lons'cr, and hns made development 
«n integral part of her authovitTitive (eachin^. Tradition is de- 
graded to the subordinate place lun^ held by Scrijiture in the 
defence of her innovations. 'I'lje Proleslant controversialist who 
assault* that once-vaunted stronphold loses bis labour. It is an 
obaiidoaed out]>06t( the capture ol wJiichlvdl bring him qq nearer 
to victory. 

roMonl Letter, b; Dr. Wi&emjin , on tlie Pope's EatyctieEt LetUr from Cs^to. 



The Feast of the Conception. 

But the history of the disputed doctriiie which we hare en- 

deovouipd lo sketch proves that Rnme has not caHed in the aid 
of duvelupmeot till her need far exceeds the powers of her new 
weapon. Not even f!evekipeJ Si-ripture and developed tradttinn 
will answer Kcv purpose. It will no longer he enouph to athnit 
that the acorn is identical with ihe doddered oak — the healthy- 
infant with \\\e. yld man lottering- under years ami infirmity. We 
must admit that stjmelhinj* ran be developed out of nothing, ihat 
the mere existence of a belief, no matter whence derived, is an 
evidence of its truth — a mode of arpiment which is jusl as 
a]jplicahle to Mnharnmedatiism or Mormonism, or, what the 
Priest of Weslminster tells us i* worse than eithei*. Protestantism 
ilself." Nay, morej we must admit that a proposition may be 
developed into its contradiclory — that ' was' may be developed 
into * was not/ 

Bnt, we shall be reminded, the process of development is safe 
only under the guidance yf an 'infallible Church;' and under 
tliat [guidance it may, indeed, po far. Father Perronef asserts 
the right of the Church to define as dog'ma ' that which appears 
to contradict Scriplure ; that is to sav, that if two autlioritics, 
assumed to be infallible, conlradict each other, we must not with 
the Protestant conclude that one of them is fallible, but that the 
contradicllon is only apparent Thus ail ar^ment ends where it 
mifjlitasweil have becfun, in the infallibility of the Church, And 
now that the sum of the Ilomanist's failb rests on the assumed 
infidlibility of Home, what theory of that Lnfallibility can we 
frame that is consistent with farts and with itself? If God has 
vouchsafed an infallible living witness of the truths what is the 
need of Scripture? Il the present Pope is infallible, why quote 
authorities of far inferior pretensions '( Why quote the consfnnts 
poptili — the popular belief? Is it meant that the Pope sanctions 
the belief because it is held by the people, and the people must 
hold the belief because it is sanctioned by the Pope? Is this 
viuous circle all that we can obtain Irutu infallibility? Cau aa 

' ' Protestaiitinn is the last, the subllen, nuA fwrhapfi tlif: taafX. p&nitiow, form 
of error tlial bus uppeared ; and the dottriiios of ihc An^lO'lrish 1 1) estalilishmenl 
are 3.11 chi; niort p^mk'ious in conscqnivucL- of ihi.- diggut^Q whii^li it hat. assutii»l ; 
for having bijrrnweil certain I'oruif aud L'oreujonit*, words aod J'timmlas, frutn iLe 
Church, It \t capivt))i; of mui'ti grt;ater enccess in its dccepti-au tiuui oiber fanas of 
Pralestsnttim.'— p. 18. 

tTh§followingan;: big words:— 'Poluit ac potest Erclrata, tnidilioni umuca, 
Terit«(t:Q] aliquKai do^/aike defiaire, etiamEi nulla ?ld>.>u] comproboiids veritati 
Bit>lic!i f!nffrB[;entiir leelimi'iDiu; itnnn> qitamvit intenfinn noanuHa ijwf lu »pecietn 
adl/trtari niiiranlur' l,]i. 1611 ). Tb'i* ngtil was cIdJiumI much mure Ixililly hy fomc oT 
the mcdiaivul lUi Jnt'S. The burv nignliou of it nuuld hare! &L' boHliet, 
Thai ihii cluim &bguld Ih; KTited now, in tuvcrer guonled a manner, is an im- 
irariaat fact. 


The fcasi of the Canc^wn. 



infallible judge misquote? Can he show a want of candour, 
wlijcU, if tUspIayetl by a fallible ndvifcatc, would be decisivf 
apiiiist his (:-ause';r" The Pope in his Bull cites half tlie decre 
of Trent, and half the constitutions of his predecessors. Does Im 
not know, or knovriog docs he conceal, tliat the other half would 
supply grounds ni>t less strong for a decision in the contrary 
sense? Let it not be shiJ, as in the Janseiilst dispute, that this 
15 a matter of fact not of docirine, and thai in matters of fact he 
is fallible — here the fact aud the doctrine are iusepamble, IIow, 
a^in, is infallibiHty to be reconciled with change and with con- 
trwlic'lLon ? Previously to 1300, says Launoy, the Immaculale 
Conception won hi have been denied and condemned- Subacquentlj 
it could not have been confirmed; only nowcquld it bp made dogma. 
Was the Church of Rome infallibly rig-ht when the doctrine wa« 
unrifinwn? Was slie inrnllibly right when she hesitated todecide, 
and <.-nctiuragcd a belief she dared not confirm ? Or is she infal- 
libly rifrlit now^ when she has pronounced her decision ? And if 
right ill any of these positions, how can she be rig^ht in tliem all ? 
Is a belief in the new dogma necessary to salvalion, or Is it nol ? 
ff it is, why was the doctrine so lon^ withheld; if not, why is 
it enforced now ? 

But while the history of the question raises such unanswerable 
objections not merely to the conscious exetcise of an infallible 
authority by the Church of Rome, but to the existence of a virtual 
infallibility, the recent decision awakens among^ the followers of 
Rome questions respecting this infallihiliiy, to which, infallible 
as slie is, she has never dared to give an answer. What are its 
nature and limits? Under what restrictions and with what pre- 
cautions must it be exercised, and with whom does it reside? 
And whatever reply controversial ingenuity may frame to these 
(|UCstioti3, it will be found to be inconsistent with itself and irre- 
Coocileable with the history of the Church, M. Laborde denies 
to the Pope the power of dehninga dogma, anil quotes the councils 
of Constance and of Bale. The Council of Constance did indeed 
assert (he superiority of Councils over Pojws^ and, as it deposed 
three Popes and elected a fourth, the fact could not well be 
denied nor the confirmation of the decree withheld by the Pope 
so elected, Martin V, B"! when the Council of Bale enforced 
the same doctrine, Eugenius IV. withdrew his legates, and the 
Pope and the Council mutually ann them at ised each other, and ever 
since the scat of infallibility iind all its attributes have been dis- 
puted by the two parties, known in moilem times by the names of 
(he Gallicao ami the Ultramontane, whose hitter but decorous 
schism ever has and ever will divide the Romish Church. The 
Pope would not thank the ' Priest of Westminster ' for lus argu- 

voL. xcvii. NO. cxcrii. N ment. 


T/ie Feoit oftlie Conception. 

ment, *tiiatoD Galilean and even AngUtao principles' ibe decree 
shoulil be accepted ' because tlie Church had part ii'ipated in the 
dediiaa.' The Popo took care the Church should do no such 
thing. He cooBulted the Church and the special c-ongregatioos 
assembled at Rome only as a. despot coosulta his minister. He 
reserved tu himself the absolute power of defmiliua. We pasi 
over as unimportant M. Laborde's objections to the bull in poiot 
of form. The Pppe certainly intended to speak ei cathedra, and 
ttKfk all precautious to prove that he did so. It seems tu us triiting 
to raise any but the question really at issue, viz., whettier the 
exercise of the Church's infallibility rests with the Pope alone.* 
The sole resource of the dissentients, who will neither submit nor 
leave the Church, is to appeal to ' the future Council ;' and here 
a^in we encounter another of the dlHiculties which Rome can 
only evade, and tan nci-er decide. The appeal to the Council 
has hewn expressly forbidden by Piu$ 11, and other Pontiffs, who 
saw that it was subversive of their authority. It bus been defended, 
OD the other hand, by all who were aggrieved by Papal tyranny, 
on the ground that to deny the rt^ht of appeal is tu deliver up 
the Church to the absolute rule uf a despot. The problem is 
insoluble, because, granting' the premises, the arguments on both 
sides are unanswerable. It W9H this difRcully that l^d Lulhcr, 
after many internal stru^^glea in the early stages of his controversy, 
to the only 1 c^itimate conclusion, the denial of the Pope's autburity 
al toother. 

By a considerable sacrifice of logic M. Laborde may perhaps 
avoid this same conclusion, from which he evidently recoiU wilh 
dread. But the course of the dispute has bn>ugtit him to iuiotber 
unsound part of Romish tlieolngy — its disregard of objective 
truth ; and this, we think, must lead him further towards the 
reformation thnn be is at present prepared to go. 

Startling as is the equivocation by which an infallible Church 
encourages a doctrine which she will not pronounce to be true, 
what can we say of the effrontery with which she promises every 
spirilua! reward fo a belief ia fables which she admits to be 
false ? M. Laborde brings forward the well-known legends 

" M Lnbonle ohjecfs tlmt the Pope has taken ereiy meanj on lh« piMcat 
ncoafrion to eiall liie Papal auihoriiy. No doubt tie lus, Such id the policy of ihc 
liert of PupM. a>nl tliey Uavy often beta able to carry it into effect in iti« worse of 
timcA. Pius VII., when be UtRUMrJ the syfnpnttLy of aii Kumpe as ihe victim of 
mULtar^ tyranny, COmptfllLll to act aguiust his judKiacut itnd his fMiiDgs, »t Uut 
Tery tlTne vststilLsLi'd a pri^ci^ileat fur il^pufiiig llie hierarcb}' of a whole khigiloin 
ana renoddrmg divir dio<:t;see. Thi; Ahbi tunber coniploiui thnt iu the buigaiigv 
of the ball taud in artry phnwe of Rome's officia] bupuogi; there is alwnj-B a d«wp 
int:iuim^) thii liishopii auJ nrrhliishops art slylt-J oiilj ■mitistili-*,' resiTVing tin- 
tiile of ■ Episcouus ' for thi' WL'uratGicuJ bishops the ' strrut sijrvoruin,' to whom nil 
iht odicn are deputies [in4 usenors. 


The Feast of the Cuiutpticm. 


with which she has overlaid the iueFalily alkctiag tacidcoU of 
tbf Passion ; lie might also hare quutttl the rarinMis in'T»4if*|, 
the pictures, amJ the relics nith which ahe hat Mt liistonr, snlfc»- 
olo^}% and common sense at dcfiaDce. PaillT, oo doubt, «ke 
sinned In l>;Dora|ict% in ignoiraot tinm; partiv she kuu>m1 In 
subtlety, with tim ioteacion (wliicU sooner cr laler i» alwajw 
punished) of doing: evil to work out gowi, of teaching &I«ehood 
in support n( truth. M, Laburd^ brings m»ay ^ml wti^hty 
texts fmai the hoaVa ui Romish divioes aatl Fatherly iodig- 
lunlly re^probaiiog such a tampering with liolj thiog*, Biat 
what are these i-Q conipariwD with tbe cvunlleu bull* and bfidil 
infercntiaUy coHfirmin^ the truth of each o£ tb«e fictiwiu? Had 
it pleaded his Hulio^ss to raise the wildest of these lalt* into 
a dog^mo. of faith, how much more conclusive would he find the 
testimony of his predecessors in their favour than in nipparl of 
the doctrine of the 1 nimnculale Conceptioo' 

M. Laborde seems to think it would be ea>jr to retrench the 
fabVi that ofTond biui. But^ in truth, Rome's infaUifailitjr sod 
her iaierest combine to prevent her return lo the right wa^, 
Sim dares not enlt^bten her flock, and »be is cooteal when 
pi-cssed by the philosopher to laugh behind her mask, and cuo- 
fiess thpse teg^ends are not "articles of J^th,' I^ as tam to 
tn'Mlem Rome and watfh the cTowd of pca.aanu crawtuig oa their 
Itnees on the staircase wliich onCe iMoBlpid to Pilftte — so the 
Church aaseit£ — and which Christ descwwtsd. It will b« well, 
by'tbo-bye, tf we do not see amo'Dg the derolecs some Kaf;lish 
convert eager to show bow entirely be has prostrated his uiKler> 
ftfniling before his new creerl ; but our present business is 'h ith 
the boldest and simple credulity of the iguorant peasaal. Could 
we explain to this hnmble woTsbipper that the Church knows 
this staircase never bi-longed to Pilate, and never u>uld have 
been honoured with the foot of Christ, how would the instinctive 
uprightness of his nature revolt from such a per\'er*ioD of bet] 
bow indignandy would be reject the excuse that the Church per- 
mitted, nay, encouragied, his error to increase his picly I Or let 
us watch the pruces&ioo of hooded penitents as it sweeps into 
the Colosseum, and kneels at each of the btatious in turn, to say 
the prayers and gain the indulgences appointed at each, CouUl 
the Abbe Laborde persuade tlie mistaken crowd l^ist the sub- 
jects of the stations were fables, that Jesus did not fall three 
times, not the Vtr^io faint, for aught the Church can tell, and 
that no one knuws whether the blessed V^eronica* be a martyr or 

a pocket- 

H<rr tamt u ^eaenlly wd b^ the Bonsa CsiboHc uthoniits u> Iw con- 
ailtil of rnaiLod IcOD— llic tne IfllBp — liae wordofwMcb U Uieck, the other 

^ 2 


Th€ F&ut of the Conception, 

A pocket-hantlkerchief, how would tficir religion survive the 
sliifck thus given to tbeir simple failh ? M. Lalmrdp mnj rest 
assure<l Ituine cannot retreat. It is the penalty of lier sin tbat 
she cannot cast off its burden and be honest. 

But what is to become of the Abbe Laborde and other dis- 
sentients, whu, like bim, have been led by the forcible imposi- 
tion oi the new dr>g7na to question the authority of Rome, and to 
examine the joggle by which she tampers with truth, and tliowt 
now one aspect, now another, to different classes of devotees? 
To po back is to abandon llicir principles, to advant^e is to ven- 
ture * to the brink of all they hate/ One argument which is 
urged by their adversaries is unanswerable. The Ininiaeulate 
Conception is not more opposed to reason and h> Scripture than 
are the various other points of Mariolatry 1o which ihey still 
cling- with ostentatious orthodoxy. But how will thja ar^fncnl 
operate upon them ? Their poslliun is that of all the Refonners 
at the outset of their career. Honever unwilling they may 
be to go on, they cannot stand still. Cbnging to their idol and 
protesting their devotion to it, tbey proceed to strip one false 
ornament from it after another, and, when they have reduced 
it to the nakedness of evangelical truth, they find the monster 
ProtestTntism, which has been their bugbear so long. Well 
may M. Labofde exclaim that the Romanists are henceforth de- 
livered over, bound hand and foot, to the Protestants; but there 
is another danger which the true Christian (of whatever denomi- 
nation) will tonsider greater still — what defence \9 left them 
against the infidel? The rejection of Romish superstitions by the 
thounrbtleas and superficial leads much more rcadiSy to rationalism 
and infidelity rlian to the religion of the Bible, Rome has 
already undermined tlie Scriptures, and when certain p'oundless 
assumptions arc rejected (and to be rejected tliev need only to be 
candidly esamined) no foundation of belief is left — the fabric 
of religion, as Blunco White tells us in his Autobiography was 
his own case, falls at once to the ground. What effect in creat- 
ing or conlirming infidelity may be wrought on individual miutls 
by the scene recently enacted at Rome can never he known j but 
what may be the consequences in a time of so-called 'philoso- 
phical * reaction we may imagine by picturing to ourselves the 
unholy glee with which the wits and the Encyclopa^ists of the 
last century would have dwell on such an event had thev l)een 
able to refer to any such within recent memory. On the other 
hand, wherever the disfiatisfaetiou produced bv the a.rl)iti-ary de- 

; ■ - ~- T^ 

LAlin. The etymology appiurs to lu nin«t unKHtisraclary ; bat it iUiutnLteB sQ we 
coll it to pro*?, ibe uuceitaioty of the Cburirli op ttis Bubjevt, 


Tft£ Feast oftht Conception. 


cUions of Rome has the efTect of setidiDg: the ioqairer to the 

■ StTiplures as the fouudalJDn of all Irnlb. we cannot tloobt what 
the re5u!t will be. A spirit qf Scriptural inquiry has for same 
time been anakenetl in sevenil parts of Europe, and cren of 

■ Italy. Its spread anJ its pffects in Tuscany are well known. It 
is not in tliat country, as in many olher parts of Europe, a poli- 
tical symptom or a political PxpedicnT, thoug;h the Government 
have been istiuniltkleil In religious persecution bv the assertion 
that it is connecteil with political disaffection. It is the love of 

I Gospel truth, anil tiie sentiment of the rights of eonicience. It 
caDnijt fuil to be stimulated and extended by every fresh display 
ot Papal arrug:ai]cc, xond, under God's providence, may be pro- 
ductive ofpreat results. 
Considered as a symptom of the condition cf the Romish 
Ctiureh, the recent definition is the most txtraordinaiy mani- 
festAtJon of |taiwer she has yet displayed. Is this violence 
\\v; energ'y of health, or is it the delirious strength of fever? 
The Church of Rrnne of late years has changed her policy 
and her langua^. The Romish pri?ss sels forth docln'nes which 
liave never been beard north of tiie Alps since they were 
exposed hy Pascal; and truth is falsified with a boldness which 
proves ttiat the leaders of the Ullramontdtie parly lifi longer have 
any respect for their adversaries, or place any bounds to the cre- 

Iduliiy and docility of llieir supporter*. In this country the laws are 
fearh'ssly broken, and a tone of defiance to authority is assumed 
which, sooner or later, must lead to overt acts. On tlie continent 
the Church of Rome, availing herself of the alarm inspired by the 
revolutions of 1848, has sold her assistance to the governments 
of Europe as dearly as she could. For a time she has carried all 
those points which were the objects of strugg-Ie in the middle aj^a, 
and has regained an influence which has hitherto been resisted 
as incompatible with the due exercise of the civil power. In 
what is tliis to end ? No doubt there is a want uf reality in lier 
apparent greatness ; much of the support she receives is hollow. 
'Ihe advocates of lier despotism are chiefly nnimaied by the love 

rof their own selfwill and the ioterests of their own ambition. It 
is very questionable whether by her alliance with the government 
she made her position more secure in France ; and the loss oi her 
influence in Piedmont is a most dangcroiis precedent, Tlie Pope 
is about to raise in front uf the Pro|>agnmla an antique shaft on 
a modern ]>edcstal, to commcmornte the definition he has just 
givon. Will posterity view It as the monument of his triumph, 

■ or of the ' pride that precedes a fall?' As we taimot believe that 
Rome is ajjain destined to suhjugnte the world, ive must conclude 
that we see the symptoms of her decline ; but some great stni{rgle 



The Fmst of the Conception. 


mmte-nsne ; and whaterer the mil may l>e, there ran be no drvubt 
^h^^t the step $ho IiM just taken advances Vier b^ a mightj 
stride to that end. 

To membei's of our own Cliurch, especially to those wbo \t 
with longing hut doubtful eyes towards Rome, ne earnestly 
commend the contemplation of ' developmeot ' as it is really eshi 
bited ici t lie Romish Church- — the jjrowtii of error out of crrar^ and 
of sppculalioii inlo faith : nor is it less instructive to olraerve the 
variety snd magnitude of the disputes witli which she is distracted ; 
her inability 1o decide them hy her pretended infallibility, and. 
tbe real nature of the boast«d unity which is its result. In the 
case before us,, it was only when controvere}- had ceased thai she 
ventured to pTonounce her decision. liut her despotic discipline 
enables her to impose silence, and her worldly tact teaches her 
to exercise this power with consumniate dexterity. By cruihio* 
tbe weak and courting the strong;, by dealing harshly with those* 
who are in her power, and leniently with those who are beyond 
it, by proceedinj;^ to rictrciTiities in tbe Case of none but of tbosC 
wbo are about to leave her piile, or who advocate dortrinea 
subversive of her autboritv and hostile to her vital Interests, she 
succeeds ift her great object, wbich is lo avoid scandal and to 
prevent an open schism.* 

Tbe unity which resolts from this is merely nominal. If 
the convert to Romnnism chooses to examine the controversies 
which still perplex its divinity, he will find them (as Sarpi 
tells us in the clays of the Council of Trent) neither less 
numerous nor less important than those which separate the 
Komtsh from the Reformed communion. If, on the contrary, 
on ent^ring^ the church of his adoption, be closes the vnlunic 
pf controversy^ and, instead of cxpommuni eating biB supe- 
riors, obediently consults them as to faith mid practice, he 
will indeed find the rest that bis soul has p;inted after so 
long't but he owes his repose In his change of habits, not 
bis change of creed, and we must tell him be need not have 
g<oiie so far to seek it. The infallible ccrtalntv he has attained 
is such as be mipht have acquired hv pinning; his faith on any 
dog^matic-al guide of his own selection^ and such as at the farthest 
he couhl not fail to have found at tlie nearest dissenting chapel. 

Perhaps in no respect is the present ronlroversy (especially as 
handled by M. Laborde) more useful than by the ex^w'syre of the 
contradictions and perplexities to which the Kninish theory of 
iofallibititv \& exposed when brought to the test of practice. 

' VbtA anyiliing lik* ilm (Jorbnm Moirovevsy oceiureU ia the Chorclt ofKonie, 
lh« Hisputanu nouii huT« Ikgq siLcucifd; ue diEjitiUi irould not hii«e hctu 


The Ffast of the Ctmccyti'ou. 185 

Admitting the theory of an miallible Church, as he doeB, while 
he rejects the decision it has pronounced, M, Laborde is com- 
pelled (o deny that in the present instance the infallible Church 
h*5 spoken. In support of this denial, therefore, he emlesTour* 
to establish the tests bv which we recognise her voice ; and lie pro- 
ceeds nccnrdingly to lay down the conditions under which an in- 
fallible derree must be pTonounced. He requires nothing less than 
titti bishops of the whole Church forjudges, a mature previous ez- 
amlnation by the council, unanimity in the verdict, a profound 
theologian, which he hints the present Hope is not, to preside 
(hot why rerpirp this, if either the Pope or the council is 
divinely inspired?) ; and then, after all, lie is obliged to main- 
tain that the Chnrch has not spoken, unless her decree be la 
mioifest accordance with the Scriptures and the fathers ; that is 
to say, the prtKjf that an infallible judge has spoken is the 
correctness of the decision, of which coiructness th? fallible 
public are to decide (MeiDoirc des Op|X)san5, p. 61). Is it pos- 
sible to stale more convincingly the inevitable conclusion that 
from no ainotint of fallible dements can an infallihle authority 
b« compounded ? We should be glad to see M. LaborJe's books 
translated : they arc well worth the attention of n class of readers 
among whom a French pamphlet, little known in this couotiy, 
is not likely to circulate. 

Art. VIT.— 1. Scottish Nocgpaper Direetory and Guide ta 

Adn<ertisert, A complete Manual of the Nacsimper Press. 

Second Edition. Ectinburgii and London, 
S. The FourtU Estaiv : Coulributions lowarits a Uistortf of New»- 

papera^ and of the Liberty of the Prat. By F. Knight Hunt. 

2 vole. London. 

TX is onr purpose to draw out, as a thread mi^ht be dntwn from 
-'' some woven fabric, a continuous line of adrertisements from 
iheTiewspaper press of this country since its eslablishtnent to the 
pregent li(pe, and, by bo doin^, to show bow distinctly, frotn its 
dye, the pattern of the agr through which it ran is reprcsentetl. 
If we follow op to its source, any public institution, fashion, or 
omtisement, which has nonrished during a ^^ng period of lime, 
we can gain some idea of our national progress uul deveiopmen^ 
but it strikes US that in no manner can we &o well obtain at a 
rapid glance a view of tbe saUrnt points of generations that have 
passed, as by consulting thu^e small voices tbat Love cried from 
age to age frotn the pages of the press, declaring the wapts, the 




losses^ the amusements, and the muney-making eagerness of the 

As we read in the old musty files of papers tliose naiee 
announce raents, the very hum of bygone genernUons &eem&to ximb 
to the ear. The chapman exhibits his quaint wiires, the mounte- 
bank capers a^in upon his stage, ive have the living portrait of 
the highwayraan flying from justicu, we see iLe ol J thina auctions 
thrqngeJ wiitU ladies of quality with tbeir attendant negro bovs^ 
or those *■ by inch of candlelight' forming many a Schalken-likc 
picture of light Mid shade; or later still we have Hogarthian 
sketches of the young hloods who swelled of old along the Pall- 
Mais. VVe trace the moving panorama of men and manticrs up to 
our own less demonstrative, but more eaniest times ; and all ihese 
C;ibinet pictures are the very daguerreotypes cast by tlie age ivhicll 
they exhibit, not done for elfect, but faithful reflections of those 
insignificant items of life and things, too small, it would seem, 
for the generatiiting eye of the historian, however necessary la 
clothe and 511 in tlie dry bones of his history. 

The 'English Mercurie ' c^ 1588, which professes to have 
bwn published during those momentous days when the Spanish 
Armada ivas hovering and waiting to pounce upon our southem 
shores, contains among its items of news, three or four book 
advertisements, and these would undoubtedly have been the first 
put forth jin England were that newspaper genuine. Mr. Watts, 
of the British Museum, bus however proved that the several 
numbers of this journal to be found in our n^itional library are 
gross forgeries, and indeed the most inexperienced eye in such 
matters can easily see that neither their type, paper, spelling, nor 
composition, are muuh more than one, instead of upwards vii two 
centuries and a half old. Newspapers in the strict sense of the 
Word — that is, publications qf news appearing at stated internals 
and regularly paged on — did not make their appearance until the 
latter end of the reign of James I. The * W'eekely Newes," 
published in Loadon In 1G^2, was the first publication wliich 
answernl to this description: it conlained however only a few 
scraps of foreign intelligence, and was quite destitute of adver- 
tisements, The terrible contest of the succeeding reign was the 
hotbed which forced the press of this country into sudden 
life and extraordinary vigour. Those who have wandered in the 
vaults of the British Museum, and contemplated the vast 
collection of political pamphlets and the countless Mercuries 
which sprang full anned, un either side qf the quaiTet, fr<?m the 
strong and earnest brains which wrought in that great political 
trouble, will not hcsiiate to iliscover, amidst the hubbub ni the 
rebellion, the first throes of the press of England as a jwliticsl 



power. At siuh a time, when Mm'clioiont Needbam feU 
foul with hU types of Sir John Birkenhead and the coart 
parly whicL be supparteil, with as heavy a band and as 
dauntless n nil) as C'romwckl hurled his Ironsides at the Cavaliers 
at Naseby, it is not likely that we should ftiid tbc pn.>ss the 
vehicle to make known the goods of traiiesmen, or to offer a 
rewarLJ for stolen horses. The shopkeepers themselves, as well 
as the nihility, were tou hard at it, to avail ihi-inselvcs of this new 
mode of eiteiiding- their trade : they had to keep guard over the 
maliSTinnts, lo cover the five meinherK with the shield of their 
arms, to overawe WliilehaH, to march to the relief of Gloucester; 
objects quite sufficient to account lor the fact that ihe train- 
bands were not advertisers. After the king^'s death, however, 
when the Commonwealth had time to breathe, the people seem 
lo have discovered tlie use of the press as a means of making 
known their wants and of giving publicity to their wares. The 
very first advertisement we have met witii, after an active 
search among the earliest newspapers, relates to a hook which is 

IRENODIA GRATULATOBIA, wi lierokk Poem; being a 
congntraJsioE^paiu'^^iTick for my Lord GeDtral's tste retoni, siLRuniug np> 
his siieccu«s ID nn exqauite masotr. 

Ti» tw eolii by Johu Holdi^, is tbc New Exdun^e, London. Printed by Tho. 
KewcottTt, ItW. 

Tbi» appeared in the January number of the Parliamentary 
pa|ier * Mercurius Puliticus.' It is evHieutly a piece of flallery 
to Cromwell upon his victories in Irelanil, and might have 
Iwen inserted at the instigation of the g^reat comnionweallU 
leodiir bimsL'lf. Booksellers appear to have been the first to 
take advantage of this new mediuiD of publicity, and for the 
obvious reason that their go<:)ds were calculated fur the readers of 
the public journals, who at that time must have consisted almost 
exclusively of the hljrher orders. From this date to the Kestota- 
tion» the quaintest titles of works on the political aod religious 
views, such as were then in the ascendant, are to he found in the 
* Mercuries Polilicus :* thus we have ' Gospel Marrow,' ' A few 
Sighs from Hell, or the Groans of a Damned Souf,' 'Michael 
opposing^ the Dragon, or a Fiery Dart struck through the King- 
dom of the Serpent.' And iu the number for September, 1659, 
we 6nd an advertisement which sQenni to bring; us face to face 
with one oi tlie brightest names in the roll of English poets : — 

CONSIDERATIONS toncliing the likelirat means (o remove 
UlKlingS out ft ihe Church; wherein ■; at*g ilis«"ire'it of Till]«. Churcth 
Fees, Churcli lUvt^UL'S, uiU whelliur any iaauiieiuuH:e of Mijiut«ni can be jellk'd 
by Law. The iLatbor, J. M. Sold by Liteteei CAu/rfn-m, at tlie Crown in Puna's 
Ili*d Ailej. 




In juxtapo&ition to tliosc illustrious loitials we find another 
advertiscmtiiit, which is the represenlativc of a class tb^t pre- 
vailed moatexteiuively at this early time, ihe Hue and Cry after 
runaway servants and lost or stolen Lorscs and dogs. Every ge- 
neration is apt to praise, like Orlando, * the antique service of ibe 
old wurld,' but a little excursion into tile r&g-ions of the past stows 
us how persistent this cry has been in all age*. Employers who are 
in the habit of eulogising serv-anls of the 'old &cLiool' would be 
exceedingly astonished to find that two hnndred years apo they 
were a very bad lot indeed, as far aa ive can judge from the ad- 
vertisements of rewards for the seizure of delinquents of their 
class, Here is a fiiH-lcngth portrait of apparently a runaway 
apprentice, as drawn in the ^ Mcrcuiiua Foliticus ' of July l»t, 
1658 :— 

IF any one can give notice of one Edward Perry^ being about the 
agi; of rightccn or niDrtean years, of low slaCurc, black linir, full (if pock- 
}io\v& iu hig fncc; Ilq wear>;th a oei^ gray Euit triiDint'd with grt'on nnd Dtbvr 
nhbons, a Sight CiavamAD'Catored cloak, sad, blacb bal. wIia mu aw&y lately froa 
hii Most'Cr ; thej arv ilcsircd to bring or if nil word to TKo. Firhy, StalldDfr. Bt 
Gray'* !□□<■ gziU-, whio will thankfully reward Chein. 

It will be obiCTved that the <.hislung appearance of this runaway 
apprentice, habited in his gray suit trimmed with green ribbons, 
and furbished off so spicily with his cinnamon-coloured c]oa)<, is 
rather marred by the description of his face as 'full of pockholes,' 
Unless the rcafler has scantned the long list of villanous portniils 
exhibited by the Hue and Cry in the old papers of the last 
portion of the sevejilecnth and first portion of the eighteenth cen- 
turies, he can form but a faint conception of the ravages committed 
by the smalUpox upon the population. Every man seemed 
more or less to have been speckled with 'pockholes,' and the 
tate must have presented one mo^-ing mass of pits and stars. 
Hero, for instance, is a companion picture Co hang with tliat of 
Edward Perry, copied from the*Mercun«a Politicus ' of May 
aist, 16G0 ;— 

ABlack-baired Maid, of a middle stnlnre, thick set, with big 
\iri.'iutE, Imviog Ikt&cc full marked with the sniallpox. nlUag hereelf by 
the nnmt? of Nm or A<jn^ AMwrM, did, npon Mnnday Ihe 28 of .ITrry, sboat six 
o'clock in the mciminp, Ktral a<ny from her Ladiies house in the IV-niall a 
mingle'colourod wrought Tubby 4Jown of Dove colour and t^biti! ; a black vtriped 
SfHm>Gp»ii wiili frjHrliroa'llH>DL'-lilack silk Laciis.aiicl a plain black -wfltcrrf French 
Tahby Gown; Also, otie Searlet-ipolotire-d and one »[hcr Pi [ik-rolonrcd SuPccnt-l 
Peticoat. «ttd aVhite watered Tabby Wastcoat. ji^lain : Seetnil Sorc«xet, Mod*, 
auil thill black Hoods and Scarfs, seveift] fine Hi>lland SbirtB, a luoetl pair of Cuft 
Sid DrcEEiDg ; one pair of Pink-coloured Worsted Stockings, a Silver Spoon, a 
Leather iMg, See. She went away in greyish Cloth WoEtcoal turntrd, and a Pink- 
GOloared Paragon upper Peiicont, with 8 er«en Tamray under oue, Jf auj »hiill 
give notice of this perion, or things, nt itRt Jfupkrnt., 3 Shoomakur'a, m!»i door 
lo the Vine Tavuro, near \hv Pa!-uia.U end, near ClaarJng C'Tofj, or at Mr. Oxtltr't, 


Advertmnmw^t. 1S7 


It tbc Ball Bod ia Conihill, oeu the Old Ex<^bab|:e, ih^v »fatJI he rcwded fiv 

I " 

^1 Scarcely a week passes without such runaways beiosr adver- 

^M tided, logether with the list of the quaint article* of wlilch tlicir 

^M booty coDsisted, At the risk of wearjingr the reaifer with these 

^M descriptioDS of the 'old-fashioneil* sort of servants, we ^ive 

^M annther advertisement from the ^ Mercuiius Polltieiu ' of Julj Ist* 

H 1^^^ ^?«M«r Parker (fay birth ffattdotk). of n Tswtiy reddish 
v/ TOni|)le3[ton, a prptlj- Inng nosy, lall of ttalurv, Krvant to Mr. Ff^leric ffa«- 
pert. Knmh Tovd. upon t^turdsf laat the £{>JA o^ Jui^t. nn aw«y and tlok two 
Stiver Spoons; b nrecl Ti^rl-work Bag. with gold and ii]»cr Ijici- abun! it, xad 
Hncd wilh Sario ; a Buple ■work-Cash ion, very c^nrionalj wrought in all nLBnnen 
of tlipt and Aowen ; a Sh«ll cop, vitk a L^uo'f face, ujd a Itioj of nlver id ill 
mnnth ; btoAe* many other ihings of conuderable nine, ifhich she Mok oat of 
her W\tUtun Cabinet, trbich cbe brok? open ; «> bIki aome Cloatlu and LtneB, of 
all fnr1», to lh« vain? of Tea poDods and uswardH. If an^ one do meet with her and 
pleaae to secure hii, and give notice lo the laau Funirrie H'n^yft, or Att lo Mr, 
ifd^uui Leather-seller, at th« Gmn Dragon, at the npp^r «tid of L«irreni>; Lane, 
hs ah»l1 be thankftilly rewarded for bifi paina. 

An advenisement which appears in tlie same paper, of tlie of August lllh, IQb^, givc^ us the first notice ure hare yet 
found of the serrice of nogro Iwys in this countTj. From this 
periEKl, however, as we shall presently show, England, at least 
the fasij i<Jnable part of it, seems to have ftwarmed with yi>utig 
bUckainoors in a greater degree than we should have iina|;ined 
eV4fn 6-um the familiar notice made of them in the pages uf the 
*TatIer' and 'Spectator.' These early negroes must have been 
imported from the Portuguese lerritories, as we did not deal in 
the ftrticic ourselves till the year 1680. The amusing point of 
tlie fiiMowing BdJverttsetnenI, however, is the assurance it gives 
US that the Puritans, ^ polled ' their negroes as well as themselves, 

ANegKhboy, about nine year^ of a^, in a ^^y Seug« suit, his 
hair on <rkoae to his faeail, was lost on TuMday Ian, An^v^ %, at aiRfat, ii 
A .VieMdi Ljme, Loiukm. If any one can ^Te notice of him to Mr. T\o. ea^ker^ 
al ike Sagarloarin that Lsoe, they Bhall be well rewarded for ^eir paina. 

About this time we find repeatedly advertised, the loss of 
Inmes. It is observable that during; the 'troubles' such things 
as highwaymen were anknown. The bold, unnily characters 
who nl a lattrr dale took to the road^ were then either enlisted 
under the banners of the stttte, or had g^one over the sea 
to Charlie. The great extent to which horse-stealing prc- 
Vltilc^ during the Commoawealth period, and, indeed, ior the 
nest hn.lf-century, might possibly be ast-nbed to the value of 
thosit- unimals consequent upon the scarcity produced by the 
casualties of the bottle-field. We canoot account, however, fur 






one fact connecled with t!ie liorsG-stealing of the Cccntnoawcalth 
period, namely, thai wlieti at j^raas tliey were often kept saddled. 
The i"i>llowing advertiscnient, which is an illuslratioa ol' thii 
singular custom, is vcrv )'a,r Irom being an uncommon ooe : — 

AStusU black NAG, some ten or eleven years old, no white at all, 
bob-TAilert. wel rorthamlL'tl, souicwliai thin IichiniJ, tbick Heita, and foelh 
cticklliip anil lamtiiifa behind at hi* first going out ; the hair IS titfSl off up^^n his 
far Hi]i OS broad as a Cvetvepenc-i* ; lie halh bl&ck Icnthi^r Suddlt; triminod wiUi 
blew, anil covered with a Mack Calvts-tkin, its a Utile coni upon ih» Pummel; 
two new Girths of irhlte niid f^i-cn ttiread, And lilac-k Bridle, tliu Itciu -Thereof it 
goft-ed on the off side, a»d a knot to diaw it on the new Bide, Stoln oat of a 
field at Ckdiiufani, 21 Ftlmuiri/ iiigtunl, froTii Mr. lA-urij B^llcn. Whotbever 
can tiring tidiiiK^ to tlw; said Mr, IluSicii at f(iv<njiel'l, or lo Mr. AVv-man at the 
Grocer'a Ajtub 111 Otnifiil, ghikll hovu 20(. ftr his fiaim. — Mrrcuriii PMiev^. 
February 24, IG59. 

It could scarrely hare boen, in this particular cnsc at least, 

that tbe fx.ig<'iicies of the time required such prcciiutiuns, as the 
on\y risini; that took place this jear occurred six months after- 
wards in the county of Cbcslcr. The furniture of the nag, it 
must bp conffsseil, seems remarkably ndapted for senice, and 
mig-hl, from its colour, have belonged to a rcrilnble Ironside 
trooper. Another reason, perhaps, of the great VJilue of horses at 
thisperiorl was the estahlisliHicdt of public conveyances, by which 
means travellers as well as letters were conveyed from one part 
of the kiug^ciom to the other. Prior to tlie'year IG3(> there was 
no such a thin^ as u postal service for the use of the people in 
this country. The roun had, it is true, an establishment for t!ie 
ibrwardini? of despatciios, but its cfticaey may be judfi;ed of from 
a letter written by one Bryan Tuke, ' master of the postes ' in 
Henry Vill.'a lime, to Cromwell, who had evidently heen 
sharply reproving Mm for remissness 'm forwarding the King's 
papers: — 

' The Kiiiges Grace hath no mar ordinary postea, ne of many days 
hatlie had, but betneent London and Calais - , . , For^ sir, ye 
knowe well that, except the hackii^j' -horses betweeiie Gravesende and 
Dovour, there is no sucbe usual conveyance in post for men iu lliis 
realme as in the accustomed places of France and othtr partes ; ne 
men can keepe liorsi;») in rt>dynes withoule som way to here the charges ; 
but when placardes be sent for snche cause (to order the immedinte 
forwarding of some stiite paclvel) tfte coaslabfts man if ti/ met lit /rtj/«e 
ta take horses oale of phues and caries, w/terein can be no extreme 

This was in the year 1533. Elizabeth, howevrr, established 
hor&c-piis!s iHi all the great routes for ihe transmission of ttic 
letters of the court, and this in 16iil3 was developed into a public 
post, which went night and day at the rate of seven miles an 




hour in sumincr, and fi%'e miles in winter, — not aucti bad tn- 
veiling for tliusc Oavs. Still lliere was no means of iVirwardin^ 
pa4senfl;i?rs unlil the time ot Cromwell, when wc find stage- 
>coach«9 ^-stabUshed oa all tlie great roads Ihrcugrbout the kin^- 
dotn. We do not know that we have ever seen quoted so early 
a notice of pnblic staa;e ronveyaliccs. We fmvc evidently 
not given our nnfesiovs so much credit as they dcsened. The 
following advertisement shows llie lime taken and tbc lares of a 
considerable number of these journeys : — 

FROM liic 26 day of Aptil 1659 there will coiitisue to go Stagf 
Coachei from tlie {jKntu lun, whh^jui AMcragnie. Jj-mJ'.n, nnto ihewvcral 
Cities and ToKni, for the Kniea and si IliC linurs, liermfler lueiitiofi^il aud de- 

£ceiy ifati'lit}/, n'n^w*/dy, ami Fruiny, 

To j^iWiiirji in two day* for uj. To Biirniiforii ».nd D^cheiter in two 4a y* 
and bnlf ftir xiou. To Pia^nu in three inys for uau. To Hxmaiter, iNnnit^tft^ 
mad iixfif in four il&ys for xLi, 

To Stumford to two tUys foi" Kju. T© iVowA ifl iwo tliiys nnd a half for 
X«.»». To iliirtrrfi m three days for xkx#. To Thncaslcr ^nA Parilrridge for lautri. 
To Yorh in fo'iir days for xIj, 

Mui*lijyi and llVr'ncs'/'ivs to 'J'c4tn/-)ii and PlimrMth fat U. 

Every ,lf-'n.-f-ji; to ifflperbij and Ntirt/milertt/n fur xlvs. To JAiriteion aod Fcrr]/' 
fill for Li. To Tfarham for Iv*. To A>irt?ojf/r for iii/. 

Once every fortnighl <o HJiniiwylt for iv/. a p«ec9— jVawbj», 
, E'eiy FHii-sy to WaKejield m four dn-Jfi. xU. 

All pertons who dcsir* to imvel unto the Cltie«, Towni, and Roods herein here- 
'ifter DLCDtiotinl and eipressed, namely — to Cr-mt/'^j, Lit'ijifM, Stone, A''itn}it'^icA, 
CArrtw, HurriBfldin, HV.f/rm, Chnrleij, J'l'cfUX', ''•tftantf, LaiVMfter, Uid A'ernlut : aud 
alui to SU'mfijrd, Uranllmm, iif^mrh, Tii.rfi'ni, Jiinctrvft, JMof-atlti; ferriehridiic, Yurk, 
FFfliyHij, N'lrthijltftoa^ Diinvtxi, FctniAilt, Piirh'trn. ud ?im\t\atk, WahrfiHtl, Lmla, 
nnil IFnUfiLC ; and also to .'iildhiiri/, /Hnrnffomf, Ihn-hnirr^ Hiirji'ii, Ejyiviatrr^ Il-:n- 
ttingUm, and Hxetirr, Or^intun, J'/i'ni.'[itA, nud, t'ljiyt-riil ; ]ei thtqii rr[iair lo the firrmfn 
Idd kl Ituibom Dridiji, L<fndvn. aud lliencc (lit? thaLI Ik' in good Coaches villi good 
Honws, apon fTcry .l^in-^t/, HviWain^ and F< >''^y<> at and for rijuonnble Ralf'E.. — 
Mercaritt Polilicm, April 1, 1658. 

Olber announcements about the same time prove that the 
Great Western road was equally provided, as well as the Dover 
route to tbe ContiQent. It is not a little sln^lar, however, that 
n^larly appointed coaches, starting at stated inter\-als, should 
have preceded what might be considered the simpler arran^e- 
inetit of the horse service. Thai the development of tlip poslal 
system into a means of forwarding single travellers did not take 
place until aome Ume afterwards., would appear from the fol- 
lowing : — 

Tlte PostmaUera on Chester Road, petitioning, have recrivftl Order, 
avd do aecnrtlinylij pulUsh iJie fcilouiing advcrfitemeiU :■ — ■ 

i LL Geullemcn, MtfrehaiiU. and others, who liave ureaHJoii to 

J"! traTtl betttceQ Jj.^mlim mid Wi-ttclirtler, iitinihatin; and n'-irrim/t,,,,^ yr 
any other Town upon that Itond, for tlio aceomiDodation of Tradi!. disjiutch of 
BusincEs, and ease of Puree, upon evi^ry Hiiuday, Wednesday, luiil Friday Mnm- 




lag, li«rwLx[ Six mill tea at the Clock, at the House pf Mr, Chri^tofAcr CkarUHt, 
at ibc si^ of the Hart's-nom, In Weni-Smithfidd, sud Potl-MaaUT Llier?, and u 
the Pnei-Mnsltr nf Chcsl-n-, at the Foat-Mastfrf of J/imcAfirtff, and al the Post- 
Muter of Warrimjtmi, aatj bave & good and alrle Hicgle Horse, ot more:, fkmulml 
at Threepence the Milu, vitbout tliL' cliarge of « Giud^ ; aad ed llkewue at lb* 
IloQAi; Af Mr. Thoriun Chatlttutr^ Po»(-Mastbr qC Stune Id SlqffoiiiMiur^, upon 
«vpry Tuesduy, Tliuraday, Jiud Saturdays Morning, l-o go for Londoa. And ta 
Jikewiee pI all <lie sevL'ral Post-Ib[p«[eri. upon ihe Koad, wbo will hkTe all «iich tvt 
days so maiLy UoreL's with Fununire in cvacViavSi tu furuish the Bidt-ra witLoul 
any stay to carry them lo or from Any the i>IiicL*ii aforcKud, in Four liays, as well 
to LnTtdnn as from ifaence, and lo places nearer in IcsH tlrit*?, Bi^Mfdmir oi their 
oecaaioDS shftll renuire, iin-y tuf^Hging at ihu Htm Stage where they take Hor«e, for 
th* sife AiiVtvvry oftlieiiauie to tht next iiiiniti!iion.'f"Uigt', paA not 10 rid* Uiat Hone 
anj further without consent uf tim Po«.l-MajiteT by whciDi he rides, aud 30 frDm jita^ 
lo Slagc to their Joumeya 6aA. AU tfunc uAn intertd to ridt t&ii a>ay an duL-rd to 
girx ii mtie aotice beforelunid, if comxTiieatlii theg can. It tfie Mtxeral Post-maaltra tdurt 
ihetj jirnt lake horse, uihi?riibiii tlie<i mai/ he farttMai iciih » rmtug Boritt ai U« Sidm 
nhaii rcqiiird itit^i fjj^ditioa. This undertakiDg tampan the 23 at June 16&B at all tbe 
Places ahovesnid, and sa coutioues by ihe several Post-Mnstet*. 

Tbe intimation that these horses angljt bo Lad without llie 
'charge of a guide ' g^ives us iin insight iiiti> the bad conditioa 
of the ruads up to that period. We can scarcely iniajrine, 
in these days» the necessity for a guitie to direct us stlong tbe 
great highways of En^laniJ, and can with difficulty realize to 
ourselves the fact that as late as the middle of the seveuteentb 
ceutury the jnleriur of tlie country was little better thaa a wil- 
derness, as we may indeed ^allier frnm Pepys' journey from 
Xioodon to Bristol :md back, ia which tbe item * guides ' formed 
no inconsiderable portion of his expenses. 

In turning' over the musty little quarto newspapers which 
mirror ivith such vividness tiie characteristic llueatuents of the 
Commonwealth periotif not yet left behind us^ we chanced upon 
an ailvertisement which tells perhaps more than any other of 
the dangerous complexion of those times. It Is an advertise- 
ment for some runaway young 'sawbones,' whose love of des- 
perate adventure appears to have led hitrt to prefer the tossing 
of a pike to pounding; with the peslle :- — 

f^eorge Weaie, a Cpmish youth, about 18 or 19 years of Bgv» serv- 

*-* ion as ivn Afpfentic-tf at Jkiti^sltm with oai! Mr. Weaiir, an Apothe- 
cary, and hi*> r^^iicle, about the lime of the rising of tlie C-ountit^g Kt-rtl aiid Sa^rfy, 
went si^cfecly from bis s»id Uncla, and ip eoitceivi-d to lin-vt engaged iu the mme, 
and lo tH^ either dead, or Flain ia some of those figJitA. huTing n^-rer sioca beei 
heard of, eithvr by his aud Uncle, or any of his Frieuds. LTauv pcrwdi can gire 
notice of lie certainly of the deatiL of the said Geonje Weale, let him repair 10 th^ 
said Mr. Gmant hiii llousi.* ia Dnint-all«y in Drury Lane, ZonJ^m; he sball haw 
iwiuly shiUings for lua pfliuG.—AfwcuiiVj Ftfiilieua, Dec. 8, 16S9. 

Here at least we have probably preserved the name of one of the 
fameless men who were ' alain in some of those fights^' b phrase 
which io these days opens to us a chapter ui romance. 

With the exception of book advertisements and quack mecU- 




AdveriisemenU. 191 

ciDCB, wc have not up to tlm ilatc met with a single instance of a 
irodesniFio turoing the acwapapc^r to account lu maklur; kiiuwll 
tuB goods to tbe public. Tbe vet^ first aanounceincut L^f this 
nature, iDclepeoiiently oi its being in itseK a curiosiiv, possesses 
a very slTung inlerest^ from the fact that it marks tbe introduc- 
tion of ail article of food which perhaps more than all otters has 
Sen'eil lo wean the nation from one of its besetting mos of oltJ — 
dninkeimess. Common repi^rt, Mr. Disraeti informs us, atbir 
butos (he inlroductiou of * the cup which cheers hut not inebri- 
ales,' to Lord Arlington and Lord Osiory, who are said to have 
brought over a small quantity from Holland in 16b6. Tbe 
author of the ^Curiosities of Literature' does not think this 
8.t»tenirnt salisfactoiy, and tclU us that he has htard of Oliver 
Criimweirs teapot being in tbe possession o{ a collector. We 
never knew before of these teetotal habits of the Proteclor, but 
we can so far back the story aa lo find chronologically correct 
bohes to put into his pot: for though it is true that the date 
of llie following advcTtisement is three weeks after the death of 
bis Hktibness, it refers to the article as a loiown and, bv phy- 
sicians, an approved drink, aiid therefore must have been some 
lime previously on sale:- — 

THAT Escellent and by all Phyadans approved China Drink 
nlli^d \>j ih? O^inroFET Tt-Ai, by other Nadoiu Tny otMa Tt<. it sulJ at tbn 
e»MmmM Utad Gp^etOmt. in £kMrf«ww Rtm*, by tll« Sta^a Exeb^bge, Zonios.— 
Mtnmrimi PiAitieua, September SO, le&ft. 

Tliis is undouI)t«'dly the earliest aurhentic ORnouncpmcnl yet 
made known of the- public sole in England of this now famous 
beverage. The mention of a *cophee-house' proves that the 
sister stimulant was even then making way in the country.* It 
took^ howei'fr, a couple of ceaturies to convert ihcm, in the 
extended ^ti^ of tbe term, Inlo national drinks; but, like 
many other good things, il came too early. Tea may have 
sufficed for fanatics, Anabaptists^ Quakers, Independents, 
and self-denying sectaries of all kinds; and for all we know, 
its early introduction, had the Commonwcaltli lasted, might 
have accelomted the temperance movement a century at least ; 
but the wlit'cl of fortune was about lo turn once more- 
mighty ale had to be broached, and many deep healths to be 
by those wlio had ' rome to their own again ; ' and tea, for 

* TItts cn>A<«-AouM iiL Swiseiiog's R^pts is oot alladed to bjr Mr. Cuuuio^im 
!b liis HradDook of Lod^ob. He wxe&aia the Am m effabli&hed tn IC!^; in St. 
M ifhajd'B A] ley. ConahUl, laA tbe mc mJ (na date mcntiaiwd) saui iLp«,t (be Itain- 
bvw 111 Fk-ct Street. We Uiiak wc miul make vajr fnr tbU sew iliKvucry 
brtwewu tli¥ l*o- 




full half a century, was wasbetl away \ty brown October and the 
French wines that cnme in with the Merry Monarch. 

Wp have now broutrht the reader upon the vory borders of the 
period when Charles, with liis hungry followers, landed in triumph 
at Dover. The advertisempnt* which appcaretl during the time 
that Monk was temporizing and sounding; his way to the Hestura- 
ll<in forma capital barometer of the state of feeling anion"; political 
men at that crilical juncture. We see no more of the old Fifth- 
Monarchy spirit abroad. MinLstera of the steepl e-hiiuses evi- 
dently Sec the storm coming, and cease their long-winded warn- 
ings to a backsliding' generation. Kvery one i» either panting 
to take advantage of the 6rst sunshine of royal favour, or to 
deprecate its wrath, the coming shadow of which is clearly seen. 
Meetintrs are advertised of these persons who have purchased 
Sequestered estates, in order that ihey may address (he King to 
secure them in possession ; parliamentary aldermen repudiate 
by the same means charges in llie papers that their names are to 
be found in the list of those persons who 'sat upon the tryal of 
tlic late King;' the works of 'Ule' bishops begin again to air 
themselves in the Episcopal wind that is clearly setting in ; and 
'The Tears, Sighs, Complaints, and Prayers of the Church of 
England * appear in the advertising columns in place of the 
sonorous titlea of sturdy old Baxter's works. It is dear there 
is a great commotion at hand ; the leaves are fuelling, and the 
dust is moving. In the very midst fif it, however, we find one 
name still faithful to the ' old cause/ as the Puritans call it ; on 
the Stb of March, HiG(», that is, while the sway of Charles's 
sceptre had already cast its sliadow from Ereda, we find the foU 
lowing; advertisement in the * Mercurius Politicus : * — 

I^HE ready and easie way lo ^tabliiih a free Commonweidth, and 
the cxc^lliiuct' thicrcof cAinpared vilh the iDconveiuC'DM'E otad dKOgcn i^r 
rca/.ltnidiug*hip in IIiih Nation. The Author, J. M. Wli-emn, ^ rcaaon 
of llio Frlnurg lipsle, the Erratit not ttiiniug in lim?, it is -Icsirtil thai llw! follow- 
iag faults tany he aiiLt;nilii'<L Pugn O, liuu ^'i, for the Art'ifingaa rciut af Artapagut. 
P. It). 1, .'i. for full Si'oale. trae St-naW j 1. 4. for fits, is itic whok- Aristoeratj ; 
I. 7, for Provincial Stales, Klatcs of every City. P. 17, I. ^'J, f.i:- cite, citit; 1. 30, 
for lefit/etl, Sold by LUemtl Chapman, at tbe Crovb, in Pop«Vlii;ftti} AUcv. 

The calmness of the blind bard, in thus issuing corrections to 
his hastily-printed pamphlet on behalf of a falling cause, excites 
our admiration, and gives us an exalted idea of his mnral courage. 
In two mouths, as might have beenexpocl«J, he was a proscribed 
fugitive, shel lering his honoured head from tlie pursuit of Charles's 
myrrniclons in some secret hiding-place in Westminster, whilst 
his works, by order of the House, were being burned by the 
ciimmon hangman. 

The lawyers were not slow in perceiving the way the wind 




was blowing, and set their *ail3 accordingly — if we may take the 
actitiD of one Mr. Nicholas Bacon, as sitown in ttic following 
a<Jvertifiement^ at any index of the feelings of Ms fellows: — 

WII£REAS rrne Cspt- Gouye. a 'witnc^i {examined against the 
Ute Kiiig« MA^cfSiy, in thos^ Rvvords ibled IkitDstif of the Hononble 
Society of (Jruy* Imie. These are to pive nolicc thiflt ih* eald Gouiif, hemp Ioue 
souic^t ior, ""as proviiiencLally diH^overLtl in t (Uienise, inzcd la tlut Swiet}', and 
now in custody. Ix-lc;; apprthtfiLdtd \>y ifae be'lp of nme ipectttora tfaat kuev him, 
TiewiiL^ of a BuiDrr vitb his Ma;i-suc& anna, set up joit at tht tamt titoi.- of Hi* 
Mi^-iU'TS lAodio^, on an high Towtr in t3ie saroe Soci-etv, by XicMif lliMon, 
Esq., k Member ih«reof, as a mecuionaJ of so great a di.-1iTeraDC«, tnd. Vi^Etimuny of 
bifcooitaut loyaJry lo Hii Majesty, and tbat ifae said Qmvjr upon vxainiuAUoa 
toattaeA, Thm he was o^Ter aumitted not eu much aa a Clurk of that ^kdety. — 
Jffercanat Peltlicia, Jiuie 7, 1660, 

Whilst all London was tlirowing up caps for the restored 
monarch, and England seemed so ^lad thai be himself wondered 
hvvt he could have been persuaded to stop away so lung, let us 
ratch the lost luggBge of a pmjr Cavalier, who baa just followed 
his rov&l oiaater from his lung htinlshment, and turn out its; con- 
tents for our reader, in order lo show that even ruined old courtiers 
carried more impedimenta than the famous 'shirt, lowel^ and 
piece of soap ' of our renowned Napier. The ' Mercurlus Pub- 
licus* Is now our mine, m which we sink a shaft, and come 
up with this fossil advertisement, which bears date July 5th, 
1660 ;— 

A Leathern T*ortjaanlte Lott at Sillingbum or Rochester, when his 
■^^ Majfit^ ctimc lAitfur, whtrnn inu a l^'uit vf Vumf-tft liotSitttd, with Jiro- tittle hcft 
n a Man, figM pair of kM/t Glovtt, um/ a jwiiV •>/ Dura loilhfr : oiHiiil tn-ady i/iirdi vf 
tJdi't^owd Blbhan i^rn^xnn)/ imaii, ami n vholr piece af Miu^i Nibbnn tmpetutt/ Armul, 
a eluath fcW-ivfownl rk'-'i, «>'(A »/l»' vf imnnt ; u pair i/f jAoow, tiipjirrt, a ^imt^nj, 
vad other (AOh/f ,* aU vAic^ Iti'^vj tn n Kirntitiium (a ne-ir Krvant tu llit M^ijalu) ir/it 
hatfi (tc-fn Iv^i tiavj /mpriaontd and iV^ueslrr<rf to- bf now rotiM ittitm nil mtn fi'<fi^ to 
i-yijf'i Itirtr mm. // finy eon gitt ttntkt, tifti may /aim IKnt «eilA Mr> Somui^l McrcM^, 
His MojCstia Boak-Undm-, ol hit hm—e in LitCU BrUain, and thi-y akuU br thankfuU]/ 

The King had not heen ' in' a month ere hU habits appear 
through the public papers. The * Mercurius Polilicus' is now 
turned courlier, and has changed its name to the ■■ Mercurius 
Publicijs,' Its columns Indeed entirely under the direction 
of the King, and, instead of slashing articles a<;aiii8t malignanta^ 
degenerates into a virulent oppressor of the Puritans and a vehicle 
for intjairies after bis Majesty's favourite dog? tliat have been 
stolen. In the number for June 28lh, IGGO, fur instance, we 
find the foUowing advertisement : — ' 

|^g» A Smooth Black POGr, lew ihan a Grey-hound, with white 
"*'*' nnd*r his breast, bclafigiikft to Ih^ Kiiiga Majestf. *as taken from While- 
hall, the eig'hiec-nth day uf thii iugtiut i/iine, or thercabuula. If any otiv c^n give 
ogtic« to J"l"i EUii, »DL> Iff h\i Majfstitn «:rvDau, or to his Maj(sO«s Back -Slain, 
shall be well rewarded far tlicir labour. 




It is pvident that ' the smooth hlack dog ' was a very great 
favoufite, ft>T %\-e next publicalioa of tic jouttAl coai&ins another 
advertisement with npspect to liinij printed in larger Italic type, 
the (lictloa of wliicb, £rom its plcasaot raillery, looks as though 
it had come Iroin the King's owu hand : — 

j^g Wi wtatt caii upoa tfou amin for a Black Tk^, bttween a Qrrjf-haiati 
^^ m>d a Sptmirl, vo tv/iite a}ioiit Atm^ oncJ^ a ilreak oti Au Jiritt, trntf 
Tiigl a IMU be^d. It itUia tfojr-atirs own Log, and douhUtet imu atc^t/or 
thf Dvj was not hvm npr hn-i in England, vnd vcmid itevir fortniir hit JUirirTi 
Wliostxvrr fintta him iivitj ac/p'-Unt anj- at Whitehal,/oT the Ikig wa» Mter 
Anown at Court than t}iosa vjho stole kim. }ViU (hn/ nev«T havt mfiMi; ffii 
Majesty t must he not keep n Dog 1 Tlis Dogs plaea {tfumgh better CAon ione 
imagine) I'l llic only place whidi m/bodyo^tTS to heg, 

Pepys, about this time, describes the King with a train 
spaniels and other dogs at Iiik heels, lounging along and feedii 
the ducks in St. James s Park, and otl occasions still later hq] 
was often seen talking to NcHj-, as she leaned from her garden^j 
wall tbac abutted upon the Pall-Mali, whilst his canine favourit 
grouped around hitn. On tbe&c occasions perhaps the represeC 
tatives of those gentlemen to be seen in Regent-street, with twoj 
bundles of animated wool beneath tlieir arms, were on ihc look- 
out, as we find his Majesty contiimally advertising his lost dof 
Later we find him inquiring after 'a little brindled grey^; 
hound bitch, having her two hinder feet wbiCe;' for a 'white- 
haired spaniel, smooth -coated, with large red or yellDwisfa Bpots," 
and for a * black mastiff dog, with cropped ears and cut tail.' 
And when royalty had done, his Highucss Prince Rupert, or 
Buckingham, or 'my Lord Albemarle,' resorted to the 'London 
Gazette' to make known their (anine losses. We tbtnk the 
ehange in the temper of the age is more elearly marked by thesM 
dog advertisements than by anylhing else. The Puritans did not 
like sporting animals of any kind, and wc much question whether 
a dog woold have followed a 6fth- monarchy- man. H^tice the 
total absence of all advertisements bearing upon the ' fancy.' 
Now that the King had returned, the old English love of field- 
sports ipread with fourfold vigour. We chance upon the ti»ces 
too of a courtly amuEement which had been banded donn from 
the middle ages, and was then nsly lingering amongst us — hawk- 
ing. Here is an inquiry afler a lost lanner: — 

Riehard Finney^ Esquire, of Alaxlon, in Leice&tersliire.* about a 
fdrinight tiiccc lv«t a L^kneb from il^Kt pivc? ; she hath nridicr Bells uw 
VATTclf ; she is a vhilc Havk, iui(3 Let lon^ ^BihtrB aud MaxlE arc both ia ilii: 
blood. If BUT ocK eiTe lidingt Uier(<uf lu Mr. Lanilwrt at ih« goMcrn K^j in 
ne«t-strt«t, uey mball luTQ Iprty (fciHiugl for tbnt pwns.— JUfrnnvf tWkim. 
S^tember S, 1660. 

As London was the only place in which a newspaper was pul 




li»b«l tliiring the reign of Charles, and indeed for Dearly fifty 
yewi aften>-anls, the hue ami cry after lost animals alw3VS came 
to town as a matter of rgurse. It suumls stiange to read these 
advertised eats of a sport the verj terms yf wbicl] are UOW uuil^ 
telligible to us. What ag'cs seem to have passed since these 
birds, in all the glory of scarlet lioods, were canietj upon some 
*faire lady'*' wrist, or poised tbemscUes, with fluttering wing, 
OS the falconer uncovered itiem to view their quarry. We have 
skipped a few years, in order (o afford one or two toore esAmples of 
these pitturestjue adverlisemeDts, so diflereiit frum auytliiilg to be 
seaa at the present day ; — 

LOST OD the 30 of October, 1663, an latemtixM Barbaiy Tered 
G'entk^ I'ligniven id VarvizU, Iticliinl WiadvQoil, trf PitUni l^uk, %n ths 
Couuly o-f Rucks, llsq. For amn particular marks — if iho Varrels W tuken cff— 
the 4'' fmthcr in vD.t of the 'wings Impi^d, and the tbiTnl pouoce of the right foot 
broke. If At\j one inform Sit William Roberts. Kuig^ht nnd Biminct (bcAT Hfl.r- 
row-ou-fhe-IIJlJ, in the Coanty of Miildltspi), or Mr. William Philips, »t the 
KJnff'i Head la PslemoBter Itow, gf tbe ^wk,^]i« thvU be tai&d&tHy rewsfded. . 
— fit InteiiifftrKxr, Nov, 6, 1C6&. 

The nex't paper contains an inquiry for a goshvwk belonging 
to Lord WUliiun Petre, and two years later a royal bird is in- 
4]uircd aXtcr in the * Londun Gazette,' as follows : — 

A Sore ger Falccin of His Jfojesly, loat the 13 of August, ^ho 
bad one Varvd oC iiii K«r|»irr. liogeT Bin. of Weatminsier, Gent. 
Wbcsorer halii toJceo her up and mvc noiici.- Sir Allau Apslcy, Maatii- cyf HJM 
Ifi^HtiM Havks at SL JuDcra, staall be ^wiirded for his puuel. Biick<Siairs in 

This Sir Allan Apaley is the brother of Mrs. Hutchinson, who 
has given us such a vivid picture, in the memoir of li'^r husbatid, 
of tlic CoHunonwealth time. The ' London Gazette/ from which 
we quote, is the only piiper still in existence that had its root In 
those days. It first ^ippe^red in Oxford, upoa tlte Court taking 
up its abode in that city during the lime of the Great Plague, 
and was therefore called the ' Gazette.' On the returo c*f 
Charles tu London it followed in his train, and became the 'Londoa 
Gazette," or Court and official paper, and the latter character it 
has retained to the present hour. The gazettes of the seveoteenttl 
century were widely different from those of our day. They con- 
tain foreign news., as well as state papers, royal proclamaiions, 
&C., and, siraiignr still, miscellaDeous advertise men Is nre mixed 
up witts thoM upon the busioeas of the Court. The quack 
dwtors, with an eye, we suppose, to the 'quality,' were ibsi 
first to avad themselves of its pages to make known their not-- 
trums. It will astonish our readers to find what an ancestry 
some of the quack medicines of the present day have had, 
*>lervoua powders,^ specifics for gout^ rheumatism, &c., leized 

a 2 ui^o. 




upon the columns of tlie newspapers aJmost a» early as they 
were publishicd. Here is a apecinien which might still serve 
as a model for such announcelneAtK :^ 

/gentlemen, you are di^ireil to lake notice. That Hr. JTieophUiu 

^-' Ihu-kinn-tk dolh at bis boose on ilUe-end Orftn m&ke and expoM to 
kJ«', for tte palfUck good, lhij«« fo r»ni<PU! lyoiengn or PecioraU e.pprored 
for dm cure of ConRampti'ODB, Couffhs, CatarrbH. Asthmas, Hoaniera. Strong- 
neas of Bri;aih, Coltls in ^ueral, DiseiuiM i&cidli.>nt \a tliL' Lnng^ sod a 
AoTorai^ Antidote ugainst tlic Plague, and all other conia^Q-ns ]>is«'aAes, and 
obstmciioDS of the Siomach: Anii fur iiior« GonTeiueiic« of the people, iconstantly 
Invetb thi-ni it^cd up with his coat of anus on the giagivn, vith Mr. kick. 
Loioidtt (n£ tbrmirty'}, at the sign of thi^ ^Vh]t(! Lioia, near ibe little nonh door of 
Paalt Chitruh; Me. ih-Tiry Srilc, oYci" dBiinst '^. U'tnihav ! Church iu Fleet Stitet; 
Mr. WUluim Miltcard, at Wcstitiinstcr Hull Gate* Mr. Jufiit }'iace,At Fwwitatt lim 
Oiite IQ HDlbom; anil Mr. liohrrt Horn, at the TiiTk'«'h«ut neiir the eotnWK 
of the Kaj^hI E3i€hange, Booktctlt'Ps. and no athen. 

This u puhiiiked ta prevent the dei\^» of divtrt Prttendeta, who tmtnta^eit 
the said Loaeagft, tn tht difpartt'jemfnt ifflhe aaid Qentieman, and <pvat 

rtiuar tf the people.— Meretifiui Political, Nov. 16, 1660, 

The next is equally characteristic : — 

MOST Excellent and Approved Dentifrices to bcotjt and cl«uise 
ths Ttflh, maldog thum -wliiw as Ivory, pTwwrreB from the Tooth- 
acb ; iif that, tM;LDg cgDs(3.Dlly UKd, the parties iisins it ate hi'vlt trouble witb iht 
Toothiuh: It fastucs the Ti^eth, swH^uK^ne the Brcatb, and prsiervcs the Gums ami 
Mouth from Cankc-ra and IrnpiisihiimL's, Made by Rabrrl Tiu-nef, Genrleman ; 
and thu right are ouclv to be had at 77iomQy Rwhv*, Stationer, at the Holj I.Juub 
ut the east vcii) of St. Pauk Church, umr the School, in sealed, papers, at 12i^. the 

Tht reader ii desired Co betnare of rounteifeita. 

{Mercuriia PotitCcu; Dec. 30. 1660.) 

Other advertisements about this time profess to cure all 
diseases by means of an ' antimonial cup.' Sir Kenelm Dipby, 
the same learned knigiit who feasted his wife upon capr.mS 
fattened upoo serpents, in order to make her fair, advertises a 
book in which he professes to show a method of curing wounds 
by a powder of sympathy ; and here is a noti5catiou of a remedy 
which shows still more clearly the superstitious character of 
the age : — 

SSIALL BAG6S to hting about Children'* necks, which arej 
excelk'nt hoih for thepreMtiiioa and cure oC \hc Rickets, and ta awe ehildre^ 
ill bWi.'diBg of TLtth, are prcpanxl by Mr. EdmunJ Duckworth, and -coM-lniitly Urt 
be hod at Mr. Philip Clark'g, Kc.vpi?r of the Mbrsry ta ihv Fleet, and noirnerei 
else, at 5 shilliugs a ba^e.^Tfie hiteiligeaeer, Oct. 1,6, 16G1. 

It was left, however, to the reign of Anne for the movitebiaiik 
to deai^nd from his stage in the fair and the marltct-place, in 
order to erect it in the public newspapers. But we have yel to 
mention one, who might appear to some to be the greatest quack 
of all, and who about this time resorted to an advertisement in 
the newspapers to call his patients to bis doors ; — tbe royal 




■ He 


charlatan, who touclied for the evil, makes koown that he is at 
home for the season lo his people through the medium of the 
•Public Inlelligencer' of 1G64 ; — 

TITinTEHALL, Mav 14, 1664. HU Sacred Slajesty, having 
T T ilecl^rcd it to be his Hoym] will and parpose to coniinue ihe hemling of his 
people for the EviJ during tfav Moadi of May, and then to give over till Mit^bMil- 
mm next. 1 am i^nnimflniled to give notice thcnrar, liiu ihi! people maj not come 
Up to TuwD ID thi.' Interim iuid ioie tFiCJr labdut. 

No doubt there was much political sismificance in this pre- 
temjed efficacy of the ro^al touch in scrofulous alllictions ; at the 
same time there is reasoti to helievo that patients did someliines 
speedily recover after imdergoinct the regal coniact. Dr, Tyler 
Smith, who has written a very clever little book on the subject, 
boldly states his belief that tlic emotioa felt by these poor 
stricken people who came within the influence of ' that divinity 
*¥}iicU doth hedge a king,' acted upon them as a powerful 
mental toaic ; in a vast number of rases, however, we mi^hl im- 
pute the tonic to the gold coin which the king always bestowed 
upon his patient. Be tliat as it may, the practice ilourtsbed 
down to the time of Anne, at whose death it stopped ; t|ie 
sovereigns of the line of Brunswick never pretending lo possess 
this medicinal virtue, coming as they did to the throne by only a 
parliamentary title. Tlie reaction from the straiglitlaced times 
of ihc Commonwealth, which set in immediately upon the 
Restoration, seems lo have arrived at its height about the year 
" "t)4, and the advertisements at that period reflect very truly the 

c of pleasure and eji^citcmenl which seized hold of the people, 
as if they were bent on making up for the lime that bad been 
lost during the Puritanic rule. They are mostly taken up in fact 
with inquiries after Most locc-work ;' announcements of lotteries 
Ml the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall, of jeweU, tapestry, and 
lockels of ' Mr. Cooper's work,' of which the following is a fair 
specimen ; — 

LOST on the 27th of July, about Boswell Yard or Bmrj' Lane, »^ 
LafljiB Ficliii'L-, ttx ID gold, luid ihtva Keys, mtb divera oih^r liill« things 
ill B perfiirnvd nickel. Wlioftoevcr shall giv« iiuiii^ <:)f or briHK tbe said pi<^tUK 
tu Mr. Charirs CoaJuue, Gotdmiitb, ovar Staples Inne, Holboni, (mall have 4 time* 
ibe valot' of the gold for tis pftyns-— 7"*^ A'tvM, Aiigud, 4, L664. 

The love of the people also for the strange and marvellous is 
shown by announcements of rare sights: for instance we are told 

that— ' 

T the Mitre, near the west end of St, Paul's, is to be seen a rar 


Jjp hicks 

Colkdion of Cwinotii^cs, much retorlwl to and admired by fiersans of m 
ing and quality ; among which a clioycc F'gvpliniL Mumniy, witb liu>r 
bicka : die Ani-Bpftn; of Kranl : a Remon ; a Torpedo ; the Hii£t; This 

A ratlier scantj collectiDn of article*, it is Inie, but eked oat 
monstroasW by the ' Iiuge thi^h-bonp of a giant;' which in 
all probabilily belonged to some bu^e quadruped. The ignorance 
of those times with respect lo aatuml hiatury muet have beeo 

something; astonishing', as about tljc same dale wc find the 
fbllowiog print of what were evidently considered vei^' curioof 
animals advertised in the ' London Gazette :* — 

A True Represcnlation of the Rlioiioseroua and Elephant, lately 
broQC'liI from Ihi; East InilJes lo Loifdon, drnn-ti jiftcr the htv. iiuJ curjo-uslj 
mitniivi^ii in MeucoiJato, prinfvd c^mn n larg« «beel of paper. Sold by Pioktk 
TsHPEST^ at ibe Ea|^ lad Child in the Sinuid, orer aguost Samenct Uonw. 
"Waler Gnlc-^The Zornlon Gazette, Jau. 2i, 1U64. 

In the succeeding year a!l advertisements of this kind stop; 
amusemtrnts, from some great rlistHrliins- fause, have ceased to 
attract ; there is Ho more gamblinuj unxicr the name of lotteries 
at Whiteliall, no more cnriositiM are cshibiled to a pleasure- 
loring crewj no more books of amorous songs are publishedj, 
no more lockets or prrfiiraed bag;s are dropped, all is sta^tia- 
tion and silence, if we may judge as much from the sudden 
c-essatioa of adverliBcmcnts willi reference to them in the public 
papers ; Death no*v comes upon the^e and ruilely shuts the 
box of Aatolicus, crops the street with grass, and marks a red 
cross on every other door. It is the year of the Great Pl^ue. 
Those who could, fled early from the pest-stricken city; those 
who remained until \he malady had cpiined irresistible sway 
Were not allowed to depart for fear of canyinw the contagion into 
the provinces, the Lord Maror denying to such a clean bill of 
health, in consequence of which tliev were driven back by the 
rustics as soon as tliscoVered, A singular instance also of the 
vigilance of the authorities, in confining, as they imagined, 
the mischief within the limits of the metropolis is afforded by 
the succeeding advertisement : — 

TtJ'icfwlas Burst, an Upholsterer, over agunst the Rose Tavern. 
in RuBBell-etrtet, jCoTcnt-Garden, whose Maiii Serraaf rfywl laitly r>f ihe 
Sicknett, fled on Hondaj kst onl of hi* litiu&t.-, taking with liim Eereral lioods 
u4 Kouaehold Stuff, imd mn Dftenvanla tuliowcil by uuu Docwr Gary and 
SifillBrd Bayle, irith his fife and tainily, vho lodged is ilie ante house; Inl 
Bsfle haviilg Lis lUoal dirHliDg-boQw; in Wavbridge, in Surrey. WtitKOf ire *» 
OonnnaBrlecl to rive this Public Nottce, that dilig-»ni gearch roaj he aieHa for ihem, 
and ihii booMg in whjch any of their peisgns or ftwxls shall ti« finond pnmj be shut 
up by ilio Lext Jofitice of tlie Poicc, or oth«r his ^aji^ty'B OfficL'rft of Jnnke. and 
notice immwliatL-h- giren to boith- of his Majesty's Pnvj Cotiad]], oWo one of 
his Majesty's principal Sccrclariiis of State. —ionJon Gaietlr, May 10, I66C. 

Antidotes and remedies for the plague are also commonly 
ftdrertlsed, just as Ihe visitation of the cholera in 1854 6lled the 
columns of the ' Times ' full of all sorts of &j>ei'ijk'£. Thus, for ei- 
amplCf the 'Intelligencer 'of August the 2&th, 1665, announces *an 





Mcellent electuary against tbe plagti&, to be drank at the Green 
Dnig-(Mi, Ciieap-side, at eixpeace a pint.' Tbe great and only 
cure, however, for this fearful Tisltation, which cairieil off a 
hondtrtid tbQU«a^qd persons in London alone, was at liBnil^ — the 
purs;ntion of fire. Tbe conflagration, wbicb burst out on the 
2n<l of September, and destroyed thiriecu thousand lioiisefi, gave 
the 6iial bliyw to its dpcliniiin; attacks. Singularly enougli, but 
faiot traces of this overwhelming ralamity, as it was considered 
at the time, can be ^thered from the current adverliaemcnts. 
Althonffh the entire population of the city was rendered house- 
less, and Iiod to encamp in the surrounding fields^ where they 
extemporised shops and streets, not one hint of such a circum- 
stance ran be found in the public announcements of the period. 
Nitrircomstfince could afford a isreater proof of the Utile use matlft 
by the trading community of this means of publicity in theljineof 
Charles 11. If a fire only a hundredth part so destructive were to 
occur in these days, ttie columns of the press would iiMmcdiatcly be 
full of the new addresses of the biirOt^iut sfjopkeeptrrs ; and tho»e 
who were not even dnmagtid hy it would take imre to 'improve 
the occasion ' to their own advantajsi'e. We IcMik in *-flin through 
the pages of the * Loodoit Gazette * of this and the following year 
for one such announcement : not even a tavem-kteper tells us 
tbe number of his booth In Goodman's-fields, although quack 
medicine flourished away in its columns as usual, In 1667 we 
see a notification, now and then, of some change in the sitecf a 
government office, or of the intention to build by contract BOtne 
public structure, such as tbe foitowing notice relative to the 
erection of the old Royal Exchange: — 

ALL Artiiieers of the several Trades that must be used iu BebuUding* 
Uxc It()yttl Eiehangi; maj; lake nolictr, that the Cjommiilei: apfjointial fur 
Manwineat of Hint Work do sii at the enil of the long gsllery ia Greshnto. 
CoUe^ vvflcy Monday in ihe (vnowm, there ami tiwn U) Wax witli each u arc 
fit to i^iIcruVi: the &aiae. 

The remainder of the reign of Charles 19 nntnarked bj thfr 
appearance of any characteristic advertisements, which give a 
clue to tbe peculiar complexion of the time. If we go bade two 
or three years, however, wc shall find one which bears upon the-l 
introduction of those monstrous flowing wigs which continued ia.j 
fashion to the middle of the succeeding century : — 



serte 9om« 

H EItfiA S George Grey, a Barber and Perrywtgge-maker, (ir«r] 

kgaiuit the &rryhiM»d Tuvtrn ip liiiuA fryen, Limifan, Hiods obliged t»l 
QVM pamcuUr Fenons of cBuneal Condilioo utd (Jattliij in hia war oH 
Empl'OTiiiem : It is ther«Ibre Noii(yr4 st hti JcKfe, Uiai any one harinc lonc ' 
flaxcD tuiyr to ^'11 may repayi tu him Mm md Gtonfl &rty. moA thvy ibm hiv« 
Hit- thv oonce. and for auy otJitr Irnig &^ts lioyr nAer the itMt of »«. or 7» the 
Mai^.—TlM Jfnm, Febru«r7 4. 1«CJ. 







Pepys (iescribeSf with amusing mtnuteness, how Chapman the 
pcriwig-makGr cut pff his hair to make up one of iheftc portentous 
head-dresses for him, much to tbc trouble of his servants, Jaae 
and Bessy, and on the Lord's day, November 8th, 1663, he 
relates, with infinite naivete, his entrance into church with 
what must cviilpiitly have heeii tlie pemiquier'a latest fashion. 
'To church, where I /ound that my coming in a periwig did 
uot prove so atranpe a& I was afraid it would, for I thoyg-ht ihat 
all the church would presently have cast their eyes upon me, but 
I find no siich thing.' Ten shillings the ouoce for long flaxen 
hair shows the demand fur (his peculiar colour by 'persons of 
eminent condition and quality.' We have shown, from the 
advertisements of the time of Charles II., what was indeed well 
Icnown, that the a^e was cliaracterised by frivolous amusements, 
and by a love of dress anfl vicious exciletnenl, in the midst of 
which p^tilence stallced Hke a mccking fiend, and the p^reat con- 
flagration lit up the g^eneral masquerade with its Lurid and 
angry glare Together with the emasculate tone of manners, a 
dtspositiun to ]jersniint violence and a contempt of law stained 
the latter part of this and the succei^diog reign, 1 he auilacious 
seizure of the crown jewels by Blood ; the attack upon the Duke 
of Ormond by the same desperado, that nobleman actually 
having been dragged from his coach in St. James's Street in the 
-evening, and carried, bound upon, The saddle-lx>w of Blood's 
horce, as far as Ilydc Park Corner, before he could be rescued; 
the slitting of 8ir Jolin Cuvcnlry's nose in the Haymarket by the 
king's guard ; and the murder of Sir Edmondbury GodlVey on 
Primrose Hill, are familiar instances of the prevalence of this 
lawless spirit. 

We catch a glimp&e of one of these street outrages in the 
following announcement of on assault upon glorious John : — 

"ViniEKEAS John Uri/derif Esq., was on Monday, the I8th instant, 

Tf nt niclit, baibarously awnulted and woundeil, in Rose Street in CoTent 
Uardan. by diviers men ynltnqwB ; if oBy pereoa &tiall malne discovery of the »id 
oilvQili'Di iia the eaiiU Mr. Dnidim, or to any Justice of ih« Peace, he ah&tl noi 
only receive Fifty Pound*, which it depMitcil in the hanAt of Mr. Blunrhani, 
Gujiitmilh, Deni door to Temple Bar, for llie suld purpose, hut if he t>e a principal 
or an net^L-iiiior}- in lii« i.mA fa«t. Lis M:)j««ly \& graciously pleased to promise him 
Ills p^inloD for the SEime, — JAp Loivivn Q^ftte, Pec. 2:i, 1679. 

And here is another of a still more tragic character: — 

WHEREAS a Gentleman was, on tlie ei^htpentii at iiig^blj mortally 
wo'jndeil near I Juculn's tnn, in ChanciTj' Lose, in vit'W as is tu^iMieci of ibi: 
eoachman ttiatset him dMm: tbe»e vXv lo give notice that Ihe akld ooacbtnoli 
shall come in and dwlare hit. know|eii|ie uf &e in«tt¥r ; if ony other OtrwMt •bril 
<IiscGT«r the said coaebman to John Hawlcs, at his eliomlwr in LiBColn's Lm. be 
gIibJ] have S ^iiwa!> reward. — Lsul^i O'xxtiu. MiikIi 39th. IfiSS. 

To this period also may he ascribed the rise of that romantic 



felon, tlie hig;hwaymAn. The hoe and cry after these genteel 
rnbbers is frequctttly raised during: tbe reign of Jkmefc II. In ooe 
case we have Doticeof a gentleman baring' been stopped, robbed, 
and then bonnd, by icounted men at IsUf^^n, who rode away 
with his liorse; another time these dazing gentry appeared at 
K niglitsbridge ; and a tbird adverliseinent, inf a later date it is 
true, offers a reward fnr three mounts Macheaths, vbo were 
charged with slopping- and robbing three young; l»diec in Sooth 
Street, near Audley Chapel, as thev were retonung hiMne from 
visiting. The following is still more singolar, as showing the 
high soda] position of some of these gentlem«i who took to th«J 
* road ' far special purposes : — 

WHEREAS Mr. Herbert Jotum^ Attortie^-ftt-Law in the town c^ 
Mcimaouih. well known bj- boi^ tenn] T««r» together Uader-Shml 
oftfae nme County, hJilfa of Inte diTen tunc ^:>bt»l the Mail c&mBm%bo^ ^ 
town to London, nnii tikL-n oni divm letters aiki writs, md is wtm%ai 
justice, and fUppos^ tn hav^ i^elt^Ted himself in Mime of t&c new-nMod 
These arv to give outice. ihal whoiMver £h&U eeciLre the iud Hert>«rt Joae 
to \>t cAjunutE^I iu ordf^r to misw^r thtw; nid etgbw^ HMjr jBTe bhkc AaRSf i 
^ir Tbamai Fowlea, guldiDUth, Temple'lnr. LoodoCi, or U Uf. MJffcfl BolUB 
tnerc«r, in Monmouth, mitd ibdil Iwre a ynJnn'i rmrd. 

The drttikio^ tendencies of these Jaeobite times are diiefly 
shown by the numberless inquiries after lost or stolen silver 
tankards, and bj the sales oi claret and canary which consiantlr 
took place. The bajnmer was not apparentlr used at that time, 
as wc commonljr iind announcements of sales bj ' inch of caiKflf,* 
a term which mightily puzzled ns imtil we saw the erplanalinn 
of it in our constant hooV of reference, the Diary of Pcpjs ^ — 

' After dinner we met and fold ilie WejiDoolli, Suocesae and Fdlow- 
«hip bulked, wbere pleasiuit to ««e hov b«icfcwaxil nco arv al 6nt to 
bid ; and yet, when the c&udle ia goin^ oat, bow they bawl, tad ^*- , 
pute aflienv'ards ubo bid the most. AdiI here I observed ooe 
cunnioger than the rest, that was sure to bid the Isft man aftd to t»iTf.. 
it ; Eind inquiring thereaMW be told melhat, jtwt as theflaaw gOMOvKf' 
the STDoke d^cend*, which is a tbing^ I never otwerrvd bdafc^ and bf 
that he do know the instant when to bid l«9t ' (Sept. Sid, I6SZ). 

Xbe taste for auctions, which became such a ra^ io the time 
of Anne, bad its beginning ab'>ut this period. Books aod pictnra 
are constantly advertised to Ije disposed of in this manner. TTk 
love of excitenient bom in the gaming time of the HcstOiatMHI 
joigUt be traced in these sales, and in tbe lotteiiea^or 'adroitiirra' 
AS tb^y were sometimes termed, which ntended lo ercry ca^ 
t<eivable article capable of being sold, Tbe fiatll^ Ivte W the 
,lown was, however, checked fur the time bjr the JZcrelatiao, 




which wu doubtless hastened on by such sDUouDCirineDLB as 
the (Vi![owiog', which appeared in the • Gazette* of March 8, 

CATHOLIC LOYALTT, rt' upon the Subject of Govemnient 
anA Obedience, drfivered in a SERMON before ihe King anJ Queen, iB Hi» 
Ms^GBties Cbapcl >i Whiwhall. od the 13 of June, 1687. by ih* Bevnd. F»tiM* 
Ed^rard Scarajibrokc, priest of tbe Society of J<?aus. Publi^«d by Ub Mnitstj*! 
Comnuuid. Sold bj- Ka^iM Tnjlor, uvsa SiaCioiierG Hall, Loadoa. 

Up to ibis time advcrtisciDeiits onl^ appeared in threes and 
fours, anil rarely, if erer, cxcee<!ed a tlttfen^ in any newspaper of 
the day. They were generally stuck in the middle of llie 
diiDinutivc journal, hut sometimes fonoed a tail-piece to it. 
They were confined in their character, and gave no evidence of 
behiDging to a g^r^^t commerdal community. Now and then, it 
is true, sums of money were advertised as see]{ing investment ; 
more constantly a truss for a 'broken belly,' or aji 'escellent 
dentifrice,' appeared ; or some city raaosion of the nobifity is ad- 
vertified to let, showing the progress westward even then, as wit- 
ness iLe following : — 

THE EARL of BERKELEY'S HOUSE, with Garden and Stabitt, 
in St. John's Lane, not br Cmm Smiih Field, in to be Let ar Sold for 
Building. Enquire of Mr. Prestwonb^ a com chandler, near the G&id honii:, umI 
you may tnow farther.— ioRrfon Gaitlte-, Asgusi 17, 1686. 

Here is an instance of the singular ntanner m which fire- 
'ijiBurances were conducted in that day : — 

THERE having happened a. fire on the 24tb of the last rooQlh by 
whicb Brverft] nowsts of the friendly locleiy were burned to the tbIdp of 9S5 
Sounds, .tbi.'6i; an? ta gii'c notice tfl tdl pcrevuE ^lf the caLd todety thw ihey^^re 
tnml to pay at the office Fanlran Coart ■□ fli^t Street thvir imnl promrtioiu 
[iOf tbeir uid ]oi£. wldcli com^ lu five ahilljtigs uod □□« penny for ereiy nnadrad 
pounds ijisiired, before the 12tl> of August next. — ■Lcialou GatttU, July SUt, 1685. 

Sometimes it is a ' flea-bitten grey mare ' stolen out of ' Mary-I&- 
ilonc Park,' or a lost lottery- ticket, or a dog, that is inquired after^ 
"but they contained no hint thnt England possessed a commercial 
marine, or that she was destined to become a nation of sboplteejiers. 
As yet too there was no sign given of tLat wonderful art of 
mgenious pufUng which now exists, and which migbt lead a 
casual observer to imagine that the nation eonsisted of ooly two 
cltuses — cheats and dupes. 

From the settlement of 1688 the true value of the advertise- 
ment appears to hare dawned upon the public. The country 
evidently began to breathe freely, and with Dutch William antt 
Proleatant ascendancy tlie peculiar characler of the nation burst 
forth with extraordinary *-igour. Enterprise of all liinds wasi 



caJtcd fortb, nnd cast tt& tmag^ upon tbe tdvertisuig coJamlu a{ 
the public joumaU, now greatijr iacnaxd botb in size and 
in numbers, no less iban MveolT-sbc liBvio^ been set np vitfain 
four ye-;iTS aiiet tbe He volution. It is obserTable, too, tbat from. 
lliis political conMilsiaa dates a rerlaui roagh Itmsour, whicb^ 
however latent, wn* not before expressed in the pablic papen, 
espccmlly on matters political. I^t us forlber eEacidale oor 
ni«uiiiig by quotiuo; the following from ibe ' New Obsfnrator * oT 
July 17, 1689, Setting^ fortli a popular and practical Inetbad of 
parading, tbe Whig triampb : — 

0I£A7<GE CARDS, repre-seRting the late King^e r^gn and expe- 
dition of the Prince of Orange: tii. Thf Earl of EsS^T Mflftber, Dr. OtCS 
Whipping, DeE^ipg U»e MoDomeiit, Mj Lord Jdemt in th« W^i kBDging oT 
Proi«iiui», Mi^lea CoUw, TtuI or the BiahiKii. Cuile Haiae ai Kome, The 
Popiib AEdwlfe, A Jesoit PraacIuitguunH our Bible. CoatecniM SouMk. Mf 
LotJ ChtaCellOr H the Bed's feet. Birth of ihe Prince ot Walra. Tlie Ordiure 
M M a h oqge pulling down and boruing bv CapuuD Tom and liia Motnle, Mortar j 
pieces in tbe Tow^ir, The PriaH of Oni^e Londine, Tb? J^iuia SempfriiigL 
Father P(;i«r'G TniDGswaoac Tbe Fi^l al hndiu Tot Army gwae <n^ to &■ 
Priuce of OraJigt. Tyrconniel in TKland. Mf LordChaocdior in iheTmrer, With 
many oihcr remarksMe powa^'O of theTiiDes. To vbichii added the cfi^esof amf 
Gmcioas K. 'WilJism aod 1^. Mary, ruriootlT illnsmMd and enoavra in UvelT" 
£^r», doDe hy rim pcrfonDen ot tlie £rft I'Dpuh Plot Cird>. Mid b; DoDpan- 
Ivenooit, the putilisbf r and pnuuer of the Vew Obmmitor, 

Tbe editor of the 'New Observator' was Bisbop Bamet, and 
these political plnTUiS''<ards were »oM by bis publisher ; perbaps 
the great Prolestanl bishop knew sometbin;^af their 'performers.* 
In tbe year 1692 an erperiment was made which clearly showft 
how just an estimate was gedii^ abroad of tbe value of pub- 
licity in matters of business. A newspaper was set up, called 
^'Tbe City Mercurv, published gratis for the Promotion of 
Trade,' which lasted for two years, and contained notliing but 
■dverti semen ts. The proprietor undertook to distribute a thousand 
lopie» i»er week to the then chief places of resort, — roffee- 
houses, taverns, and booksbopc Even in these days of As-J 
' Times' double supplement socb an experiment has often bcm 
made and failed ; our wonder, therefore, is not that the ' City 
Mercury ' went to tbat Umbo which is stored with such countless 
J abortive joumab., but thai the interest felt in wiTertisemcnis 

^ft should, at that early period, haTc kept it alive so long, 
^M If tbe ibreguing scheme proves that an attempt wu then madeb> 
^1 anbdiride tbe duties of a newspaper — that of keepinf^ its readers 
^^ inforiiied of the news of the day, and of forroing- a njeans of pub- 
licity for the wants and losses of individuals — the advertisement 
we are about to qaote clearly shows that at tbe same time tberv] 
was a plan in existence for combining the printed newspaper 
with tbe more ancient written newsletter. It is wdJ known that 





long after the institution of public journals the old profession 
of the newsletter-wriler conlinued \o flourish. We can easily 
account for this fact when we remember that during the heal of 
» great rebellion it wns. much more safe to write than to print the 
intellij^enceof the day. Many of these newsletters were writteuby 
strong partisans, and contained information which it was neither 
desirable nor sufe tha.1 their oppunenls should sec. They were 
passed on from hand to hand in secret, and often endorsed by 
each successive reader. We are told that the Cavaliers, when 
taken prisoners, have been known to eat their newsletters ; and 
some of Prince Rupert's, which had been intercepied, arc still 
in existence, and bear dark red stains which testify to the des- 
perate manner in which they were defended. Il is prctly certain, 
however, that, as a profession, newsletter-wriling began to de- 
cline after the Revolution, although We find the editor of the 
'Evening Post,* as late as the year 1709, reminding its readers 
that * there must be three or four pounds a year paid for written 
news.' At the sAine time the public journals, it is clear, had not 
performed that part of their oihce which was really more accept^ 
able to the country reader than any other — the retailing the 
political and social chitchat of the day. We hare only to look 
into the public papers to convince ourselves how woefully they 
fell short in a department which must have been the staple of the 
new&writer, Tliis want still being felt, John Salusbury devises » 
scheme to combine the old and tlie new plan after the following 
manner, as announced in the ' Flying Post ' of 1694 : — 

IF any Gentleman has a mind lo oblige his country friend or 
correspond PC t with, lie Account of Public Aifain, he niaj have il for two- 
pence of J, Solusbury a( ihe Rising-Sun id Comliill, ou n shwt qI fioe pafirr, hfif 
of whicli biiiD(; bluik, hu may iliercon write bU own primie biuuins or the 
■n&tcrial news of the day. 

It does not say much for the energy with which the journals 
of that day were conducted that the purchasers sre invited to 
write therein 'the material news of the day;' that, we should 
have thought, was the editor's business lo have supplied ; but 
it was perhaps a contrivance by which the Jacobites might 
circulate information, by means of the post, without compromising 
the printer. We have seen many such papers, half-print half- 
manuscript, in the British Museum, which had passed through 
the post, the manuscript portion of which the Home Secretaries 
of our lime would have thought sufficiently treasonable to justify 
them in having broken their seals. 

As advertisements, from their earliest introtluclion, were used 
to make knonn the amusements of the day and tbe means of killing 
time at tile disposal of persons o£ quality, it seems strange that 





it waa not employed sooner thao it was to draw a company to the 
iteatTts. We have looked in vain for the announcement of any 
theatrical entertainment before tbe yeas 1 701, when the advertise- 
ment of the Lincoln's Inn Theatre makes its appeanince in the 
columns of the'Englisli Post,' The IpaJ of this Utile house 
was, however, speedily followed by tlie larger ones, and only a 
few years later we have regular lists of the performances at all the 
theatres in the daily papers. The 5rst journal of this descriptioa 
was the ' Daily Courant,' published in 1709. In this year also 
appeared the celebrated ' Tatler,' to be speedily followed by the 
'Spectator' and ' Guardian,' the social and literary journals of 
thai Aueufitine a^'e. The first editioa of the 'Tatler,' in the 
British Museum, contains advertisements like an ordinary paper^ 
and they evidently retlect, more than those of its contemporaries, 
the flying fashions of the da j, and the follies of the ' quality.' 
Id them we notice the rage that existed for lotleriet, or * sales,' 
as they were called. Every conceivable thing was put up to 
raffle. We ftee advertisements heade<l *A Sixpenny Sale of 
Lace,' 'A Hundred Pounds for Half-a-crown,' 'A Penny Adven- 
ture for a Great Pie/ 'A Quarter's Rent,' 'A Freehold Estate/ 
* Threepenny Sales of Houses,* 'A fashionable Coach ;' gloves, 
looking-glasses, chocolate, Hungary water, Indian goods, lacquered 
ware, fans, &c., were notified to be disposed of in this manner, 
and the fair mob was called iogether to draw their tickets by the' 
farae means. This fever, which produced ten years later the cele- 
brated South Sea Bubble, was of slow growth. It had its root in 
the Restoration, its flower in the reign of Anne, and its fruit and 
denouement in the reign ot George I. Before passing oti from 
the pages of the ^Tader,^ we must stop for a moment to notice 
one or two of those playful advertisements which Sir Kicbard 
Steele delighted in, and which, under the gulae of fun, perhaps 
really aflbrded him excellent matter for his Journal. Here is an 
irresistible invitation to his fair readers: — 

ANT Ladies who have any particular stories of their acquaintance 
which, ihi;? art! wiIIidk privslelj la maki; public, may sand 'em b^tbe penity 
poci to Uaau Ui«keretaff, £Bq., encloivd lo Mr. John Morplirii, oeu Statiooen' 
lhil.— Tatlit. May 8, i:Ofl. 

Ad excellent Uon's-mouth this wherein to drop scandal. A slill 
more amusing instance of the fun thai pervaded Isaac Bickerstaff, 
Esq., is to be found in tbe series of advertisements in which he' 
ought to have convinced John Partriflge, the Astrologer, that he 
really bad departed this life: an assertion which the latter per- 
sisted in denying with the most ludicrous earnesiness. Of.these 
we give one from the *T&tler' of August 2ith, 1710: — 




WHEREAS an ignorant Upstirt in Astrology has public]; eixiea- 
vourud Ui panuade the world tJUl be il the faLtf John Putridf;!^. -wha died 
the 38 of Morch 131S, these «re to certiff all whom it may coDcem, that Ihe Inie 
John Partridge \nu n^t only dead st llwt rime, but CQo6aues «o lt> th« preKut day. 
fiewiLre of counletfelU, for luch are abroad. 

The pleasant malice of the above is pa'-enl pnouffli, but wc 
confess we are puzzled to know whether the following is gcntiine 
or not, Wc Copied it from among a number of others, from 
which it W3S undistinguisbable- by 9aj peculiarity of type :— 

CharitahU Advice Office, where all persons may have the 


apinJon of digniSed Qergymi-u, Ic&rned Cduh?'!, grculueiu Pby&icioiLe, 
and Fxperieiued S ur g to ng, to auj- qa«tioii in IMriiur)', Moreliiy, Law, Pbysie, 
Ot Surgery, with proper Pn'M:iipliaafl within tirelve hours &fl^r Ihey ihve 
delivered in a (talc of their cuse. Those who cac't writi^ may bave their cas«a 
listed at the oSci,-, * * The fees urv only W, st delivery, or seijding your 
i;aie, ind li. more on re-d»liv«riiif that ami ibe opinion upon it. b«ingvb'u u 

thought Eufficieot to ilefny the aeroreaiy cltM-fu^ oT M:rvaiils aud cAoe-ieiLt.— 

Tatltr, De<«mbcr IG, 1710. 

To pass, Ijowever, from the keen weapons of the braia to thosa 
of the fle&h, it i^ interesting to fix with some tolerable accitnqr 
the change which took place in the early paxt af the eighteenth 
century in what might be calteil the amusements of the fancy. 
The ''noble art of defence,' as it was teniied, up to the time of 
the first George seems to have consisted Jn the broad'Sword 
exercise. Pepys describes in his Diary several bloody eacounJcnE 
of this kind which he himself witnessed ; and the following 
adircrtisedcnt, a half century later, shows that the skilled w«apoa 
hod not at that time been set aside for the more brutal fist : — 

ATiyal t^f Skill 10 be performed at Ilis Majeety'e Beor Ganleii 
in UockJey-in-the-Lfole, on Thursday next, beiog the Dih iu«tsnt, hetwut 
these ftillgwing masters I'—Eiimuiid Butioii. mmt^v i>f the soble acieuce of 
defence, lehv hath httlu cut dawn Mr. Uasdt uid the Champion of the West, and 
4 berida, and JiuncH ifurriE, an Herpf&nl&Dit^ man, master of tlie nable scJLiice 
ct defnioe, who has fou^1 !99 prixcs and tierrt^r was wor^lcd^ to exercise the luual 
weapons, at S o'clock m the uftttmoan prucrisdy. — Fa^tmaa, July i, I'lil, 

The savage character of the time may be judged from thii 
public boast of Mr. Edmund Button that ho had cut down six 
men with a murderous weapon. We question, however, if the 
age which could tolerate such ruffianism was not exceeded by 
the change, which substituted the fist for the sword, and wit- 
nessed women entering the ring in Ihe place of men. Some of 
the earliest notices of boxing-matches upon record, singularly 
enough, took place between combatants uf the fair sei. In a 
public journal of 1722, for instance, we find the following gage of 
battle thrown down, and accepted :• — 

CUALLEKGE.— I, Elizabeth WUkinsou, of Clerkenwell, having, 
had ifCims word« willi Uonimh lij'S^ti], suid rcjuiring mti»filrticui. tin iuriuJ 
her to meet me upon the Et&ge, and tigj me for tluvc guinns; each wchiuniL] 

boldinf f 




boljin^ halt-a.-aowa in vaeii litsd. and the flitt womui that drops the nwney to 
lew the balHe. 

AxfrWEn. — I. Hamuli Hrfield, of N«w^te Market, bcuiDg of Ik* naohieatm 
of Elizabeih Wjlldiuoii, will not &J1, God ipijjuw, to giv« her awns likm ibai 
vovAb, denring home Moite, auil from her no fikTour : she nuj ex{«ct a good 

The balf-crown^ iii the hands was an ingeiiiocis derice to prermt 
£cratcliing 1 A still more choracteii'Stii: si>ecitapa of one uT these 
challenges to a fLsLlcuiT Iwiweon two womea is lo be found in 
the * Daily Post * of Jtily 7tb, 1728 :— 

AT Mr. Stokea' Amphitheatre in IsUogton Roari, this present 
Mowlay. Iwinp the- " of October, irrili be a complete Boxing Maich by 
tie twv foUoning Chitnipi<9nevM£: — Wh.;rew I, Ann Fii^M, »f SwVe New- 
ingloD, a«-drirer, veil ImoTn for mj &biljdea in toxing in mj own defence 
whercTer it happeoed iiii inj waj, liaviug been nfiroateii bj Mrs. Stoker, stjLed 
the European Championen, is> fxirlv iuvrte her to a. trial eyf her besi skill qi 
Boxiog ftir ID I— "— *% Iktr Hk boA &J1 ; aoil qa«EtioB not but to giTV ber sncfa 
pmo& of my jndfemeu that sh^ obUw her lo ackDOirlsdge mit CAam^tntm of 
thi? S(3^, Ui tbp entin eatisfoclidD of all uty friendtL 

I, Elizabeth Stokes, of thi; Cit^ of LiOiidoti, hare not fought in this waj since 
I fought tfa? fejnoui boiing-wo^pun of tMlIioglgltW H BliTiiil«i Bn^ ^n^ a «Qn)- 
pleti: victory (.whicb is ax. yean •go') ; b«t u tlie Ehdow Suke NvinDgiog sm- 
woman daret me to fijjbt her tar the 10 poaods I do aasun: hn I vill not &il 
meetintf her for the sud SfHD, &nd «1onbt not Ihal the hlovg which E shall present 
ber with will be nunc difficult Car her to digeal than sot fh« irrer gave b«r asm. 
— AWfc A man, known bj the uaoie uf Bagged and TwSi challenges the lw« man 
of Slake NVvttigton lO %tc him for oat gaiaeA to irb&t Sum thty pleue tO tei^ 
nuv. N.B. Attendance wilt be giTcn at one, and the encounter to 1m(^ at fimr 
prccbctr. Tlwra will bi; the (Uvervon of d^d^'plspng u oswl. 

Other nJverlU'enienls about this time relate to cotk-matcbes, 
sometimes ' to last tLi- we<;k,' to biill-baitiog, and, more cruel 
$till, to dressing up mad buUj with fire-works, in order lo -KiOTy 
them with dogs. The brutal lone of manners which set iii 
afresh with the Hanoverian succession, might be alone gatberetl 
from the so-called sjxirting advertisementa of the day, arwl we 
now see tbat Hogarth, in bis f&lnous ]>icture, bad no need to, 
and probably did not, draw upon bis imagiDation for the combi- 
aatjou of horrid cruelties tbereln depicted. 

The very same spirit pen'aded the gallantry uX the day, and 
we print two advertisementB, one of the time of Anne, aiid the 
other of the age We are now illustratiog, in order to contrast 
their apiriC We give the more polubed one precedence : — 

AGENTLETilAlSr who, the twentieth instant, had the honour to 
Miiiduet a Iftdjr out of a hoai at Wliiirh>U-«tAirs, doirea lo know wht-re hs 
mvf wait ou her lo disclMe « miter 9f gona?ni. it tetiN iineted to Mr. bi>n)iiel 
IttcTca, Lo \iv ln'ft with Mr. May. U the Golden Headf the upper end of >ew 
SoulluktDiitonSircel, Coteai Carden.— Toller, March 21, 1709. 

A certsiii comtly »tyl« and lir of good breedlDg perrades (his 




advertifiement, of which Sir RicharJ Steele himself need not 
have been ashamed ; but what a falling aS is here t — 

WHEREAS a young lady was at Ctivent Garden playEiouse last 
Tuesday cigbl, aad reccised a blow with a sjnn.ri' pLect^ »f wood on h-er 
liHait: if the tady tie EiDglc, and meet me «u Sunday, at two □'clock, oa tbe Mall 
in St. James's Park, ar sebd a lioe directed for A. B., to Mr, Jones's, at The Sun 
Tnvtru in St. Paul's CtiurchjanJ, ■where auJ whi'ii 1 shall wflit on her, to iii&nii 
lier of somelhing ru'ry mucL 10 her ad^nntage ou honountble teniw, her coropliano? 
will be a lasting pteasure to Iicr musi obediunt servaul. — Gewrai Adtstrtiatr, 
Feb. 8, 1748. 

It WDuld seem as thoug'h the beau had been forced to resort 
to a missile to make an impression, and then felt the necessity 
gf stating tbat his intentions were ' bonourabte,' in order to 
secure tht: interview with his innamorata. Imagine too the 
open Tinblusbing manner in which the jissignation is attempted I 
We are far from saying that such matters are not mana^etl now 
through the medium of advertisements, for we shall presently 
show ^they are, but in how much more carefully concealed a 
manner. The perfect contempt of puhlic opinion, or rather the 
public acquiescence in such infringements of (he moral law, 
which it exhibits, proves the general state of morality more tijau 
the infringements themselves, which obtain mor« or less at all 
times. Two of the causes which led to this low tone of manners 
with respect to women were doubtless the detestable profligacy 
of the conrls of the two first Georges, and the very defective 
condition of the existing marriage law. William and Mary, and 
Anne, had, by their decorous, not to say frigid lives, redeemed 
the Crown, and, in some measure, the aristocracy, from the vices 
of the Restoration. Crown, court, and quality, however, fell 
into a still worse slough on the accession of the Hanoverian 
king, who soiletl afresh the rising tone of public life by his 
scandalous connexion with the Duchess of Kendal and the 
Countess of Darlington ; whilst his son and successor was abso- 
lutely abetted in his vicious courses by his own queen, who 
promoted hts commerce with hts two mistresses, the Countesses of 
Sulfolk and Yarmouth. The degrading influence of the royal 
manncra was well seconded by the condition of the law. Keith's 
chapel in May-fair, and that at the Fleet, were the Grctna- 
greens of the age, where children could get married at any time 
of the day or night for a couple of crowns. It was said at the 
time that at the former chapel, »ix thousand persons were annu- 
ally married in this off-hand way ; the youngest of the beautiful 
Miss Gunnings was wedded to the Duke of Hamilton, at twelve 
o clock at night, with •■» ring off the bed-curtain, at this very 
' maniage-shup.' The fruits of such unions may be imaguied. 



Tlie easy way in which the mairiagre bond was worn and 
broken through i» clearly indicAted by the lulvertisemeaU wliich 
absolwtely crowd the public journals from the accession of the 
House of Brunswick up to the time of the third George, of 
hushnnds warning; l)ie public not lo trost their runaway wives. 

We biive referred, in aa early part of this paper, to the taste 
for blackamoors, wtiich srt in in the reign of Charles II., and 
went on Increasing until tbe middle of the next century, at 
wbicb time there must bave been a. very considerable population 
of negro servants in the metropolis. At first the picturesque 
Qatives of the East were pressed into the seni'lce of tbe nobility 
and gentry, and colour does not appear to have been a sine 
gua iion. Thus we have in the ' Lctndon Gazette ' of 1(58^ the 
following hue an<l cry advertisement: — 

RUN away from his mastor, Captain St. Lo, the 2l3t instant, 
OIhIcIbIi Ealiu Alnvhani, a Mocir. t^arlby cDrnplvxign, Ebon frizzW liair. a 
E!"l(l ring in bis «ar, io a Ihlick ci>at uid blew brtuclK-fl. He took v'lih bim n 
fcluw TiLfkish Wfl1ch-^i>»li. a Tnrkifth suit oi dolhing that he useil lo wmi" nl»oUt 
town, aiiii fevcraJ otter ihiDgi. Whoever briugi hixa to Mr. LoZl-I's iiooBe: ia Gfi^Mi 
Slri^t shall have one guinea for hi» ehitrgts. 

The next advertisement we find also relates to what we must 
consider an East lodjan. The notion of property in these boys 
seems to have been complete; tbeir masters put their names 
apoa their collars, as they did upon their setters or spanieU : — 

A BLACK boy, an Indian, about thirteen yean old. run away the 
8ih insiani from Pntnej-, with a collar about his neck with this inscription : 

' lie Lady ]ir«imfielti'g Wack lu liiiicolii's laii Fields.' Wboevi'T brings liiui lo Sir 
Edward Urouifivlil's at PuUiej shall fauve u guinea, reward. — The Jjmdou Gaittlr, 

The traffic in African blacks, which commenced towards the 
end of the seventeenth century, seemt to have displaced these 
ca&tern servitors towards the end of tlie century, for henceforth 
the word negro, hlackamoor, or black bo}', is invariably used. 
Tso doubt the fashion for these negroes, and other coloured 
attendants, was derived from the Venetian Republic, the inter- 
course of whose merchants with Africa and India naturally led 
to their introduction. Titian and other great pointers of his 
school continuaJly introduced them in their pictures, and our 
ol»Ti great bard has for ever associated the Moor with tbe 
City in the Sea. In England tbe negro boys appear to bave 
been considered as much articles of sale as they would have 
been in the slave-market at Constantinople. In the ' Taller ' 
of 1701) we find one offered to the public In the following 
terms : — - 

A BLACK boy, twelve years of age, fit to wait on a gentleman, 
to In; dispoMd of at Deoit'i Coffo^-bonse in Finch Lane, ntrat Ibe Ri^al 

TOL. XC*1I. SO. CXCJII. P tk^lK^, 




Agpin, in the ' Dall^ Journal ' gf September *8th, 17*8, 
light upon another: — 

rbe EoM. a negro boy, aged eleven years. Enquire of the Tii<giitt 
Coffechoiue in ThreedaeedU Street, beluad the Roftd Bscbaoge. 

These were the overflowings of that infamous traffic in negroes, 
commenced by Sir John Hawkins in the year 1680, which tore 
from their homesj and transferred to Jamaica alone, no less than 
910,000 Africans between that time and the Jear 178G, when the 
slave-trade was abolished. 

We have brought the reader Tip to the date of the final battle 
which extinguished the hopes of the Stuarts and settle the line 
of Brunswick firmlj' on the thnme. The year 1745 witnessed the 
Comtnencement of the General Advertiser, the title of which 
iudicates the purjx>s«; to which it was dedicated. This paper 
was the first successful attempt to depend for support upon 
the advertiseDienlk It contained, thereby creating a new era 
in the newspaper press. I'rom the very outset its colamns were 
filled with them, between fifty and sixty, rewnlarly classified and 
Separated by rules, appoanng in each pabllcation ; in fact, the 
advertising page put on lor the tirat time a modem look. The 
departiirc of ships is constantly notifietl, and the engrann^s of 
these old faigh-pooped vessels sail in even line down the column. 
Trading matters have at last got the upper hand. You see- 
'a pair of leather bags,' 'a scarlet laceu-coat,' * a sword,* still 
inquired after ; and theatres make a show, for this was the dawning 
of the age of Foote, Macklin, Garrick, and most of the other 
great players of the last century ; but, comparatively speaking, 
the gaieties and follies of the town ceased gradually from this 
time to proclaim themselves tlirough the medium of advertise- 
ments. The great earthcjuake nt Lisbon $0 frightened the people, 
that masqueradGs were prohibited by law, and the puppct-showa, 
the rope-oaneitlg, the china-auctions, and public breakfasts hcnce- 
forlb grow scarcer and scarcer as the Ladies Betty and Sally^ 
who inaugurated them, withdrew by degrees, withered, faded^ 
and patched, from the scene. 

The only signs of the political tendencies of the time lo be 
gathered from the sources we are pursuing, are the party dinners, 
announcements of which we now and tLen ty be met witli as 
follows: — 

TO THE JOTOUS— The Blood* are desired io meet tog«tJ!« «t 
the house known bv the name ofElt^SirllagliMiddlL-tot], uc«f Saddler's WelU. 
Isliu^ou, whicti Mr. Skvggs ba& procured fur tliul day for thi; belter cDtettmimitdiil 
of those< Geailijinuji who asreed tu m^et ^t bi* Owu lioiuv. Diamr will bc «■> liie 
Table punctually al twoo'cTock, — Qm«rat AAtrtitrr, Jan. IS, IT-lB. 




Or (he foliowin? «tiU more cbaracteiistic example from the same 
paper of April 12 : — 

HALF-MOON TAVERN, CHEAPSIDB.-Saturday next, the 
16 of April, being the snniTersary of tte Glorioua Battle of GoUoden, the 
Sun will DtMemblc In the Mood at gIx In the vveniag, Th^rvftn llie Chnoe 
Spirits sre duired to make iheir appe&nuire ud fill Bp the Jtif.— Eimnoos. 

Within fivc'ind-twcnty jcars frota tliis date most of the esistiag 
moming journals were eslablislied, and their advertising^ coluinnji 
put OD a guise closely reaembling' that which they row present; 
we need not therefore pursue our deep trenching into the old 
subsoil in order to turn up tuor^^buricd e\'idonces of manners and 
fashions, far they have ceased to appear^ either fossil m his- 
torical ; we therefore boldly leap the gulf that interveties between 
these old days and the present. 

The early part of the present century saw the commencement 
of that liberal and sy*temiiiir plan of advertising which markg 
the complete era in the ait. Princely ideas by de^ees took pos- 
session of the trading mind as to the value of this new agent iq 
extending- their business transaction*. Packwood, some thirty 
years agv, led the way by impressing his razor-stnip indelibly on 
ihe miiid of every beardeil member of the empire. Like ttllier 
great [joteptatea he boasted i% laureat in bis pay, and every one 
remcmben the reply made to the indiridaaU curious to know 
who drew up nis advertisements: 'La, Sir, we keeps a. 


By universal consent, however, the world has accorded to the- 
late George liublns tlie palm in this style of commercial putfing. 
His advertise ments were really artistically written. Like Martin, 
he hat! the power of investing every landscape and building he 
louched with an importance and majesty not aUainable by meaner 
hanJs, He did perhaps ^o beyond the yielding line of even 
jiocfical license, when lie dcacrilwd one pa^rtion of <% paradUa he 
wns nbout to submit to public competition as adorned, among 
other charms, with a ' hanging wood,' which the astonished pur^ 
chaser found out meant nqthin«; more than an old gallows. But 
then he redeemed slight man<Buvres of this kind by touches which 
r*a!ly displayed a g;eiuns for puffing. On one occasion he had 
made XUb beauties nf an estate so enchanting-, that he found 
it necessary to blur it by a fault or two, lest it should prore 
loo bright and good ' for human nature'^s daily food/ ' Bnt 
there are two drawbacks to the property/ ai^hed out this Ha^s 
of the Mart, ' the liltcr of the rose-leaves and the noise of the 
nightingales I ' Certainly the force of e:tqiiisite paffing could no 
further go, and when he dieil the poetry of advertising departed. 
Others, such as Charles VVrin;ht of Cliampagne celebrity, hav«J 
attempted to strike the string, and Moses doe^ we believe, 

p 2 "N eniL^j^i^'^ 



veritably keep a poet; but none^ of them have been able to rival 
George the Greal, and we Jawn fls we refid sonnets wliicb end 
in the invariable 'mart,' or acrostics which refer to Hyam and 
Co.'s superior vests. Twenty years ago some of the daily news- 
papers admitted illustrated advertisements into their cplumos ; 
now it would be fatal to any of them to do so. Nevertheless, they 
are by far the most efFective of their class, as they call in the aid 
of another sense to express their meaning, AH but the minors 
of the jiresetit generation must remember Gcurge Cniikshank's 
exquisite wofidcut of the astumsbed cat viewing herself in the 
polished Hessian, which made the fortune of Warren. But in. 
those days tradesmen only tried their wings far the illgbl. It 
wns left to the present time to prove what unlimited confi- 
dence in the power of the advertisement will effect^ and a short 
lis,t of the sums annuall]/ spent in this item by some of the most 
adventurous dealers will purhaps startle our readers. 

'Professor' Holloway, Pills, etc. . £30.000 

Moses and Son 10,000 

Eowlaiid acid Co. (Macassar oil, etc.) 10,000 
Dr. De Jon^h (cDcI-Jivnr oil) . . 10,000 
Heal and Sous (bedsteadu and bedding) 6,000 
JJitholla (tailor) 4,300 

It does Seem jmJeed incredible tliat one house should cjtpedd 
upon the mere adverlising of quack pills and ointment a sum 
equal to the entire revenue of many a German principality. Can 
it possibly pay? asks the astonished reader. Let the increasing 
avenue of assistants, to be seen ' from mora to dewy e%'e ' wrappin|r 
up pills in the ' professor's * establishment within Ibe shadow of 
Temple Bar, supply the answer.* Vastly as the prais of this 
comitT}- has expanded of late years, it has proved insufficient to con- 
tain within its limils the rapid current of puiTing which has set m. 
Advertisements now overflow into our omnibusscs, our cabs, our 
railway carriages, and our steamboats. Madame Tussnud pavs 90/. 
monthly to the Atlas Omnibus Company alone for the privilege 
of posting' her bills in their vehicles. They arc inked upon 
the pavement, painted in large letters under the arches of the 
bridges and on every dead wall. Lloyd's weekly newspaper is 
stamped on the 'full Guelph cheek' of the ])lebeian penny; 
the emissaries of Moses shower perfect libraries through the 
windows of the carriages which ply from the railway stations ; 
and, as a crowning' fact, Thackeray, in hia .loumey from Cornhill 
to Cairo, tells us th^t VVarren's blacking is painted up over »n 
obliterated inscription to Psammetlchus on Pompey's Pillar I 

• A fiirnitiin! broker nnnlfl his fortune by an ndTerllBement hcadnl 'Adrice lo 
Persons uluuul to Marrj-.' Our wilty frieod Punch followod up this {jrelude ■ilh 
tuc Hugte word Don't, U the- flutistitulc for tliK lists of fuur-potted btnli. 


A dvertisements. 


Having ibown the reader the slow growth of the Ddvertising* 

colamn; having climbetli, like *Jack in the Bean-stalk,' from 
its humble root m ihr days of the C^mtnonw'eahK up its 
ftill increasing stem iti the succeeding buodrrd years, wc nuw 
come upon its worthy flower in the shape of the sixteen-paged 
'Times' of the present day. Spread open ils broad leaves, 
and behold the greatest martel of the age — the mlrrncosin in 
t>-pe. Who can recognise in its ample surface, which reflects 
Jilte some camera obscura the wania, the wishes, the hopes, ai)d 
the fears of this g;reat citv, the news-book of thf Crumwellian 
times with its leash of advertisements ? Herein we see how fierce 
is the itm^gle of two millions and a half of people fur dear exist- 
ence. Every advertisement wriliics and fighls with its neigfhbour, 
and e\-ery phase of society, brilliant, broken, of dim, is reflected 
in this bnttle-field of life. Let us tell uff the rank and hie 
of this nrniy of announcements. On the 24lh of May, 1855, 
the 'Times,' in its usual sixteen-paged paper, contained the in- 
credible numher of 2575 adrcrtiscmcnis. Amazing' as this total 
appearsj we only arrive at its full sigrnifirance by analysing 
the vail array. Then, indeed, we fee! what an imporlant power 
is the great British public, Of old the auteibsmbcTS of !)ie 
noble were thronged with poets, artists, publishers, tradesmen, 
and dependants of all kinds, seeking for the droppings of their 
favour: but what lordly antechamber ever presented sucb a 
crew of place-hunters, servitors, literary and scientific men, 
frcbemers, and shopkeepers as daily offer tbeir services to the 
humblest individual wiio can spare a penny for an hour's 
perusal of the 'Times'? Let us tuke this paper of the 24th 
of May and examine the crowd of persons and things which 
ciy aloud through its pages, each attempting to make its voice 
heard above the other. Here we see a nohle fleet of shins, 129 
an number, chartered for the regions of gold, for Amenta, fur 
India, for Africa^for every port, in fact, where cupidity, duty, 
or affection holds out an attraction for the British race. Another 
column wearies the eye with ils interminable line of 'Wants.' 
Here in long and nnxinus row we sec the modem ' mop ' or 
statute-fair for hiring ; 459 ser^'aiils of all grades, from the genteel 
lady's-maid or the 'thorough cook,' who will only condescend to 
accept service where two footmen arc kept, to the bumble 
scullcrr-maid, on that dav passed their claims before us for 
inspection. Another column is noisy with auctioneers j 136 of 
wliom notify their intention of poisiufj their impatient liammers 
when vvt! have favoured them with oui^ company. Here wC see a 
crowd of bookseJllers ofli^ring. Lot from the press, 195 new 



Advert iiemtnif. 

volumes, many of which, we are assured by the appended critiqae, 
* should find a place in every gentleman's lihraiy/ Tliere 
are 37^ houses^ sbops, ajid eslablishments presented to ua to 
select from ; and 144 lodging -liOUjse keepers, * ladiei having 
houses larger than Ihey reijutre/ and meditnl men who o^n 
' Retreala,' press forward with genteel offers oS board and todgLng. 
EducatioQ pursues ber claims by the hands of Ho less than 144 
preceptors, male and female; whilst the hair, the skin, the feet, 
the teeth, and the inward man arc o^ered the kind attention of 36 
professors whr> possess infallible remedies for all the ills that flesh 
is heir to. The remainder is made up of the mistellaneous criei 
of tradesmen^ whose voices rise from every portion of the page< 
like the shouting of chapmen fmni a fair. In the tudtt of allj 
this Rtruggle for gold, place, and position which goes on evern 
day in this wonderful publication, outcries from the very deptbc 
of the heart, passionate tears, bursts of indignation, and bes-rt- 
rcndin^ appeals, startle one aa they issue from the second column 
of its front pajje. Here the fatlier sees bis prodigal son afar off 
and falls upon bis neck; the heartbroken mother implores her 
runaway child to return ; or the ab-wdoned wife searches through 
the world for her mate. It is strange how, when the eye U 
saturated with the thjrst after mammon exhibited by the rest of 
the broadsheet, the heart becomes touched by these plaintive bu 
searching atterances, a few of which we reproduce; — 

THE one-winged Dove must die unless the Crane retunw to be 
thield B^inst btr ecictuies.^ Hmn tit 18MJ. 

Or here is another which moves still more: — 


J. C. bow more than cruel not 
« pfcticnt nleoce. — Timea, 1650. 

to write. Take pity on such 

The moat ghastly advertisement which perhaps ever appearetl 
in a public journal we copy from this paper of the year 1&45. It 
is either a threat to inter a wrong body in the ' family vault ' or 
an address to a dead man : — 

PRINCE'S STREET, LEICESTER i^QUAIfE,— Voor hmilj « now in a 
■ute of excitetoeTii nnbearaHe. Your HitL'ntion i» calleil w aa ad»»ni*ein«n( id 
WedDesday's Mornicifr AdTertiser, beaded, 'A body found drowned si Dvptford.' 
After your stowbI to your fHeud is to vhnt you ini^hi do, he bu bHV to tt* the 
dcfon^joscd remaiiii, iic«>nipanied b; otheri, Tbv ffatoi^ pre gout ; tnt tlicrv 
nr^ murks on thearci; to tinl, iinl(.«fc tfai?j heor from jou KmIdj-, it vill uliify 
thi.-m that th« rcmikiniAiT thcee of their miftguiittd rcUtivp, and t^tft ylU !« dii^rU}' 
taki-D To piece Ihem in the foiuilj-Tiuit, u tbry caonot bear the idea of a piaprr't 


Sometimes we Me th« 0ubii^ e^es of indignatioD gleBmJng 
tbrongh ibe very words. The iuUowing; is evidently written to 
an old lover with all the burning passion of a woman tleceived : — 

IT u enougb ; one man aloae upon e&rth have I found noble:. 
Aw»y fWnnme ftr **«■! C»ld hurt nod mean spirit, you have lost what 
milliQUC — cm Di m ooald aol bavi; lioughl, but wtiich a singk- word truihl^illj 
and DoMy s|>obeiii migbl h&TC made your o«a to all elemity. Yet Are^oa forgivtai : 
deport lu pvacc ; 1 rest In my Redeemer. — Tinui, Sept. Ut, 1853. 

Sometime it ii more conficling lore ' wafting a *>gb from Indus 
to the pole,' or, fing^er on lip, speaking secretly, and as be thinks 
serurely^ through the medium of cipher advertisements to iha 
loved one. Sweet delusion I Tlicre arc Wicked pbiEoKophers 
abnwd who unstriog the bow of harder tuU by pirking your 
inmost thoughts! Lovers beware! intriguers tremble! Many ^ 
wttked passage of illicit luve, many a juy fearfully SDBtched, 
wbicb passed through the mcmhI columa uf the first page of the 
* Times ' as a stTing of disjointed letters, uniDtellt^blc as the 
correspopdents thought to all tlie world but themselves, have we 
seen fairly copied out in plain if not always good English in 
the commonplace-books of these cunning men at iTyplograpbs. 
Here, for instance, we give an episode from Ibe life of ' FJo,' 
which appeared in the 'Times ' of 1853-54, as a proof: — 

FLO. — Thoa voice of my heart I Berliii', Thursday. I leave next 
Mooday^, and thaJl preu you to my bearl on Ssinrdsy. Ooi hUm ym !— 
JWw. *9, 1853. 

LO. — The last U wrong. I repcflt it. Thou voice of my heart. 
1 am CO loQiely, 1 ansa yoa aortt than ev?r, I look si yonr pictuFv, ev«iy 


pictnre, m-ery DighC 1 send you au Initisc ahavl (d irfor rouud you «Iil1« uleep 

11 will keep you ffrtnL hftnn, and ytm i 
Juuuiid yon, God bicsa yoQ t bow 1 do lo\e you \^-Ihc, 23, 1693. 

sflcr diuAEr. 11 will keep you ffrtnL hftnn, and ytra miut fancy mj Bjna are 

FIX). — My own love, Z am happy amin ; it b like awaking from a 
bsid dreain. You ue, my life, taknowtut ii>nc is a cfaaace of seeing yoD, to 
bear from you, lo do ihiugB to euon^gb. [There ta Hune error here] I tliaU Cry 
ta AM you uoij. Writf lu ou u ofbcu ai yoo as. Cod bleu you, the voice of 
my betutJ—Jan. 2, 1854. | 

FLO. — Thou voice of my heart! How I do love you I How are 
you ? Shall yon be laid up tbia afriugt I cam we yen iralkiog trtth joae 
darling, VpTjii wouJd I give (o be wiib you ! Tboinks for your In»[ k-wr. 1 Itw 
aolhitw but Mpsntion ftvni yoa. You art ny vorLJ, niy Hit, my bope. Tbuu 
nore tnaa lifc, ftrtnrell! God Mew yon '.—Jm. e, IBM, 

FLO. — I fear, dearest, our dphtr is discoveretl : write at once to your 
ftitud • ladiaa Shawl' (P.O.). Bnckiiigbam, Bucka. -Mn. 7, ISM. 

The odvertisrment of Janoar) 7lh is written In a great fright, 
.and refpr* 10 the discovery and exposure of tbe cipher in the 
'Times' newspaper; for wh<rnever the aforesaid philosophers 
jierceivc that a secret correspondence has arrived at a criliial 




point tbey cbariUbt^ insert a marplot advertisement in the same 
cipher. Tlic ' Flo' intrigue was cEuricd oa In figures, the key to 

wbich ia as follows 

; — 










^^. y. 





















The reader will perhaps remcmberanotbcr mad-looking- adver- 
tisement which appeared in the year 1653, headed ' Cenerenlola,* 
T]ie first, dated Feb. 2iid, we interpret thus : — 

CETsETiEN'TOLA, I wish to try if yon can rear! this, and nin most 
anxious to hear the «nd^ nhea yoa tcturn, and bow long yoa remain her?. 
D<3 -nrite a. teir Ibeit ^rUti£, pleuse: I bave been ver; ht ftom happy nnce jtto 
wepl away. 

One (if the parties canuot frame an adequate explanalioa df 
some delicate matter clearly, as wc find on the Jlth. the follow- 
ing ;— 

CEKERENTOLA, until my heart is sick have I tried lo frame an 
'i!x[ilanDil>nii for you. hui ainiiot. Silence is safcsl, if tlie mie came a not 
suspi'cu-d ; if it is, all siuritH will be lified lojhu bottom. Da yoit riMuaember onr 
cousm's fint proposilion ? Itiink of il. 

The following-, which appeared on the 19th of the same month, 
13 written lu plain laofjuatfe, and is evidently a specimen of the 
marplot advertisement before alluded to : — 

CENERKNTOLA, what DOnseEisef Your coushi's proposition is 
nliBUjil. I have giTen an eiplnnaiion^ilie tnn! one— wUich bu pn-fectJ; 

satisGed Irath p^rtivG— a thing irbich :&ilcac« nevur coultl have effected. So no 
more such absurdity. 

The secret of this cipher conmted in representing each letter 
by the twenty-second onward continually. One more Kpecimen 
of these singular advertisements and wc have done. On Feb. 
20, 1853, there appeared in the ' Times ' the following mys- 
terious line : — 
fT^IG tjohw it tig jflmrvola og tig ptgvw.— F. D. N- 

The g'eneral reader, doubtless, looked upon this jumble of 
letters with some sueh a puzzled air as the mastiff gives the tor- 
toise in a very popular French bronze ; but not being- able to 
make anytliing out of it, parsed on to the more intelligible contents 
of (he paper, A friend of oursj however, was eurlous and intel- 
ligent enough !o extract the plain E[if;;lish out of it, though not 
without much trouble, as thus ; — If we take the first word of the 
sentence, Tig, and place under its second letter i th(? one wliicb 


alphabetically precedes it, and treat the next letters in a simili 
manner, we shalL have the following' Combinatiqn ; 



Reading the first letters obliquely we have the article 'The;' if 
we treat the second word in the same manner, the following will 
be the result : — 

T j o h 
i. n. g. 
m. f. 






which, read in the same slanting wav, produces the word ' Tii 
and the whole sentence^ thus ingen iuusl^ worked out, gives tl{ 
itts latent aad extraordinaTy meaning', thus — ■ 

' rr HE Times 19 tlie Jefferies of the pre^/ 

What could have induced any one to lake so much trouble Ibu 
to plant a hidden insult in to the leading journal, we cannot divine. 
^East,' 'HeB3ew,* * Willie and Fannj',' 'Dominoes,' and 'my 
darling A,' need not feel uncomfortable, although yvc know their 
8ecret5. We have said t^uite enough lo prove to these indivi- 
duals that sucli ciphers as ihey use are picked immediately b 
any cryptographic Mobbs ; indeed all systems of writing which 
depend upon transmutations of the letters of the alphabet, or tlia 
substitution of figures for letters, such as wc generally find iik 
the ' Times,' are mere puzzles for children, and not worthy of Ih 
more cunning and finisihed in the art. 

It is not to be expected, with all the caution exhibited b 
the morning papers to prevent the insertion of swindling advei^ 
liseiiients, that rog-ues do not now and tlicn manage to take 
advantage of their great circulation for the sake of forwarding-, 
their own nefarious scheines. Sir Robert Garden has just done^ 
good senice hy running to earth the Mr. Fynn, who for years 
has lived abroad in splendour at the expense of the poor gover- 
nesses l]p managed to victimise ihnmi^h the advertising column* 
of the * Times.' One's heart sickens at the stream of poor young 
ladies his promises have dragged atrrnss the Continent, and the 
conscfjuencea which may have resulted from their thus pnttin, 
their reputation as well aa their money into his power. Sucl; 
jcandalous traps as these are, of course, rare ; but the papers 
are full of minor pitfalls, into which the unwary are continually 
falling, sometimes with their eyes wide open. Of the hitter 



h n 



diui arc the matrimonial advertisements ; here i> a speciioei] of 
one of the moi t artful of iu kind we ever remember to have 
seen : — 

amiable, bnndsomi', and of good femily, anJ accustomed to move in ih« 
fciglicst sphere of society, » cmbfttt&sscd in hii circumiiancei. Mania^ U tut 
oidy liopo erf exlricanoa. TtU xdvi:rtJBemciit Is ins^rteil bf oue of tii* fi-ienilt. 
Ingratilude wu aeviiT one (tfhig Taults, t-nd be nil! siaJy for llie remainrler of bit 
life w prcive biE eBiimatiori of lie confidence placed in blm. — AddrcM, pun p»id, 
L. L. H. L,, 47, King Sireet, Sobo.— N,B. The wiiricisma of cockiiL'y scribUers 

TLe air of candcar and tfae taking portrait of tbe band- 
some bachelor, whose verj poverty is convened into a charm, 
ii cUverlj 4s$uni6d, An announcement uf a much less flattering 
kind, but probablj of a more genuine and honourable nature, 
was publbhed in * Blackwood '' some time ago, which we append, 
as;, like Laindgecr's Do^ pirtures, the two fgrm a capital pair 
illustrative nf high and low life. 

MATJIIMONIAL ADVERTISEMENT. I hereby ^ive notice to 
all UDmarried womiiii, tbgit I, Jolm liotwail. am ft chU writing five BUd fbrtj. 
u widower, &nd b want of a wiA:, At 1 wish no om to be iniataJten, I tart a 

food ootta^, wiih > couple of acre* of land, for wliich 1 pay SV. t-^ear. I ban 
v« cbildfeQ, four of IbL'm old enough to be in i.>niplojincn( - three udo Of bafoo. 
and Eoiuc pigs remly fot mdiket. I sLould tike u> liavc a vomu fit to like care of 
her bome when I am out. I want no sf coad familv. She may be between 40 
and 50 if sb« iikes. A good aUrUtig womEa woiJd be prefered, wbu would iake 
care of ihe pigs. 

The following is also matter of fact, but it looks suspicions ; 

A vmmg man about to emiosate 1o So'Dth Australia nculil he Jmppy Co 
form an atliBDre with a yoiiDg Ionian in lhc nbove Jipe pcsbefein^ 60'- o* U<Ot. 
property, Any one bo diBposcd, by upplyin^ by leller (post-paid) W T. Hall. 
1:5, Upper Ttumies Street, till SntardBy bL-xt. opjioiutiug au interview, may 
ilepend ou prompt nttenlioD and strict secrecy. — Time», ISiS. 

The matrimonial bait is so obviously a good one, that of late 
jears. we see advertisements of institulions, 3.I which regular list* 
of candidates for tiie marriage stale, both male and female, are 
kept^ together with portraits, and a ledger in which pecuniary 
and mental qualifications are neatly posted. Such »pringe» 
are only suited, however, for the grossest folly ; but ibeic is 
another class of advertisements which cm|>ties tbe pocJiets of the 
industrious and aspiring in a very workman-like maaoer: we 
allude to such as the following: 

GENTLEMEN having a iwpectable circle of acquaintance may 
hear of iti^aa of INCREASING cheii INCOME witbout tht tligbuM 
pecnniaty risk, ur of faaviivg (^by any cbiDcc^ their feelings wouinWil. Apply for 
fiarticulara, by letter, tiatiug dieir poaitJQD. &<;., to W.H., 3", TCigninvre Srrert, 



« AdcertitemeiUi, S19 

GpDtlemeD whose fediDgs ore sodelicste that tbey m tut Dot 
he injured on amy consideration, wbo nevertbetess have a desire 
for lucre, we recommeDil not to apply to 6ucli penoiu, unless 
Xhey wish to receive icr tWir paian some sucL a scheme as was 
forw-nnlpd to a person who hodi answered an advpriisement 
(endo^Log, as directed, 30 postage stamps) ID Llo^d't \Ve«Ujr 
Journal^ headed ^ Hair lo make 2^. per week by the oallay o£ 
10*. :'— 

' First puirhaAe I ewt. of larg-e-sized pat&toes, which msj be obtained 
for the sum of 4tf., then purchase a lai^ basket, whieh nil] cost raj 
aiiotber 'ia.y tbeci buy is. worth of flamiel hlaubeting, aiifj this will 
comprise your stock in tnde, of which the lotal coit is 10«. A large- 
sized polato weighs about half a pound, oonseqoeatlf l^ere «n 224 
jMtatocs in a cwt. 

' Take half the above quantity of potatoes each evening to a baker's, 
and have them baked; vvheD properljf coolced put tliem in your 
Insket, well wrapped up in the flannel to keep them hot, and sally fiirtli 
ami offer them for sale at oae penny each. Numbers will be glad to 
purchase them at that price, and yon will for ttriain be able to sell 
lialf ucwt. every evening. From tiie calculaiion made below you will 
Pt^e l>y that means you will be able to earn 21. per week. The biBBt plan 
is to frequent the most crowded ihoroughfares, and nuke good use of 
your lungs; thus letting people know what you have for sale. Tou 
could also call in at moh public-house on Tour way, and solicit the 
patrouage of the customers, many of whom would be certain (o buy of 
you. Should you have too much pride lo transact the busings your- 
self (thokigh no one need be ashamed of pursuing an honest ealling)^ 
you could hire a buy fur a few Kkniings a-week, who could do the work 
iox you, and you could still make a handsome pro^t weekly. 

* The following caluuktion prorei that 2L pet week can be made by 
selltag baked potatoes : — ' 

■ I cwt., containing 224 potatoes, sold in two 

evenings, at \d. each £0 IS 8 

IMuclcoat 4 

£0 14 


2 4 


Six evenings' nie . . . 
Pay baker at the rale of 8rf. per eveotng 
for baking [kotaluts 

Nett profit per week . . £2 * 

One mure specimen of these baits for gndgeona, and we hare 
done. We frequeotlj sec appeals to the bcDe^oIent for the loans 
of small sums ; some of these are doubtless written by inDocent 
persons in distress, wbo coQ&de in the giM>d side of human nature^ 



220 ^^^" Advertisements. 

and we have been g^iven to understand tliat in many cases this 
blind confidence has not bera misplaced ; for there are manj 
Samaritans who read the papers now-a-days, and fee! a romantic 
pleasure in answering such appeals : at the same time we are 
fifmiifl that the great majority of them are gross deceptions. The 
veritable whine of * the poor broken down tradesman ' who maltes 
a habit of visiting our quiet streets and appealing in a very 
Solemn voice to ' my brethren * for the loan of a small trifle, 
whilst he anaiiously scans the windows for the liajfpente, is 
observable, for instance, in the following cool appeal: — 

1^0 THE BENEVOLENT.— A Tornig Tradesman has. from a 
■*■ ecries of misfo-niiin^s. bwa reduced to ihe pninfiil nepessiiy of asking for & 
trifling SUM lo eiinble hiin to raise 10/. to Bii7e himself from inwitable ruio and 
porerly ; or if any gentleman would lend the aboTC il woold be faithfully re^id. 
SatisfWctcirj refereacgR u lo (be genqin^ni^s of thiB cate. Direct to A. Z., Mr. 
81811/8, PQBt-Office. Mile-tfud Roail. 

The receipt of conscience-money is constantly acknowledged in 
advertisements by the Cbaocellof of the Exchequer of the day, 
and the sums which in this manner find their way inlo the 
Exchequer ore by no means inconsiderable. It is honourable to 
human nature, amid all (he roguery we have exposed, to find that 
now and then some conscience is touched by a very small matter, 
and that great trouble and no little expense is oftcD gone t) m 
order that others may not suffer through Ihe inadvertency or 
carelessness of the advertiser. The following is a delicate 
example : — ' 

TO nACICNET-COACHMEN.— About (he month of Urarcli la.«t 
B gent lemon from the coiintr|' look a coo-cti from Fiosbuiy :?qiiare, wid acci- 
dentally broke the Glass of one of its windows, Ueing aciwell at Ihe lime, the cir- 
ciimstiLitcc' VDS forgotten irlu-n he >jiiitteii the coacti, and it would now (« a gr«>t 
TvViti to his mitid lo 1>e put in a situiition to ]iny the cuacbmaQ for it. Jshoula this 
meut the evv of tlia person nbo drove the cosL'h, and hu irill maki' upplkal'ion lu 
A. B., at VPalktr's Ho«I, Utan Strei-I, Soho, any tBorciu^ daring the m-xt wetit, 
befortf (■Si'ven o'clock, ptoper aiteijtipii will Ije paid to il. — -Ti'me*. L64i, 

The more curious advertisements which from lime to time 
appear in the public journals, but particularly in the Times, do 
not admit of classification; and they are so numerous, moreover, 
that if we were to comment upon one lithe of those that have 
appeared within these last six years, we should far exceed the 
limits of this article. We make no apology, therefore, for string- 
ing together the following very odd lot; — 

DO TOU WANT A SERVANT ? Necessity promprs the question. 
The advertiser OFFERS bis SERVICES loony lady or irenileaiao. company, 
or others, in want of a tnily faithftil .confidential st'r»ant in any enparitj not 
lueuiiil, wh^re ti praciiciil tnowlt-dpo of humau natare, in i-nrious part* of ihe 
WUrJd, woaJd be uvnitatile. CtiolJ uudi-iisLkeouy aiTjir of ginalt or grtal irnporlaaei", 
where talent, iuriolatjle iL'Crwy, or good addr«-s would Iw necusjary, Hm mored 





m the be«t uiil trant sociru«8 wkhoot being coooauBUed tij rJihrf . fa« mrw<er 
bsa • •nr-int ; b«p to FMainfliC'nd hintirlf b« oar vbo bowi bm jIkc : ii lail, 
traipentr, ini<l(ile-Bged; no Dbjtcbou to 307 nn of tbe -»qrt4, CHUairaf^iy 
Mpiulist wibbijig to inCTCUe l>if mcom?, inl hsvc the ciMinl of U> wm ma^n. 
Could art u seenarj or Txlet to ui; Udj or gmdcaan. Cn pre mint* or WU 
his ioD(;ue, tiag, dsnce. pl*7, f«nce, bos. o* pwifh ■ «ct»>«, w m noty, be ffv«v 
or g«T, riiliculoui or fublime, or Jo mujihing fhja iW CsriiBg at a prnkc » Ae 
■umung a{ a cjndet. bm se'rer to ani hit antor. AdiremA. B. C. 7, Linde 
St. Andrew Street. L*ic«teT Sqosiv. — TimOy KSd. 

BriiStigrooin caoieth, go j^ out to men hia.* TUi ivM or. h m 
(leinonstnitAl, vill vtriy flhivdy be bcsrS, riz.: ■! ^ eoBBCiiMBHH «< * tbc ^«M 
day (or jtar) of God's wntb; or Orn 1ui of th? 2300 imjm. {m j^n) m DkMr* 
pmphecy. Bj th« &utbon of ' ProoA of the Second Coaaag of HoHik K At 
Pusover in 1^8/ Prit^ <&ft, Ft^onb Ediibop- 

This is n Mu^gletonian prophecy of tbe destmctioD of the irorld 
at n certain date. Tbe prediciioD failed, hoirerer, and ibc pio* 
pliet fuunJ it necessary to explwn tbe reason : — 

■itrin^ lu thnr iJMKfpwnVaatt, moM Kdskcdj iiiiinitiiinT in <^Mi. aad 

iottftntlf uiDaiitice itt Hmowtt. Daiiid*! visioii, u dapw B, vm far nm yean, 
to tbe «Tid of whieb (lee 5-1^1 the * little ban' wu to peaeiue mi yluufn. aAw 
which comes ihr jcV of GihI's vnth, wUA «>■ erraacoarij adadid ■■ iV 
S30(y yeu«, mJ Uiiia the nuihdgbt cry wiU be m jar bttr ihia nued, — TlHCi, 


TOP. Q. HOW ISYOUBKOTHEE? Itdku'tiM|iitR&riher, 
ant] mttst drdine enienag apoa Ibewlbterd tfiaefcAarthe Cunlj- — TS^a, 


L by a^Udy, * SITUATION to NipniDtcwl the hiM^faiM 1^ j, 'I. ai Mile. 
She ia igrecaUe, beoookuig, carcfdl. dennUe, '"f^^. ftecdoM, 0tHe*n, biaMi, 
faidutroiia, jodiraoai, keen, lively, many, imny. n^iwi, philBfiifbic, vitt 
ngaiiT, locuble, iut«fal. uiefbl. Tinaaaa, voBaaiih, Tanrinjiiib. jr^ittUa 


einpow«K(I to SELL ibv TITLE and DIONITT of a BAKON. The origia 
of the bmily. Its amcicst descent, aM llliulrioa* kncesitry, will be fhfly JtTilBfiil 
fo those and meh Mily ss desire to wmbmb tbis dia iii ig u iahgd inb Ibr the iacvD- 
ddenble guoL of looojC Carent-gBidai Maikei Tbo, IMl. 

XIOSTAGE STAMPS. A youog; lady. beiK donviu of eoretK^ 
b<?r dressiikft-rooRi witb csmccUed POSTAGE STAUPS, has ban m fe 


enooanged in ber vUb by pn**te friends as lo have nK«eedc4 Is 
ICWUl these, hawerer, tieing insalBciait. she will be icnatly ofcUfBi tf ainf 
sped natared peiaou wtw may bare tbeac ifoUwr *iae nsdcM) littls arUca bi thefr 
uspoeal "woald assist in her vhimskal dtimA. Addfvss to E. D., Mr, Botl'i^ 
glover, Xjoadcnliall Street, or Mr. ManhalE (.j^weHjiT, UKkney,— TImv IMl. 

Smnmer Theatre ami Circuit, a L«ttiing Lady, Sinpng ChnmhaaaMi, I'bat 
Jjow Comedian, Heavy 3InD. WaUfi&g Gentleman, utd one or two OfUbmn Jbr 
Cliliiy. To open July 9th. 

Atldrea (eoelpsing Stamp fiir reply) to Mr, J. Wnraaom. Tlvsm BayaL 
i>reBtoii, Lucashire,— £r4, July ], |«53. 




WANTED a Mild and his Wife to look after a Horse nnd Dairy 
with a Rllgious turn oi miad without uiy iucumbraDcc. 

Xhe TarietT is perhaps as aatonishing' as the niinaber of adver- 
tisements in tbe Timea, Like the trunk of an elephant, do 
matter eeems too miQule or too gigantic, too ludicrous or loo 
sad, lo be lifted into notoriety by the giant of Printing- house 
Square. The partition of a thin rule, sulfices to separate a calt 
for the loan of raillioOs from the sad weak cry of the destitHte 
gentlewoman to be allowed to slave in a nursery ' for the sake of 
a home.' Vehement love sends its voice impfcriDg through the 
World after a graceless boy^ side by side with the announcetnenl 
of the landing of a cargo of lively turtle, or the card of a bug- 
kiUer. The poor lady who advertises for boarders 'merely for 
the sake of society 'finds ber *waat' cheek-hy-Jowl with some 
Muggletonian announcement gjatuitoualy calculated to hvestk op 
society altogether, to the effect that the world will come to ad 
end by the middle of the nest month. Or the reader js in- 
formed that for twelve jKislape stamps lie may learn 'How to 
obtain a certaio fortune,' exactly opposite an offer of a bonus of 
500/. to any one who will obtain lor the advprliser 'a Govern- 
ment situation.' The Times reflects every want and appeals 
to every motive which affects our composite society. And 
why does it do this? fiecausc of its ubiquity: go where we 
will, there, like the house-fly or the sparrow, we find it. Tbe 
j>orter reads it m his beehlve-chajr, the master in his library; 
Green, we have no duubt, takes it M-ilh bim to tbe rlouds in 
his balloon, and the collier reads it in the depths of the mine ; 
the workman wt his bench, the lodger in his two-pair back, 
the gold-digger in his hole, and the soldier in the trench, 
pore* over its broad pages. Hot from the press, or months old, 
still it is read. That it 'n., par exceUence, the national paper, and 
reflects more than any other the life of the people, may be ga- 
thered from its Circulation, Thev show In the editor's room 
a singular diagram, whitrh indicates by an irregular line the circu- 
lation day by day and year by vear. On this sheet tbe jgusls of 
political feeling and the pressure of popular excitement art- as 
minutely indicated as tbe furce and direction of the wiml sue 
shown by the self-registering apparatus in Lloyd's Rooms. Thus 
we dnd that in the year 1 ^45 it ran along at a pretty neatly dead 
level of 23,000 copies daily. In 1846— for one day, the 2&th of 
Jnnuary, that on which the report of Sir Robert Peel's state' 
ment respecting the Corn Xaws appeared — it rose in a towering 
peak to a height of 51,000j and then fell again to its old number. 
It began the year 1848 with 29,000, and rose to 43,000 oo ilie 
2&th of February — the morrow of the French revolatitKi. In 


1852 its level at 'atarting^ wa« 36,000, and it attained to the 
highest point it has yet touched on tbe 19tb of NoTember, the 

»day of the Memoir of the Great Duke, when 69,000 copie* were 
sold. In January. 1$53, the lereL bad risca to 40,000; and at 
the mmmencement of the present year it stood at 58,000, a cir- 
cuUtinn which has since increased to 60,000 copies daily ! Not- 
withstanding all the disturbing caucet which make the line of 
its circuUtion present the appearance of hill and dale^ cometimes 
rising into Alp-like «1eratioDS, itft ordinanr Ic-rel at the be^it>- 
nin^ of each year for some lime past has constantly ^one on 
adt'ancin^, insomuch that within ten jean its circulation has 
more than doubletl by 7000 daily- 
I Thifl vigorouK growth i» the true cause of that woDderfal detei^ 

■ mination of advertisements to in -psgei, which haye orerftowcd 

■ into a second paper, or Supplement, as it was formerly called. 
That this success has been fairly won, we hare never ounelTes 
doubled, but a fact has come to onr knowledge which will pretty 
clearly prove that this great paper is conducted on principles 
which are superior to mere money considerations ; or rather its 
operations are so large that it ran afford lo inflict upon it«etf 
pectmiaij lo»es, «ach as would aamhi)at« any other joomal, in 
order to take a perfisctlj free course. In the year 1845^ when 
the rmlway mania was at its height, tbe Times advertising sheet 
was overrun with projected lines^ and manv a guess was made, 
we remember, at the time ai to their probable value, bot high 
as the estimates generally were, thi°y came far short of tbe trath. 
We give the cash and credit retains of advertisemeols of all 
kinds for nine week* : — 

K Sept. 6 £2839 14 

fc „ 13 878S 12 

^^^B ,. SO 8985 7 6 

^^^B „ S7 4692 7 

^^m Oct. 4 68l» 14 

^^^^ „ 11 , . 6&4S 17 

^^^B „ 16 66S7 4 

^^^"^ „ 25 >..... . 6025 14 6 

^^f Nor. 1 3230 3 C 

W During the greater part of the time that the proprielors were 

■ reaping this tpleadid harvest from the infatuation of tbe people, 
the heaviest guns were daUy brought to bear from tlw Jestuog 
columns upon the hubbies wliieh rose up so thickly in the ' 
tiaing sheet. The effect of their fire mav l>e meaBiired by the fi 
<iff of nearly three thousand pounds in the retaros for a stn^ 
week. A journal which could afford to sacrifice mcfa a rB^eBue 
to its independence, cerlattilv deserved some coiuideration from 




the Government; but, on t!ie contrary, it appears to have been 
singled out for annoyance by the New Art which relates to news- 
papers. We see certain trees on our lawns whose upshoolin°^ 
branches i»re by ingenious garilencrs liained downwards, and 
taug'Ut to hold themselves, in a depenUeat condilitm by the im- 
position of weig'lits upon their extremities- The State gardeners 
have lately applied the same treatment to the jounial in que$- 
llon, by hanging; an extra halfpenny stamp upon every copy of 
its issue — a procec-iiing which, in our opinion^ is as unfair as it 
is injudicious ; and this tbey will find in the luturc^^ when the 
rrowd of mosquito-like clicap journals called forth by the measure, 
and supported by the very life-blood of the leajiling journal, 
begin to gather strength and to attack VVhiggery with their 
democratic buz. 

We have dwelt chiefly upon thf> ^advertising sheet of the 
* Times,' because it is the epitome of that in all the other journals. 
It must be mentioned, hoivever, that some of the morning ami 
weekly pnpers lay themselves out for class advertise men Is, Thus 
the ' Morning Post ' monopolizes all those which relate to fashion 
and high life ; and the * Morning Adverliser,' the paper of the 
l.lcensed Victuallers, aggregates to itself every announcement 
relating to their craft. ' Bell's Life ' is one mass of advertise- 
ments of various, sports ; the ' Era' is great upon all theatricals; 
the 'Atbeneeum' gathers to itself a large proportion uf Book 
Advertisements. The ' Illustrated News 'among the weeklies, like 
the 'Times' among the dailies, towers by the bead above them 
all. A hebdomadal circulation of 170,000 draws a far more cos- 
mopolitan colicction of announoements to its pages than any o( itis 
contemporaries can boast. We haVe said nothing of the advertise- 
ments in the provincial journals, but it is gratifying to find that 
they have more than kept pace with those which liave appeared 
xa the Metropolitan papers. Their enormous Increase is best shown 
by the returns of the advertisement duty, from which it appears that 
in 1851, no less than 2,'6B4:,5'd'i advertisements were published 
in the joumak of GreM Britain and Ireland — -a number which has 
vastly augmented since the tax upon them has been repealed. 

It is curious to see the estimate which the- different journals 
place upon themselves as mediunis of publicity, by comparing 
their charges for the same advertisement, Thus the contents of 
the ' Quarterly Review,' for January, 1855, precisely similar as 
far as length is concerned, to that which the reader will sec upon 
turning to the cover of the present number-^-was charged for in- 
sertion as an advertisement by the dilFerent Papers as follows : — 
' Times,' is. ; ' Illustrateil News,' 1/. 8j. ; ' Morning Chronirle, 
5g. 6rf. ; * Morning Post,' Gs. ; ' Daily News,' 5a 6rf. ; ' Spec- 


tator,' 75. erf.; * Momiug Herald,' 6«. ; ' Ponch.* 15*. ; ' Ob- 
sen'er,' 9s-. Gd, ; * l!loi;lish CburtJiraon,' 5j(. Qd. ; ' Examinpr,' 
3a lo<i. ; * Jolin Bull,* 5s. Qd. ; * AtbtnEFum,' IOj. 6d. Now the 

* Tioies ' (Lid nat * tiisplay' the advertisement as all the olhers 
<lkl, it is true, and therefore squeezed it into half the spaee, but 
with this liiffereOL-e, its cLmrgo was absolutely the lowest in the 
list with the single exception of that of the ' Eiaminer;' how 
tbis moderation on the part of the Leading Journal is to be 
Bccnunteil for we know not, but the apparent dearness of the 

* illustrated News,' meets a. ready soluliun, and afTurds us an 
opportuniiv of showing liow vaitlj the prime cost of an adver- 
tisement, during^ the present iiigh price of paper especially. Is 
augmeoled by a preat increase of the circulation of the paper in 
^■hich it appears, atjd what the Advertiser really gets for hi* 
money. If we take the Advertisement of our Contents, it will 
be found to measure about one ineh in depth ; it is obvious then 
that we must niultiplv this measure by 170,000, the number of 
separate copies in which it appeared. IS'ow 170.000 inches 
yields a strip of printed paper the wiilth iif a newspnper coluniD 
^—u/twards of tirtf miUs and t/tre^'i^uarfeti laiuf ! Thus we bave 
at a ({l[ui(-e the real amount of publicity which is procurable in n 
great journal, and with so remarkable a statement it will he well 
to close our paper. 

Art. \TII. — 1. ^ouvean Manuel Compht da Mardtand Papetigr 
et du R/ffietir. Paris. 1«53. 

2. OfyectsiuArt-Mtmt/(lcture:fHa.l. Pofier, Edited by Cbarlcs 
, Tomlinsiui. Issuetl to Schools by the 13oanl of Trade Depart- 
ment of Science and Art. London. 1854, 

3. Jo^irnoloftke Socictj/ of Arts. ISSS'M. 

4. The Fibrmis PHnts of India fitted for Cordaq^^ Clolfiinff, and 
Paper. With an Account of ihe Ctihivalion and Preparation 
of Flaj^, Ilcmy, and their SubnUfvles. By J. Forbes Royle, 
M.D., F.R.S., &c. London. 1855. 

THE literary world is just opening its eves to an impending evil 
of no little ma^p^'itude — even a scarcitr of iotel le<:'tuzil food. 
Stubborn facts and figures warn us that, unless cxlraorflinary 
eflbrts are made to avert the calamity, we shall soop experience 
all the inconveniences arising from the deficient supply and con- 
sequent high price oi Pajur, Already a rise in prire of one 
halfpenny per pound in that article has seriously aflWted our 

VOL. xcm. NO. cx.c[ir. 




The Supply of Faper. 

public >ouroalist9, causing a loss, it is said, to the 'Times' news- 
papef aJone of 10,000/. or 12^000A per aonuin, and inducLnj^ the 
proprietors of tlmt journal to olfc>r a reward ol lOOOA to an^ 
one who can discover a tiew and readily available material. 

Tlie cause of our present dilemuia is the increased consump- 
tion of paper without a corresponding increase in the sjppW of 
rags. In the live years from 1830 to iSBi, both inclusive, ibe 
amount of paper uionafactLtred in Great Britain was on an avcmge 
70,988,131 lbs, per annum. This was prior to the reduction of 
duty on first-cLasB papers i'ruin 3c/> to its present equalized rate 
of l^rf. per lb. Taking the five years from lS4y to lb53, we 
find that the arera^ annual quantity produced had risen to 
151,234,175 lbs. The prtKluction of the year 1853 was 
177,Ga3,0ay Ibs.. belnf^ above 33,00<XOOO Ihs., or 10,000 tmt more 
than in the preceding .V*"*"! "'"'^ requiring for its production an 
excess uf not kess than 13,000 tons of raw malertal. The 
return lor the year 1854: continues to show an increase, caused 
by an increased export demand ; but the amount iloes not 
greatly eicfud that of 1853. The figures are 177.89(j,2241hs. 
Taking into nrcouint the higher price of papennakin^ materials, 
it is e&tiinated that the cost of production to our manufacturers 
during the present year will exceed that wliich the same weig-ht 
of paper would have cost in 1H52, by no less a sum than 
1.000,000^. sterling! 

This increased consumption of paper in Great Britain is due 
to ihe vast demands of our periodical literature, the more wide- 
aprciid ability to read and write amon^; the lower classes, tbecheap' 
eas of books and newspapers, and the facilities of communication 
iLy ]x»st. The amount nf paper sbsorbed daily by the 'Times 
newspaper alone is worth consideration. Of that journal there 
are published 60,000 copies a-day, and on extraordinary occa- 
sions the number reaches 70,000. The paper, as it is received 
div frt^m the mill, or rntber from the three mills which feed 
this cnurmuus consumption, weighs 62 lbs. per ream. Now, in 
tlic fiO,000 copies there are 240 reams, weighing IS^GSO lbs., or 
nearly 9 tons! — a quantity of paper which, tbe sheets being 
laid open and piled upon each other, would rise to a height 
of 50 feet, so that the supply for eight days would exactly 
equal the height of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

The progress of our colonics in newspaper literature is almost 
as surprising as our own. Few of our English daily papers, 
except the ' Times,* have a circulation of more than 30O0 or 
4000 co|)ie3^ whereas at our antipodes the activiiy ol the press ■• 
such lliat one paper in Victoria circulates 12,000 copies daily. 
So much on the increase also is the number of oewspaper-readcri 


TliS Supplt/ of Paper. 





at Sjrtlney, that the proprietora of » journal there have reomtlT 
offered hy advertisement a iii^li price lor paper soitablp for ihcir 
lUc. Colonial newspapers of »ll sizes, shapes, and colours (those 
from California of an appmprinte f!olA colour), now reRch this 
cauntrv for our ediftralion (ind arausemcnt. There Is much to 
le^rn Fithh tlicir pas:€s of tbe doinf^ and fceliturs of young 
[fiuntrirs struggling into civilization. The tuiite advcrtispniCTits, 
the feeble attempts .-it literature in the shape of moral talea aftil 
essays, the old jokes of tbe mother t"ountry. and. alas I the old 
quackeries and nnstmms which are almost out of date here, but 
which seom to spring np vitrorouBly in a new Soil, — all theftc are 
interesting 1 but at the present timt^, and in connexion with nui 
prrsent subject, we- fire especially le<l to notice the prevailing 
icant of paper wtiich is beginning to be fell, and the parngraphs 
diiit^ently ropii'd frutn one journal to another which express that 
want or sujDfcst a temcdv- In a paper now lyin^ befoic us, 
callet-l the ' Nassau Ouardign and Bahama Islands Advorale and 
Intelligencer,' Nov. 2?, 1854, the device of making paper fmm 
* ft. weed which grows in great profusionj and which is known by 
the ffeneric name of Gnnpfialium, in the -i-ulgntc Cudweed, or 
Life Everlasting,' is copied from the Montreal ' Pilnt,' and 
announced under the heading of * Th« Pretsijtff Demand: 
atwi/ier rumoured Supply.' 

This pressing demand is also malting itself evident in the 
Western Continent by the avidity with which our American 
brethren are buyifli* up paper material in the markets of Europe. 
They are competini^ with us, and bidding severely a^in&t us in 
the markets of Hamburg and of the Mediterranean, and even in 
those of our own country, bearing off in triumph, to feed the 
deuumds of their enormous literaturej the rags of the old world. 
What the aniount of that literature is we cannot <IeBcribe belter 
than in the words, we presume, of the celebrated editor of * House- 
bold Worfis," in a tcCent article entitled *HoW to get Paper;' — 

* The reason,* he says, ' why people are put to their einfia iu the 
more thickly inhabited parts of the IjtLitecl States is, (hat tEic inlmbitaxits 
iiae three limes as mueh paper [«r head as we British tlo-^ — threir Uiiies 
OS mtitiy pKiiids weight pec head, even though the three niilliouj* of 
sinvpr; are include<l wJio caiinoi write or rofid, £xeept idiotc, llie 
blind, and slaves, everybody in that country rtwis and «rilc», ami 
more i)«r»oiis npptnr in print thwi in any country pince the alphabet 
was made. There every ebild has its copybouk in ilc placa at Mhool ; 
there every log house on the prairie has its shelf of books. Nest to 
liie church and the tavern, the printing-prees is set up in every raw suttle- 
mcnt, and a raw newspaper appmra, probably on whlLy-bmwn paper, 
and in mixett type, with Itahc^ and Kumuii letters, capitals and ciiph' 

Q 2 \\vtW^ 


37ie SxLpply of Paper. 

tbong^s tlmtwri luijether very curioii*!y. Init siill a. newspaper. Bink? 
are printed in tJiu great cities, tvi by Uie tliousaiul or fifteen liiindred, 
but by the five or ivn litouKitid. for llie readers are reckoncil by 
miilioiia, Tlie Aiiierica-ns huve clieapoiied iheir poslage as we hive 
dniic, atiil llie ioeiease of confspomJeucu is in yet hrqei' pniportion, 
becauhtj rauiilLiiis ure more widely separated, and lill are hble to write.* 

To the same effect is a passage from the New Vork 'Tribune' 
of Octoljer 13, 1853, which stateSj — 

* Our improved niethoda of making paper have been closely pnssed 
upon by tlie immenac and icicrcjisine; cimsiiniption of the article ; and 
nowhere is so much uf it ushI as in ilie Unitcil Statea. In Fruiiue, for 
esaiiiplpf with Us So,000,000 of iuliabilatits, only 70,000 toiis uf impw 
are prodwcod yearly (of wiiieh one-seventh part is for ex|K>rlatioi)), 
giving fiiily 4 lbs, pur heat! ; and in England, for its 28,000,0CX>, tlie 
production is 66,000 tons, g^iving 4Ub8. per head; while in ihU 
country (America) the production may be calculated, aJthough there 
are no precise fiocumetits, at very nearly t]ie same ainniint as in Kngknd 
and France put together, no part nf it being exporiedf yielciiisg for the 
20,000,tXJO of free Aniericana very nearly 134 Ills, per he»d a* the 
j-early eoiisuniplion. This can be acccmiited fur nnJy by our liberal 
iu^Litutiuiis, the eircuiatioii of theJaiirnaK and the vaat use of books in 
euniuioo ^cliuuJs.' 

From these extracts, and from what lias lieen staled of the 
rapid strides which our Australian colonists ure makiDg in 
lUcrature and in the conaequcnt cnnsuinplinn of paper, it will be 
seen that the increased demand for lliis article arises from no 
temporary cause ; but from one wliich may be expected and 
hoped to have a stradv continuance thrnuphout the world for 
ages to come, tinrnclj, t/ie decehjimait of civjUtation. Therefore 
the manufncture of paper cannot keep at its present point; the 
ten thousand Ions of increase tn one year will not be the limit 
of British progress; nor will the consumption of the Unit^'d 
'States, vast as it i^, continue to satisfy the dciiiiinds of a growing 
population and an extending tivilisatiuii. The demand for 
paper will go on inultiplyinjf in all parts of the world with the 
growing iutellif^ence of the people aad with their improved 
capacities for intellectual enjoyment; and If we arc embar- 
rassed already by the rise in the price of paper, it behoves us 
at once to seek the reasons and the remedy -, tor most assuredly 
the evil is one which is not likely to owe its diminution to any 
decline in the demand fur this rapidly consumed bread-staff uf 
the intellectual world. 

This brings us to the second branch of our dilemma, (he defcient 
ff'pl'ly of raffs. Hilhcrto wc have Ireen comparatively but little 
dependent on other couotrica for the direct supply of material for 


The Siipphf €f Pager. «9 

paper-making : our own population has fomuhed a laige ainoimt 
of rags, and the waste of oar cotton and other spinnii^ mills, 
once considered nearly worthless bat now tnmed to ecooomical 
account, has brooght enormous stores to the paper-milL Vet 
we have had to import a certain qoantitjr ereiy jear — in fiDnner 
years about five thousand tons, and latterly about ei^t or niiK 
thousand — to supply our own deficiency. The importadon of 
rags during fifty-three years arerages six thousand fire bnodred 
and tbirty-nine tons annually. This rate of importation, thonefa 
small in itself, is yet absolutely necessarr to ns. It is 
therefore a serious matter to find tbat the foreign supply is 
becoming annually less available, and that a cmsiderable rise in 
price has already taken place. The comparatiTe prices of rags 
of four different qualities in the years 1852 and 1854 were as 
follows : — 

1^52. 1854. 

FintqoKlitjr .. „ Sfit 32i. to 34c per cwt. 

Second „ ,. ,. 16*. 20». 

Third „ .. .. II*. M. .. .. 15». „ 

Fourth :#. lOt. „ 

Corresponding with this increase, there has also been a large 
rise in the price of other articles ctmcemed in tbe maJdng of 
paper, such as bleaching - salts, alkali, alum, and bide- 
pieces for size, the last at the rate of 50 per cenL With 
respect to the principal material, the fact of increased prices 
must be accounted for mainly by the compeiititm which now 
exists for rags in the European markets open to us. Those 
of France, Holland, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal are closed 
under heavy penalties ; but the ports of Germany and of Italy 
(formerly those of Russia) pour out their stores to tbe merchants 
in this commodity. Not only in these countries, but in onr own, 
we now find American bidders actively competing with us. They 
buy up in our markets large quantities of rags, both imported and 
indigenous. It has been said tbat they are too busy a people 
to be careful in so apparently trivial a matter ; that the sources of 
employment open to the public in that coontiy are too namerDOS 
and too profitable to leave much time or inclination among the 
lower classes for collecting rags, except in a hasty and improvident 
way ; ami that consequently the internal resources of America are 
neglected, while her merchants scour the seas in search of a sup|dy 
from abroad. Their purchases in tbe markets of England are 
lainly indicated by a recent increase in onr exportation of rags, 
n the ten years, from 1841 to 1850, our exports were only 
2950 tons fur the whole period ; while in tbe subsequent three 
years, from 1851 to 1853, they reached 4762 tons. 


230 The Supphj of Paper. 

Among the existing causes of Jeficienry in the supply, wo 
must not leave out ol' the question tbc cfffct wliich the present 
war has linil, anJ is likely to hare^ on the ti'aile in those ioipurlant 
articles Lemp anil Has, the raw matCTials of some of our textile 
manufactures, and thus the origlDal sources of a larg^e portion of 
our home stock of rags. The importation nf foreign flax has 
Lccn, for the three years cniling in 1853, as follows : 

Fron) RuMto- ±X\ r-lbcr puu- ToUL 

Toni. Tons. Xam. 

In leSl 40.»S4 .. .. 14, 775 .. .. S*,709 

In 18AQ 47. 426 .. .. 2d,7l>3 .. .. 70,1X9 

Ih 1853 iC4,393 ., .. 211,770 .. .. 9itl69 

TotalinS^nrs .. 153, rs9 .. .. 71,^48 .. .. £24.007 

Average per aiiQam a&,930 .. .. 2S,74<> .. .. 74,669 

We here remark the ^eat increase in the imports from Russia in 
the )'enr 1853, amounting to I(i,!J73 tons more llian those ui the 
year precedin/f, and to 13,470 tons bfryond the avci'age of the 
three years. The cjuantlties of hemp received from Kussia are 
not so proportionally great as those of flax, hein^ 

Fmn liuiaU. AUMhcf |miI(. 'filial In|wrtaiU<n. ^ 

Tone. Tmi. Tan& 

In 1951 aa.iSfl .. .. 31,443 .. -. 64,flri 

IdIS$>S,. .. ,. .. .. 2T,lU8 .. .. 21),51fi .. .. fl3,71< 
In ISaa 41,S1B .. .. 31,.^J3 .. .. CS,t42 

Total in .1 jL'iii» .. lii(2,2dQ ,. .. 7S,481 .. .. 181, UT 

Areregc pt-r umLiui ^J.ueS .. .. ac,4i{7 .. .. IK>,B09 

Nevertheless it appears that Russia has furnished considprabl/ ' 
more than half our entire importation of hemp. In time of peace 
the price of hemp Tvas about 35/. per ton, thus realizing to Russia 
in ISr.y, on 42,000 tons, nearly 1,500,000^. The total value of lUe 
flax and hemp rereived frum Russia in that year was 3,39?,fi35r., 
which at the present war price would be worth upwards of 
6,500,UW/. Taking into account ihcrctWe the loss to out numu- 
factures of this large Russian supply, and the increased produc- 
tion and coEisequent consumption of material in our pape^l 
manufacture, our delicicncv of raw material has been reclion<^d' 
at 1 19,218 tons, comparing our position in 1854 with that of the 
previous year. After eiery due and liberal allowance for the 
quantity of iibruus material which Russia may find means to 
convey to us by circuitous routes, our deficiency is still estimated 
at from 80,000 to 100,000 tons. 

What is to he done in this emergency? Can atiy ^uouot of 
economy in the use of paper, or any amouut of diligence in the 
collection of rags, avail to stave olF for a lime the coming' 

Scarcity ? 





■Hy ? It ia worth tlie trial, however compisratively small 
the result may be. Wlien tbere was an alarm in France 
some yeriTs ag'o liecause the supply was becoini[i°^ iaader|uale, 
this was Ihe remedy proposed and acted upon, notwltlistaiidlng 
ttiat a more thorougb gallicring- of rags appeared hardly possible 
in a country where the work of tbc chiffbnnier seems always 
to be carried to the last pnjnt of economy. Sever&l attempts 
were likewise made Uj introduce other fibrous materials as 
substitutes ; patents were taken out, and considerahle activity 
■was displnyed in forw;mling^ new inventions ; but the panic 
soon passed away, and with it the z^al of the InvcnEurs. 
Tbcrp was no drain on their markets, as in our case, from foreiga 
purchasers ■, although in spite of prohibitions we find that 
a certain limited contraband trade in rags does actually eiist 
among them. So confident are the French manufacturers of 
the present day, howeveij in the extent of their res<jurces that 
they appear to consider tbc pTwUiction of paper from straw, 
liaT, beet-root, &c. In the light of mere scientific curiosiljes. 
* Teaonx-iious-eri an chiffon,' is their language : ' laiffous ies 
emtret substant^i tcm'r leur place titins Ics recueih academiques^ 
oil ellet honorent hurt witeiirt, et tertdeiU au jferjcctionnemenl dts 
contiaissaiiccs /iuriiaincs.' 

But this must not he our language. After all that can be 
done in the way of economy (and we are glad to see that some 
eminent firms are already taking the initiative in this respect), 
ami after all the efforts tliat may be made to promote the saving 
of every morsel ot linen, cotton^ woollen, or silk rags, tbere will 
stilt remain an imperative necessity for larger measures. New 
materials must be sought for, and the resources of science must be 
put in requisitioii. That our government is alive to this duty we 
iind from n communication made in the early part of last year by 
the Lords of the Treasury to the Board of Trade, on the subject 
of the deficient supply and high price of rags, and the necessity 
which exists for ieeking subslildtea. Circular letters, it Wa» 
suggested, might be sent to all British consuls abroad, request- 
ing tliicm to collect information, and to hear in mind that the 
great essential in a succcdaneum must be clieapncts, stt as to 
cover the high freights now prevailing, and likely to prevail. 
Heeds and rushes, the inner bark of many trees, and several 
kinds of vegetable fibre in warm ot tropical climates, are numcd 
as substances likely to be of service, especially if they could lie 
imported as dunnage among the cargo, or in compressed hales, 
and if the steady supply of ibe article could be ensured. In a 
reply lu Ibis comxnunicatioii, ua the part of the Board of Trade, 



The Supphj of Paper. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair alluded to certain facts in connexion with the 

jresftit sc anitv which might not at first sight appear to bear upon 
^tho suhjci't. The long-continued strikes and disturbanres among 
'the operatives at Preston and elsewhere, by lessening the quan- 
tity of eottO'H worked up at the mills, lessent^d :ilsu tbo amount 
rf cotton waste which usually lumi&hes enormous masses of 
laterial to the paper-mills. Ajjain, the demands made on thig 
?fuie by the railway companies for oiling ami wiping their 
machinery have been so large as to increase the evil. The 
.competition of the American merchants in the markets of London 
id Liverpool, ag:ain, in consequc'nte of the absence of paper- 
' duty and stamp-duty in the United States enables these buyers to 
give a hifjher price than can be afforded by our otto manufac- 
turers. All these facts seem to point imperatii'ely to the duty 
of finding other available materials in lieu of rags; hut, in 
crder to b<? profitably used, they must be obtainable at a coit 
not exceeding one penny or a penny halfpenny per pound» 
and they must be free from the three great si>urces of failure 
which have hitherto stood in the way of substitutes— namely, too 
much expense required in the preparation of the fibre, too much 
loss of weight in the conversion of the same into paper, «r too 
much difficulty in the bleaching-. 

The search after new materials for paper is not by any means 

a novelty. The industrial world of Frapce has been on the alert 

since the comraentement of the present century. In 1801 Seguin 

patented his ' paper made of straw tniied with mher vegetabJe 

Substances ;' in 1817 Berctta made; piiper with potato-refuse, after 

the starch had been extracted; in 1820 Podcnzac manufaclured 

both paper and pasteboard from straw only ; in 1821 Jauherl of 

r^Iarseilles made paper of hempstalks and liguuricE*-root ; in 1825 

..aforeKt proposed to make paper from hcmpstalks, flii^b, nettles, 

Jops, and maize, In 182S Bernardet brought out a paper made 

^frum the cuttings of bides, and Brard another made from rotten 

"wood^ In 1829 Rondeaux ami Hcnne made pasteboanl from 

leather, while Jullicn prepared it from hay only. In 1830 Dazy 

of St, Oiner made paper from the pulp of beet root, Prior even 

to all these, an industrious German, who had a special maiiia fot 

paper-making', exhausted almost every imaglnnhle material witliid 

fliis reach, and published an account of his performnnces iu a l)ook* 

[containing no less than sixty specimens of paper formed of different 

•ubstances. He manufactured paper from the bark uf the wtUoWi 

* Sa.tiinitliche Papiervvrsuctie ron Jac«t Chriilinn Scbuff«n, Prediger sa 

• beech. 

TIk Supply of Peper. 233 

beecb, sspen, hawthorn^ lime^ and malbeiry ; from the down of 
the asclepia«, the catkins of black poplar, and the tendrils of the 
vine ; from the stalks of nettle, mngwort, djer's-weed, thistle, 
burdock, brionj, clematis, willow-herb, and Itlj ; from cabbage- 
stalks, fir-cones, moss, potatoes, wooiI-shaTings, and sawdnsL 
These random attempts were so far ralnable thai tber prored d:e 
fact that paper can be made from almost anjthii^; ; bnl tbrr 
were fruitless in prodncing what their author intended, namelT, 
a commercial substitute for linen-rags. The discoTor of tlut 
powerful bleaching agent, chlorine, which took place in 1774, 
sufficed, indeed, to relieve mannfatrturers frmn a diCcnltT, 
and to ward off for a time the threatened scwcitr. Bj means of 
chlorine many varieties of coloored linen, as well as of dis- 
coloured papers and manoscnpts, are restored to their original 
whiteness, ^ns givin]^ a large increase of material snitabte far 
the better classes of paper ; material which would have been 
otherwise available only for the inferior sorts. 

At the present time the scarcity is felt most in papers <^ a low 
class, and this is a difficulty from which no cbemiw agent can 
set us free. The very miaieriai of manniactnre is deficient, and 
this must be sought for in a more systematic manner, and in a 
much wider field, than has yet been attem p t e d. The ercat diffi- 
culty connected with the subject appears to be this : in the inase 
of rags the raw material has already gone throogfa sereral of the 
stages necessary for its cxiDvenioa into paper. The fibres have 
been cleaned and carded, spun and woven into a fabric of more 
or less delicacy ; and this fiibric has again been fart'.er adrancd 
towards its ultimate destination by the alternate wcarii^s and 
washings which have softened and reduced it to the state of rags. 
But, in the case of any herbaceous substance newly appropriated 
to the purpose, the preparation of the fibre mast be g^me 
through at main cost, ami a considerable outlay must be in- 
curred before the raw matter can be brought so far on its road 
towards the state of pulp as to cqu;J the condition of fjrdixiary 
rags. Therefore the new succetUncum, whatever it may be, 
should, if possible, form the refuse of some previoa* maoofac- 
ture, so that the cost of production may have been alnativ 
partially defrayed. In India, indeed, there is an abuodaot 
supply of native plants capable of being cheaply couTerte*! into 
pajier on tlie tpoty and there is also our own familiar plant the 
flax, largely cultii-ated for the sake of the oil fumisbd by its 
seed (liosecd), which oil is both consumed and exp</rtefl in larg*- 
quantities, while the plant itself is entirely neglected as a soofx of 
fibrous material. Dr. Forbes Royle, well known for Lis Imlanvjikl 



71k Supply of Paper. 

researches in IndiH, admits that the climale cloM not favour the 
formation of soft flexible fibre in this plant, but he considers iliat 
the short fihrc which is formed would be valuable for paper- 
making', and might add to the agriculturist's profits without much 
additional outlav, On this puint also Dr. Buist of Bombay re- 
marks, — ' In IndiA we have sliort staple flax and cotton to any 
amount, almost worthless for the purposes oi ordinary manufao- 
ture, but perfectly fitteil for the paper-mark el. Wc have cheap, 
neat-handed, and ingenious workmen, abundance of pure water, 
smokeless skies, and sunshine of unsurpassable brightness ; the 
means, in sbortj of providing the world with unlimited supplies 
of paper, if we were only taught how to make it/ 

It does not appear to have entered into the mJnds of any of 
our inquirers to transfer the trade of the world in paper to the 
' n?at-handed' workpeople of India; but, although we are cot 
prepared for such a result,. \e\y many judicious and intelligeat 
men are of opinion that the earh/ stages of the manufacture 
might he carried on in that country where alone are combined 
the esseotial conditions of low-priced and intelligent labour with 
an abundance of raw material admirably suited in the work. 
This roughly prepared to our Itand, out of the almost endless 
substances in Inilia which yield suitable vegetable fibre, might 
he transported lo this country jn a convenient form, and con- 
verted by our superior processes and beautiful machinery into the 
finished product, 

A long list of Indian plants might be given witliout rptich in- 
formation to the reader, hut let him recall the Indian colleclioa 
of the Great Exhibition of 1851, where, in the rear of the gor- 
geous productions of the looms of Indja, were heaped up the les* 
generally attractive hut highly important silores nf timber and of 
fibrous substances. Strange nnmes for the most part were at- 
tached to those bundles ; but there were some tlmt bad already 
become familiar (as the jute, sunn, rhea-graas, Ac) for their value 
fts materials for ropes and canvas. 

An objection which must prove falnl to the cmplojTnenl of 
some nf the fibrous plants of India is that they grow in parts 
remote from the sen, and fmm wliirli there are either very bad 
ruiids or no roads at all ; but, aga'ui,. there arc other plants, and 
those the most prolific, which are of extensive growth in places 
where they might be conveniently prepared for eiportatiun. 
One ol the most remarkable and the most universally recom-, 
mended as yielding a valuable fibre, is the Plantain, extensivelj 
cultivated iu all tropical countries on account of its abunda^' 
fruit, which furnishes the prime necessary of life to a large pro- 

portion of tbe population. This fruit b 

of 30, IJO, or 80 lbs. weight, and inmcdiAteJv after lis 

the stem is cut down aDtl allowrd lo nit on tibe gwaaad a* 

while a Youtifr and abundant growth nala^ ap to 

plnie. Tlie 6brDus stem of tbe j^antain is AcnCvB !■ iW < 

ilition of refuse ; its culture has beea paid far far the rwim^ of I 

fruity the forinacpoiu portiofu of vhidi ahocaJ ia aD Ae 

tiogs projwrties »f mpal. and ai^ lo die t^nad zawc wfait 

to Bengal and China., Bt cutlii^ dovn tbe 

times, and thus seraria*' a yotmg and tme* 

food can be procured in a fresh state neariv all ife JC 

FroiD each atock ibere spnns up eight tir tm saAit*, vtnEfc 

the course of the j«ar become as large and as frDl&I aatfaei 

stem. In this way the prodactircoeM of &e pba 

mous^ and Humboldt's tlatemrot, onoe Aosgfat m^gBOiei, tfaC 

one acre of goad land in the tropics ptanted «idi Au tree 

field OS much nutritious food as 144 ktcs of vfacM, is bq 

denied or doubted. There are as maor nrietics t£ _ 

there are of apple, and as manr deUcaie sfcadn of me^" . 

ripe fruit, and while «ome sorts are »3d, ^Malr, aal 

others riral tbe most exqotsile pew or sppli in Ab ib ib. 

doxen of tbe frait are mid to be -ffr'-™* to — I'-f-irr i 

for a week, and lo be better snted to tke tamtaatmA^ Aa 

in warm climates. If is ealcB nv and oadktad m immwm w^Ti- 

llie se^-eral rarjeties of planbin. then, ve ihiartj H«a lo m i 
pTodigous extent by tbe iobabitaots of ifac lorad aoai, 
jletn, containing a lai^ amount of toa^ fifatc, m im m m aJBiy 
tlirown away as refose. It has bets aonxtaM 
yields from ibree to four [■-■■J- cf ^me, opafcle td 
Qsed for a variety of fatHics caooae lad fae^ Tlv 
from this source would not be a doafatfiil eae, or ItaUe to 
the course of a few years ; lor in ifae finpii ■! aoaU iIm 
and meanest inhabitanl, huwever di stit l< t ■■ othv iiaun l^ 
the plantain sprtn^ing up around bia W r ej. Dr. Boyw ia^ 
us that if we increased iu cnlirvaciaa we itoaU he m Ar m 
litne inrrvasinf; tbe food (^ the world tu an 
an <>xti?nt that roidd not be consouKd «■ the spot. * Bat lU 
lie says, ' noed not alarm us. (or, as it cootains a itr^ ijaaililj 
voixharine matter, tt init;hl be eatfn afturr the I apt of manr TCa] 
In the Exhibition of iJJdl sotae of the fruit was exbibila 
had been in this country thirty years, and it waa stiB 
ntahle state, and bad mucii ibe bate tad at^Ktaa d Am4 ' 

There is, however, another point to lie noticed witfa 
the ptantsLn. Ihe fibse^ it appeals, is largest ia i 


The Supply of Paper. 

finest in quality htfors the ripening' of tlie fniii, and it is a 
question wtietbci,, in tlie case ol' tliis cjttremclj' prolific plant, 
plantations might not lie advantageously cultivated for the fibre 
atoD'C, tlip stems being cut clown more frequently, and without 
respect to the n-op. This would have the disadvantage of 
removing the material nl once from the condition of a 
refuse product; but if it tun be shown that even without 
that condition the culture of the plantain could be made profitable 
as a paper-making article, then we have n strung argument in 
favour of its selection, above and beyond all other suhstaaces 
which have been offered to our notice among the treasures of t!ie 
tropical regions- On this subject the estimate of an extensive 
tproprictor in Britisli Guiana (Mr. A. D. Netscber) is to the 
lilolloiving effect : — The cost of keeping up a plantaia estate in 
that colon}' would be about i^L per acre, and the produce of 
the trees, if grown and cut down every eight months for the slcm^ 
dlonet would be 140O nr 1500 good stems every cutting, or 4500 
in two yeai'3 ; the average quantity of fibre from each stem may 
be reckoned at d lbs. An ai:rc of land will thus produce 
SOOO lbs. of fibre per annum at the cost of 6/., and if 4/. be added 
as the expense of drytog, carrying, and preparing for market, tlie 
cost need not exceed a farthing a pound. If the plantain-trees 
are cultivated for food, and allowed to itand in the ground until 
the froit is sufficiently full to be gathered, they must have more 
space and time, and then the quantity of available fibre will not 
\he so large. 

The valuable and elegant sahstanec known as Manilla hemp, 

which has of late years attracted so much altenltun as a substitute 

ribr Russian hemp, belongs to the same family as the Plantain, 

Fctnd, if equally abundant, would furnish an admirable material for 

Ipaper. Dr. Forbes Royie informs us that — 

' Some yachts, as well its many American ve.'Wtls, the whole of 
theii* rigging compcHCfl nf i\[aMilln hemp, and this corriage. when wum 
out, can be converterf into an cscellenl quality of paper. Thoui^h the 
plant yielding thia fibre is noi intkigenoiis lo India, nor extensively cul- 
tivated, it b yet extremely interesting, not only becanse it may eaidy 
be cultivated tliere, hut because tltere are other »peeie^ of tJte soma 
^gcnus wliicli maybe turned to the same uacfnl account. Tiie plant 
Ivhich yields Manilla hemp \a called Ahaca by the natives of the I'hi- 
^lippine It^landf, who are t^aid to apply the same name tn its tibre. the 
plant is sometimes called a tree, but it is iu fact oHiy alarge lierbaceou* 
plant, which belongs to the same genus, and is in fact a kicul of 
plantaju or banana, which is named Mnsa tcxtiUs by botanist®.' — The 
F'ibrons Plants of India, p. C-t, 

Attention having been once awakened and iJIrected to out 



present iifctl, we shall doubtless Iiare sugg'pstions and ex- 
pMlipnta wllhout end pressed upon our nntice. When the 
Gflrman experioieiitalist ScliafTcr was cxplurm;; the veget- 
able kiii2:«lijm in scarc-li of paper-makinsf material, he was de- 
ligktpii to ohscfve ihe lalxtiirs of a i/ird, which, in extrat-liog^ 
the seed »1 lir-concs for its food, discarded a quaiitity of fibre 
which sitrrotinded tlie seed. He began joyfully lo imitate 
the 1alK>urs of the bird in Converting the harsh fir-cone into 
B coltuny sahstaacc, iiad in the course of time he was suc- 
cessful in ]>roilucing from it an extremclv stronjr ond seirice- 

,0 papier fit for packing purposes. Similar labours are nuw 
ig on near Breslau, in Silesia, in a domain called the Prairie 
of Humbnldt. A manufactory 13 in operation therefor the con- 
version of pine-leaves inlo a sort of cotton, or wool. The long 
sharp leaves or spines of the Gr tribe consist of liirle more tbao 
bundles of Very tine and tough fibres held together by a resinous 
pellicle. When by decoction and the use of chetnical ag^ents the 
resinous subslnnt'e is diss'tlved, the iihres are easily released, 
and can be washed and freed from foreign substances. According 
to the mode of preparaiton atterwanU gj^lopled, the fibres are cither 
formed inly a fine cottony substance or wadding, or into a cnarse 
sluHIng for niatiresses, ice. The cotton or wool has been aUo 
manufjicmred into blankets, which appear to be much approved 
in hospitals and bfirrncks on account of the aromatic odour of 
the pine ivhich still nilheres to them, and which j» s^id to be 
Tepugnnnt to inserts. These blankets have been adopted in 
several jiublic establishments in Vienna and Breslnu, and are 
described as cheap and efficient. Rugs and horsecloths are 
made from the sfime material, which of course would be eijually 
available for the inferior kinds nf paper. In this manufacture 
ndvantnge is taken of an ethereal oil and other products ol>* 
tained in the course of the processes. The oil is used in lamps 
and in nerfumeryi and the liquid Irfl by the decoction of the 
pine-leaves is employed as a curative bath for in^-aUds afflicted 
trith rheumatic disorders. Shouhl the Breslau manufactory 
continue to flourish, ihic- attempt may perhaps be made to torn 
til aimilar account the pine-forests of other rejjions, but we must 
learn the nature and amount of the chemical agents employed 
before we can judge of the degree of profit likely to accrue from 
the manurncturc. 

Attention has been likewise drawn lo a waste material which 
could be supplied to us in great abundance by our West Indian 
colonics, a!iould it prove capable of being profitably converted 
to use in the paper manufacture, Thl^ m^ttcnal is the refuse ot 

t gar-cane. Specimens of sugar-cane paper were ^le^ax^A 



7%e Sftpj'Ji/ of Pajter. 

fibre in Dwcierani, Mr. Kotitledge eLib»eqiiently made eonie excellent 
paper bnih of a tonirh and of'a fini-' quality from the fibres cf speciea of 
ilci5ii — slieors uf ttliicli lie has presented to tiie anllior, who has klel}<' 
&\xn EpcciiEieiis oi simiLar paper iu the han4s of Mr, Sharp. Besides 
wlitu'li, t'XOt'JleHt paper has for wjme time been made from the refuse of 
or from worn out Manilla rope.' — Fibrous Plants of India, p. 67. 

The opinion is gaining; gnmml nmon^ pctson& who have paid 
close attention tu the subject, ttiat from tLis one source, abundantlv 
presented tu us in botb the Liiast and West Indies, there mar 
he obtained without difficulty any requiTctt quantity of fibrt. ?n 
Calcutta alone it bas been reasonably calculated that the refuse 
of the consumption of the fruit of the plantain by a million and 
a half of people might be gathered together on ver^' efonomicnl 
terms. Tliorc is scarcely a substance presenting Itself in equal 
profusion, and we arc ;;lad to learn, that it is intcniJed to ^ve 
it a fair and full tiial ; that machineiy lias Been devised and 
patents serured for the various pruccsBcs, at n cost which, undec^ 
any conreivable rise in the price of the raw material in Indi 
jnust still command a profit. It is fully believed lliat the Elb: 
will bc! fouiul applicable to every species of cloth or artJc 
usually mikde from Hax tir hemp, as well as to pajwr pulp, thus 
offerido; a comprehensive remedy for our present evils, nbicll 
arise, as we have seen, partly from the loss of Russian s.upplies 
of hemp and flax, and partly from the want of refuse material for 
the paper manufacture. 

Such are tlie resources nlnch open to us as we look alrroad 
njHong the luxuriant Vegetable growths of India and of tbe ^Vest 
India islands. But there are individuals amon^ us who are vet 
disposed, iu consideration of the enormous rale of freight and 
oth&r drawbacks existing nt tbc present time, to seek tfaeir 
remedy nenrer liome, and to deferj at least until a more favour- 
able op|horUinity, the development of these oriental Iroasures, 
They coiu-eive that mateiia! eoming' undfr the denomination of 
refuse lies around us in sufficient profusion to make anv im- 
mediate appeal to the colonies unneeeasari''. Straw for instance, 
nllliough tliere are many imporlant uses for it at present, especially 
the manufacture olstraw-plal, may, it is thought, be madeto«erve 
a still more valuable cod, by being applied to the jiurposes of the, 
paper manufacture, Some oi th>e earliest attempts tu liud a sub- 
stitute for ra;|s were connected with trials of straw ; and these have 
been the most frequently and pcrseveringly tepcated ; proving thai 
the availability of this material has been recognised by oumeroos 
persons, and at different periods. Among French experimen- 
talists, M. fjcbin? snceeeded in making very fine white paper 
from wheaten itraw, which he pronounced to be quite equal to 




The Supphj of Paper. 


paper made frnm m^s ; but this might be called n fancj paper, 

and llie prnccssps ptnploycd were Uio costly to be ad vantage*) usly 
used in tlio ia;€iiera! inijnufacturc. He aiso produced a very lair 

J taper by nn equal admiTiture of straw iind cuarse rags in the 
otlowing manner. He plated in a vat fifty puunds weig^Lt nl' 
chopped wheaten straw, and added to it forty pounds of quick- 
lime, with ejioLit;h water to form a son of paste. The mixture 
was stirred up everyday, and transferred fn»in one "vat to an<>tlier. 
After being tlius dealt wilb Jbr a fortnight, the straw was triturated 
by Iiein*; sulyectcd lo the action of stampers, wbich were found 
preferabic to the Usual griiidiii^-machine known as Uie roU. 
The straw, thus reduced to pulp, was mixed with an equal 
quantity uf ra^-pulpi and ttie mixture went tliroug:h tLe subse- 
qumt stages in Uie usual manner. Seventy pounds weight uf 
very slronff pru^ier, i>f an apreejdjie straw tint, was llie result of 
Patents have been taken out from tinte to time in Englaal 
for improved melliods of produtinp straw-paper; and there are 
sundry straiv-papcr mills, we believc\ still iooperatiun — asTovil 
Mills, Maidstone, Kent j Quenington Mills, Fairford, Gtouces- 
tprshire; Bumside Mills, Kendal, Westmoreland; and Golden 
Bridge Mills, near Dublin, The ' Weekly Times ' newspapei*, 
wc are informed, waa formerly printed on straw-paper, and 
still has A Certain admixture of straw with the rags. In i)uve 
sTraw-paper, or in paper where that material preponderates, 
inionvenifncc is experienced from briUlcness^ and the paper 
breaks un being repeatedly doubled, Tliis defect appears, hoiv- 
ever, to be nearly overcome by the skill nml ingenuity of (be, 
manufacturer ; for some recent specimens of paper advertii>ed a* 
* straw note-paper,' are of so superior a character as to leave little 
to be desired. The advorat<3s of straw urge that it requires less 
power in its prepar-iiiim than many other substances, the pro- 
cesses beinji chemical ralJicr than nieclianital by which it is 
ronvcrced into pulp, while its disoilvanlag^e is stated to bu 
the large quantity of alkali required to be combined with ila. 
rejsinnus and sillcei)U? matters. The alkali thus becomes a morn. 
iiniHirtant element of cost in the m.inufactuFe than the straw itself. 
A BUggestLim has been made that this alkaline solution mtglit ba-| 
used iis the raw material of $uine other raanufa<tures, such a%. . 
soap-making, or for common gIasE„ instead of being recovered by 
an expensive mode of evaporation, as is now the case. It musC 
olso be understood that the product from stinw in the shape of 
pulp is small compared with the quantity of material used, cer-» 
tainly not m«ire thtrn half the weight of the straw. 

It appears tliat the preparation of paper from coninion flai i* 


The Supplj/ of' Paper, 

nlso about to be undertaken on a iarge scale. In the 'Till 
newapapri' of Fcbiniary 27, 1855, wg find the following ad-j 
nounceiiieDt : — ■ 

* A Bill fi>r the incorporation of an uiidertakiug to be eaUed ti 
Filire Compnuy, for sup)]hing the serious naiit of a cli^itp maierikl 
for paper by means of tUe fibre of common tlax, ^ms introtluced into 
FarliatneiiL thh morning, after vain endi-avours to avoid that trouble 
and exiiBiwe by obUniing & charter of limited liability,' 

Other materials hare en^a^ed nttention^ and patents hare 
been recently taken out for tlie manufacture of paper from wood, 
from bop-bines, from roucli-f^ss, water-broom, &c. Tlic re- 
ductinn of wood into paper-pulp is a process which would appear 
to be too costly lor success. It is performed hy cutting up the 
timber of Scotch fir and other trees into blocks of conrcnient 
lonjtth, and submitling each block to the action of a grinder 
which revolves at the rate of two hundred times per minute. The 
wooil is wetted and ground at the same time ; and the particles 
removed hy the griniiiuji; arc very much in the state of pulp- 
Tbis is mixed with rag-pulp in proportions of from 10 tn W per 
cenl.^ ami serves lo fnrin different varieties of paper. The pre- 
parations now being made lo manufacture paper from hop-biueS 
are very laudable, and we beartily wish them success. This 
19 a thoroughly waste material, and can be obtained in inaiDeDK 
quantities, ten thousand tons being said to be available annually. 
The rind of the potato was employed hy Schaffei", and from the 
potato itself he made a valuable drawing-paper, eKtremciv 
smooth and soft to the touchy while its tenacity approaebctl 
nearer to that of parchment than any other vegetable substance. 
The designation of the French patent t-iken out by Beretta in 
1817 relates to the rind and refuse-pulp, * les residus de 
pommcs de terre apr^s I'cxtraclion dc la fecule.' The strength 
and tenacity of patato-stalks would, however, lead us to im- 
agine that the whole plant may be sufficicnily productive of 
fibre to be profitably employed. Experiments have been tried 
with tourh-grasB ; and the pastel>oard made with it has proved 
to be of excellent quality, Tliis manufacture is about to be 
undertaken on a large scale at Stamford. The differences of 
opjition among manufacturers and ex|)crimeTl^alists as to tbe 
relative valaes of different materials, domestic and foreign, 
will doubtless lead to a thorough investigation of the whole 
subject, and there can be little question thai we shall before 
long obtain the desired end through some of the various ex- 
peri men ts. 

To wliat degree the matter is affected by the duty on paper 
is a subject wliich it 19 needless just now to discuss at length. 



Opioiojis are ttrong^l^ expresEed on botb sides; one paily vehe- 
mently ur^tag lis repeal, and vnotber, includiDj^r, atrkngc as it 
may n^ipear, tivunv paper-manuikcturcrs, being favourable to its 
retention, ^he duly on paper being at the uniiurm Jixed rdff 
uf three halfpeace per pnund, without distiiiclioti ol' quality, it 
necrssariiy follo^vs that oti the cheaper kinds the duly is much 
ki^rlicr ■□ prujxirtiun to tbeir intriiiisLc value than oTi the {setter 
qualities. Iq fact^ it is alfirmcd that beXoi-e some of the in- 
ferior desfriptions tan be brought into the market more than 
Aaff (Uu value uf the tuanu fact u red urtlcle, and three times 
the value of the raw material, must have been pud in cash 
to the Government. Thus it appears that for every lOOO/. 
paid fur materials the maker must estimate a further eziTco- 
diture tor duty varying from lOOGI. to 20001. before lie can 
realise his result. This is not only a heavy tax UpoU Capital, 
but it is oomplained. of as a source of false competition in the 
tnide. The paper-maker, unless a lar^^e capitalist, does not 
always find it ronveoient to meet the heavy t^inaad for cash 
>Mltaileil by the visit of the exeise^coUector, alttiou^h he may 
. kave stf>ek pireatiy exceeding the value of the duty required. He 
therefore sells at a (lisodraiitoge, sometimes at a great Ivss. 
Ttais mijcUt doubtless occur from other causes in the ease of a 
man who has e-mborked in trade witliout sufticient capital : >'ct 
these eauses, we may imagine, could not be so ronstaiitlv re- 
cmrij)^, or so imperative in their operation, as the periodical 
irtsils of the excise. Various ioconvemenceB also arise to the 
fftper-maker from the mode of collection. Porty-eight hours' 
nalica miist he given to the excise officer to attend and ehartft 
ibe dutf, and after dtarmitg^ the piiper must be left in a parked 
state in the mill for a rcrtain number oi huurE lon^'^r previous to 
its Tcraoval, This interferes with ttie rapid exceulion of orders. 
When once removed, it is not allowed to he brought back into the 
■lill, muler any circumstances, even oi accident to it, without 
sending fur an oBicer to inspect it and ^radt a certJlicate; add 
Aould it be worked over a{>^iii, a second duty is chared. The 
knowled^rCi on the part of the buyer, that paper cannot be re- 
mmed t<.> th« manufaetoty, g-ives rise, it i» said, to frivolous 
nhjfirtii>n>, with a view to lower the price. Tlie dieadvantagp 
of tb«B« arrangements would be much more severely fell, were it 
not for certain devices of the pa|>er-n)akers, such as giving fre- 
<(uenl, perhaps djuly notices to charfftf on the chance of such 
tiutices bcin^ uecessaiy. 

As «uic instancH out of many which mtj^t be j?iven of the 
Buexpccted way in which the duty on psper iDlerferes with our 
suioccss in certain brtincJies of manufacture and throw* the 
1 1 ft 2 ba.l-a.v.'E;*: 


The Supply of Paper. 

balance on the aide of our French neighbouM, we may name the 
trade In fifrured siJks, which is a very active one at the present 
moment. It may perhaps be known th&t in the process a rer- number of cards arc indispensable, the quniUity varyini 
according to tlic »lze and nature of the pattr-rn. On tho*] 
statement of Messrs., Carter, Vavasseur, and Kix, it appear 
that a fibred silk uianufnrturcd by that firm (as it was 
understood) for the use of Her Majesty rt-cfuired figfU tkoasaad 
cards. Now, these cards, with the drawtfack wliich is at pre- 
sent allowed by Government, can be purchased At 13^. Ijr/. per 
thou^iijid ; §000 cardi therefore tost the Englisli manufacturer 
5/. tts. For cards of the same description aud quality the Freneh 
manufacturer pays only 'iikd. per pound, thus ubiainiiig his' 
iSOIXI cards for 4/. 'ds. 4r/. The diETcreace, small 35 it may sccnif 
fans a considerable effect in the close competition which nov 
prevaiU, and ' it would be difficult to show the cause whr 
ihe English makers, if delivered from the burden ni the dutj 
and from the interference of the eseise office, should miit' 
make as gopd a tiiRl for 2Jrf, as the French maker.' As jt 
reApecls oirds, therefore, the English manufacturer of figured 
silk works nt a disadvantage. He must either make a larger 
quantity of silk tlian his rival, in order to get back his money 
gone in cards, or he must ask a hig^her price for his goods. The 
j^rencb manufacturer, on the other hand, by the low price of his 
^tnls is enabled to get a ^eater variety of pattern for the same 
outlay. ' It is this I'ariety of desig-n which constitutes hit . 
strength ; he is able by this to meet all tastes, and there are 
almost as many shades of taste as there are wearers. Then the 
demand for a ^cat variety of patterns calls forth the tasle and 
stimulates the ingenuity pf artist^ who see a larger field opening' 
for their genius than we can show.' This one instance must 
suffice as the general key to the dilTieulci^s and disa<lvantaces of 
which manufacturers are now complaining loudly, and which th? 
public is not allowed to forget, owint^ to the exertions of a society 
specially constituted for the consideration of grievances cunaecled'l 
with the paper-duty. 

The reason why some of the chief objectors to the remission 
of the duty are to Lc found among the wholesale pajier-dealers 
themselves, is tliat they consider the payment of the duty in the 
light of an investment of capital, and the larf^ the capital em-' 
barked in the trade the less liable are they to suffer from the 
competition of fresh parties enen;jing in, it. Such individuals 
incline to think that the collection of tbe duty ' helps to keep 
order and resularity in a paper-mill;' they do not hnd thai the 
excise TeguUtions affect, to any material extent, the rapid exe- 

77!* Supphf of PajHT. 2^5 

tutiofi of their orders, because they are always able to know 
proapertively the time at which paper wili be reaJj to bt 
charged : ami they assert that the manufacturer is al. no disad- 
vnnt!ii;B in the London markets, Tif>r in the power of customers 
who nrc capitalists. They urge again that the irnmediale Te- 
tluctinii nf duty owing' to the supply of the raw mnterial being 
limiicd, and already falling very far below the requirements of the 
trade, would produce a great rise in the price of that article. Mill 
a consequent increase in the price of paper. Tbis, however, is a 
matter which would soon ' rig-ht itself.' The opioioa of the late 
Chancellor of the Exchequer ntl the subject wai thus given In the 
repiirtof thedebate on the advertisement duty, July 1, 1^&3. 'Thcr 
paper-duty, be was quite ready to admit, was an inexpedient and 
impoiilic tax altog-etber, because it imposed on the trade of the 
Country a burden totally dispropurtioited to the amount of the 
revenue received. It interfered with employment throug'hout the 
country in a most inconvenient form, because the paper tmde, 
if free, would not be confined to the ^eat centres of pojiulation, 
but would find its way to otlier localities througr'i'^in' the country, 
ami diiTuse employment among a different class of llie population. 
Therefore the paper-duty was a tax essp'ntiftlly bad in itself, and, 
Sft soon as the state of the treasury would allow, it ought to be 
rcpeiiled,' But aa the statp of the treasury will allow nothing 
of the kind, all ai^umenl on the subject is useless al present. It 
is nut now that we can dispense with s ta^ which, in 1853, 
yielded to Government the sura of 1,148,11*)/. 

Abt. IX. — 1. Parliainentnry Pnj)er$ relating) to Ute NetfOtiation 
at Vteniia on the Emtrni ijaestio/i. Presented to both Hoitaea 
of Parliamrnt. PartXItl. London, 1^55. 

2, Le Pinti lie la PnU mi ParkmeiU Awihif ; Discottra p;'0- 
noncrs a la Cliambre dps i^mmtures, jKir MM, Gfaflsioae, Cobden^ 
Brigfit, Sydneif Herbert^ et Sir Javu-s GraJtam. Traduction 
Compile. Par Louis Ilymans. Bruxelles, 1855, 

AW.-VR unJerlafcen without a policy, and without a well- 
defined ohject, cannot lead either to useful or beneficial 
results, -Such, as regards those who uiidertudk It, has been the 
case with this war in which we are noweng'aged. 'The inde- 
pendence and integrity ' of a kingdom are vague terms ; their yerT 
use uliuo&t implies that tbey mean nulhing. To no country at 




Ohjccts of the War. 

they leas applicable than tn Turkej. We ftbaU stiow that the fint 
cOTnlitions we, the detV^ndcrs and protectors of Turkey, propose 
iox ber acceptance as a ba»i? of peace impose a direct vi»latinn of 
both. If a war involviog vast sacrihces of mrn and moncv should 
enil ill establishing tlie very slatp of thin^ which it was cnleTed 
upon to prevent, no one will deny that it will have bera an utt- 
nptessary war, and that those who eml>arke(l their country in it 
have been jjuilly of a ^eat public crime. We believe that we 
have barely escaped the terrible responsibility which such a result 
would have f^ntailed upon us. Had llic negotiations opened during 
the spring at Vienna ended in a peace, based upon the ronilitioris 
now known as ' llie four points,' we ilo not hesitate to declare 
tliat nor only would the wnr have utterly failed in attaining the 
objeets which it is prs'tended it was undertaken to effect, but we 
should have placed Turkey in a position which must either have 
led to the complete lossof her indept'rtdencf, arid have threatened 
her real intc^ity, or must have plunged us before hmg in a 
contest even more terrible than that in which we are now involvol 
and far more (l<iubtful In its reftclts. 

We shall have little <lilSculty in proving what we La^e asserted. 
So palpable was the utter worthlessness of the conditions pro- 
posed &t Vienna, as n sAlislactnry flolutlou of the ^rcat (question 
at issue, and as the Frcnc:h Kniperor has himself declared so 
' vaguely were the bases fcrmulatcd,' that the Government, when 
pressed in a late debate upon the subject, seeins to have sum- 
marily disclaimed any further counlenanee of them. Indeed it 
woulti almost appcur Ihat Count Ncsselrode was justified in 
asferCin^, when reviewinK Count Walewski's explanatory accouilt 
of the conferences, that from the commenccmpnt tlie English 
and French Onvcmmcnts had do inleutirm whatever of conclud- 
ing; a peiwre upnn those terms, wliirh were merely put forward 
OS a pretence anil la make a show ol a desire to bring the war In 
a tennination. 

Whether such may have been the case or not, we cannot bat 
slate ftur conviction that the affairs of tliis country have rwely 
been transacteil in » more cnslatesnianlike fsshioi], its nativnal 
cnaracter exposed to more prave injury, and its very existence as 
a great power more seriously jeopardised, than during the prose- 
cuticii, under successive Administrations, of this war. Whilst an 
ftmnunt of incapacity and neglect almost unequalled has charac- 
terised the conduct of the war, a similav amQunt of jncompeteticy 
and i^omnce has markwl the stttempis made in ilte first ia- 
Btnnce 1o tlirect it and afterwards to brin«f it to a concltisioB. 
The history of the firat negotintionSj ending in the failure of the 


Objects oftiiie War. 


celebrated Vienna note, will remain a lasting reproach to our 
Foreigo Office and our diplomncj; the prylocols of (be aecuntl 
conferences of Vienna wili not ternl tu remove it. 

We do Dot wish to recapitulate the history of the jirestnt war, 
nor to iavcsti^te afresh the causes which ga\e rise tu it. Wo 
have in articles written during ihe course of events placed before 
out readers both a narrative of the war and OUT own views as to 
its origin and the principles iovoLvcd in it. We can turn with 
peculiar satisfaction to those articles as conUuoing opinions and 
anticipations which have bet'n fully bomc out and v^ritied \>y 
suhseijueiit occurrences, and the justice and truth of which are 
now generally recognised. We M-ish merely to call to the rc- 
<;ollectiun of our readers that which wo have always considered 
to be the immedialc objects uf the war as distinct from its pi>ssible 
results, ' The intlependcnce ami integrity of Turkey,' as we 
have already observed, convey no dc&uite mesnin^. They are 
tcnns which may he interpreted In a thousand different ways, 
according to the opinions and views of (hose who use ihem. The 
real objects of our armed interference were to save Turkey from 
the immediate danger of a, Russian invasion, to securo her for 
the future from a sudden nltack by superior forces always held 
ill menace over her, to put an end tu tliat assumed right of ' 
protectorate over the Christian subjects of the Sultan professing' 
tlie Greek failli, which gave Russia a virtual sovereignty over 
the greater part uf the populatiun of European Turkey, and to 
protect the Principalities against future occupation and that 
undue interference of Russia which was equally fatal to their 
prosperity and dangerous to the Ottoman Empire, We will now 
proceed to Inquire how far the conditions upon which we professed 
ourselves ready to make peace — tbali»tosay, * the four point* '— 
would have secured cither of these objects. 

The sense which (he AlUe$ attached lo the principles laij 
down in the four points was conveyed in an official memoran- i 
dnm to Prince Gorlchakofi* by the Plenipotentiaries of Austria^ 
France, and Great Briuun, as early as the 2^ih of December, 
185-t, !t is not stated by whom this document was drawn up. 
Vfc pfesuinc that Turkey was consulted, but this does not appear. 
In some respects, as we shall hereafter show, it was jnodl^ed, 
and an essential part of it appears tu have been rejected a1togeth£K ' 
by some parties to tlie conference, namely that which reserved ' 
to the allied Goveroments the power to put forward such fiiul 
conditions as might seem to them to be required beyond the 
four guarantees by the general interests of Europe ; a reservation I 
which^ if anything were intended by it, was one of very consider-! 
able importance. 



Objccis of the Har, 

The firat ctrnference was held on the ISth March, and wis 
attended by Plonipotentiaries of the five T*owei-s, includiaa: L(»rd 
Jotm Kussett, \v\\a had been sent on a special mission to Vienna. 
WLetlier the selection of tlijit eminent slatesmiin to takp part in 
those discussions was an earnest of t!ie sincevily of the British 
Gi>verntncrit in its desire to bring the neguliatinHS to a succc^^ful 
issue, iir whether to get rid of onp loo generally known for his 
poliucivi activity, and whose presence was considered iiit'onvcnimt 
at a time when his rival was furmidg a new and not very strrm^ 
Administra.tion, we »hal] not stop to dLscuss. We dn not think 
the choice, on many acrounts^ a fortunntc one. The results 
of tiis mission hnve neither estahlislicd bis reputation as a 
tliptomntist, nor added to it as a statesman. Neither of the 
representatives of this country were acquainted with Eastern 
afTsirs, or with the real merits nf the questions at issue. 

M. de Bourfjueney, the Frencih Minister at the Austrian Court 
nnd one of the French Plenipotentiaries, represented his Govern- 
ment for some years at Constantinople during the reign of 
Louis Philippe. Lonp expcripnce has fjjven him a considerable 
acquaintance with the internal all'airs of Turkey; but his repu- 
tation as a diplomatist is not very great, nor is his sagacity 
remarkable. During [he lost conferences M. Drouyn dc Lbuvs, 
who biid been specially sent front Paris, was tlie colleague of 
M. de Bourtjueney. The state papers, which had from lime to 
time been jmblished by the French Government upon the Eastern 
question, were, by common re]>ortf attributed to his pen, and 
liad, by their masterly composiLiun and their bold and straight- 
forward tone,, established his reputation as a statesmnn and 
diplomatist. The share be bad taken, as ^linistcr for Foreign 
AiTairs, in the war, nnd the knowledge which those documents 
seemed to show that be possessed upon the subject, ought tn* 
have well fitted him for taking a prominent share in the dis- 
cussions at Vienna. 

jM. de TilofFj the rondjutor of Prince GoTtcbakofT, bad, like 
M. de Bourqueney* filled the post of Minister during n ton^ 
period at Constintinople, and had been engag-ed in some of the 
must rritical nefrtjiiations which hiive' arisen of late years between 
Russia and the Porte; He hail been specially concemeil \\\ 
questions connected with the Principalities, Servia, and the rights 
of the Greek Church ; questions which formed the essence of 
tbe matters to be di&russcd at the Conferences^ For ahbnugli 
the Russian Government, with its usual tacl, had always found 
some excuse for withdrawing- M. de TitnfF from his post when 
the questions at issue be^an to assume a threatening' aspect, and 
to demand other lan^age than that of mere diplomacy, the 


Objaets of the IFar, 849 

IQltUUve had always been taken by him, and he had skilfully 
prepiiri?'d the ground for the ultimate pressure upon the Turkish 
tio%'erTiment. The xask o( menacing and intimidating wbs con- 
fided to some one wlm could venture far in his benring toward 
the Sulttin and his Minister without bpjng held in check by 
the ronsideratton that he was comproini^ing bis personal influence 
ojid these friendly feclirig:s so necessary to the success of a diplo- 
matist iu his usual dcnIinjErs with a, foreign Court, M. de Tiloff 
thus brought to bear n larg'c amount of personal and li^ca] knnw- 
Icd^re especially connected with the aubjccl subniittcd to the Con- 
ferenres. Added to this source of superiority over his colleagues, 
b<> was. n diplomatist of «"onsidcrable ability an<l L'Xpcrieiiie : 
wbiist Frince Gortchiikotf, from his rank, nssumeil the Inud^ 
it it evident that M. de TitofF bad the real conduct of the 

Of Aarif Effendi, the Turkish Plenipotentiary, little was 
known ns n dipIomAtisI, and his position seems to have keen 
nltnijetber a subordinate one, Althoueh matters of the most 
vital importance to the interests oi the country which he repre- 
sented Were at issue, forming indeed the very basis of the cimdi- 
tioDS o( peace, he yet seems to hnve been rarely consulted, and 
acarcelv to have been allowed a voice in the discussions. His 
ctdleagues appear to liave agreed to treat him with iudifference, 
if not contempt, and be conienled himself with reserving the 
rights, (jf the Porte, and accepting, under a kind of protest, the 
decisions which dealt so summarily anil so unjustly wtili the 
■overei^ power of the Sullan. Jt was not until nearly ibe I'lose 
of the Conferences that Aali Pasha, who had held some of the 
biffhest posts in the Turkish emjiire, and who by his experience 
of European diplomacy was better fitted to take a share in the 
dflibenitions, and to watch over the interests of the Porte, arrived 
al \ ieuua. 

Both M. de Buo] and Baron Prokesch were eminently qualified 
to represent the Austrian Government. The first bad aciipiirett 
high distinction, tmth as n diplomatist and u atntesman ; the 
ceeond was iiilimalelv sequaintcd with Eastern affairs. They 
were both well versed in that tortuous and double policy which 
has ever distin^ished the Austrian Cnbinet. Count Buol, prime 
minister during the course of events which led to the war, and 
the author of that policy which bad rendered Austria, in some 
iLe^ce, the arbitresa of the question without compromising^ her 
position as a neutral state, wits now to t^oniplete his work. He 
at once us.suiiLed the supreme direction of the conferences. 
From tiie commencement he npj>earK Iu have taken llic lead, and 
to have contrived, with consummate ability, to secure the in- 



OI/jvctB of tJw War. 

tere&cs of bis country, and ta tum to her advantage the clifferencet 
of the bellijEerent powers. We »liaU see Uow J?r Aufttria vouiil 
liave proBleU by the solution proposed by Count Buol, ami, li» 
a certiun eyt«iit, ailopted by the Allies, ^aron Pruke^ch couhl 
Biipply bis rolleague witb such local infoTinaliun and tletaiU as 
were necessary to the discussion of the questiifjns under consideta- 
tion, and to tliis nbW diplouialUt :ip[ieac9 tp bnve bet^a roabdiid 
tbe Lisk of drawing; up ibc priuiiipal documents whicb formed 
the bases of the proposaU submittctl sX the conferences. It 
ncEMl create oo surprise ttmt Lord John lius&ell. Lord West- 
moreland, anil M. de Boui-queney sbuubl Lave ftilleu an va&y 
prcv to such ai)tA;g;oQists as M. dt TitofF, Count BlioI, and Banm 
Prokesch.and that theTur1^Lsll pLeuipotentiary should have been, 
without ceremony, ]>ut nside altogether. 

The first conference comiiienct'd by a recap ilulatioo, on the 
part of Count Buol, of iha four arcicles containing the principles 
upon which alone peace could be concludcil, and by a lew 
vafi^ue generalities and professinns of the sincerity of Austii*. 
The French, En^li^b, and Turkiiab plenipiitentiaries concurred 
in the sentiments ex])res9cd by their Austrian colleagues^ iUid 
insisted upon the ri^ht which their Govcmuients had reserved Iv 
themselves of making, in odditiua la and beyoud the four ^ai^ 
anters, Such special conditHjns hs ini|Tht apj^cur lo be called for 
by the ^-neral interests of liurope. Prince GorLchakn^ recorded 
his adherence to the principles contained in the four articles, 
and, without contesting the right of beUigerent powers to add 
other demands, according to the chances of war,, declared the 
oblig'atioii he was under to keep within the limits of the four 
points; a declaration to which it would appear tlie Austrian 
pleni|Milci]tiaries, ahhtrugh in ambiguous language, assented. 

These preliminaries having been settled, the Conference 
etttered upmi the discussion of the first point, which declared 
that ' the protectorate eaierciBed by Russia over Moldavia and 
Wallachia should cease, and tlie privilege* conferred bv the 
Saltan on those PrincipaliLics,as W4.'ll as onServia, should hence- 
forward be placed under the collective guarantee of the con- 
tracting Powers.' A paper was rend by Dtiron Prokesch con- 
taining what was termed the ' development of the first point.* 
This document, discussed during three conferences and somewhat 
modiliied, was ultimalely accepted. 

In examining the protocols of the cnnfcrences relating lo this 
first points it is evident that, whilsl the rights both of the Porte 
and of the Principalities themselves were either summarily dealt 
wi(h or allogether overlooked, the real question at issue was the 
degree of influence to be hereafter exercised by Austria and 








Runia in those provinces. The three dnys assigned to tlie dia- 
ciiJiinn ol" Bnron Prokpsch'a memornndum were occupied by 
!iu!f more than a strupgle artfuUv carried un between the pleni- 
potpntinries nl' those two Powers for suprtmiicy in this part of 
the Soltnn's doTnininn^. The English anJ French plenipotep- 
tinries appear to have l(K>kcd oa, eqaallj,' ig^nornnt oi' the objects 
of their Austrian a.nd Kussian coIlFsgucs and of tht resl interests 
ftt stake. Aarif Effeodi, at the conclasion, reserved a liberty of 
action with reffard to every point of imporlniicc agreed upon by 
the otiirr plenipolentiariesj — a resen'alion wtiitb would probably 
liave profited him litllc hatl the other points been settled and tbe 
bases erf p^ice been cnnsequentiy secured. 

The document proposed by the Austrian plenipotentiaries as 
the development of the (ir^t point is one of a very remarkable 
nature. It most condusively proves the policy of Austria as 
reijards Turkey, tbe objects she proposes to herself to attain 
whilst preservinjr vn armed neutrality durinjo: llie war, nnrl the 
advanta«;es s^he trains by holding the balance between the belli- 
gOTenI powers. Tlie first article declares that * no exclusive pro- 
tection shall ia I'utyre be exercised over' Moldavia, VVallachia, 
and Servia, These few words lead to two important conclusioas 
whioh are totally at variance with facts, viz, that Russia had a 
riplit ol pnjtcctinn over the three provinces, and that her treaty 
relaliniis with the Porte, as regards Scrvia, were similar la tbnse 
at^ectins the Dantibtan Fdncipalities. The object of the Aua- 
tiisn plenipotentiaries in usin*; these words was evident, and did 
not escape Prince GortchakcfF. In ihc (irst Conference he 
objected to tbe word ' protectorate,' which bod been introduced inlt* 
the original ilraft, ns cnnvcyinfr the idea that it had been enjoyed 
by virtue of a distinct trcatv ritrbt. Nevertheless, when it suited the 
ends ofHiisiia, the snuie term had been used in documents issued by 
her. * Prutection ' was then substituted^ as inferring a less posi- 
tive ri^ht. In the S0coad Oonfcreticef t)>e Russian plenipoten- 
tinry pninte<l out that the relations of Servia to Russia were 
different from those of Wallachia wn\ Moldavia : this distinc- 
tiun, however, bavijig apparentlv not been recoeiiisetl Jn 1842 
and IB'IS, when Russia interfered in the intenial aJiairs of that 
]irovince, and claimetl the exercise of riorhts similar to those 
whirh she arrogated to het^elf iQ tbe other P tin ci polities. 
Prince Gortchakoff perceived that it w^ the intention of Count 
Buol in extend as much as possible the right of interference in 
the iifTairs of tbe Danubian provinces when that ri<;bt was to 
be enjoyed by the four Powers. He knew that such a claim 
once conceded would enable Austria to establish an influence 
hostile to that of Russia ju iV'allachia and Aloldavis, and to its 



Objects of the War. 

exclusion in Servia. AHbyu^h shnilar prn-ilegex mig^ht Le 
extended to France aod En§;land, yet these powers, from tbelr 
distance and iheir want of polilical connexion with the Prinripa- 
lities, rnuld scarcely avail themselves of theui. '1 Ley would 
virtu.illv he exercised In their name bv Au&tria, who had 
alreudy iiisinua.ted that it would be her duty hereafter to represcnl 
the VVestem Powers in the three proxinceR, It is true thui 
the fuur Powers pTulessctl merely to * (guarantee' the rig'hts and 
immunities of thp Pnncipalilies, but by the terms of the expla^ 
natory act not only was the right of continual supervision and 
interterenee conferred upon Austria, but she obtained the means 
uf finding; at all times axi excuse to intermeddle in the intemul 
affairs of Miiidavia and VVnllFichia, and even, as we shall show, 
to invade and occupy their territories. 

Tlie Hu&sian pleniput{?ntiarics proposed some modiftcations 
of the Austrian draft, which were discussed during- ihc secoud 
■nd tliird conferences, and were partially adopted. The deve- 
lopment of the first point, tlius amended, was agreed to by the 
Plpnipolentiaries oC llie four Powers; Aarif Effendi, however, 
accepting it under rcsen'atlon. Much ol' the most objectionable 
part of the ong^inal Austrian proposal was retained, and we 
believe tliat^ so far from the rights of the Porte having; ijeen 
better established tlian ibey previously were, or the Principabttes 
yarded Irom the danger of future invasion, and their internal 
tranquillity and progress secured, the very reverse would have 
been ttie case bad the terms uf that agreeineDt been hereafter 

.■carried out. 

The tliree Principalities were still trcntetl as standing in 

'^the same relation to Hussiu, This blunder, for blunder it 
undoubtedly was on our parfj would have been fatal to the 
liberties of Sert-ia and to the development of its institutions. 

■ Princy Gurtcliakoff, as we have already observed, had himself 
pointed out that a distinction existed between that province and 
WallachiaL and Moldavia, and in two memorandums communi- 
cated to tlie Conference he detailed the rights and immunities 
which they respectively cnjoved. But the distinctloQ did not 
Consist in Ibis alnne. The .Serviaiiis. sfter a long and bloody 
■truggle iitjiLinst the Turks, carried on without foreign jud, bad 
Acquired their own indc|M:ndence, subject only to the suzerainty 
«f tite Sullan. The Porte, by the Convention of Akerman. had 
cnfjn*red io reffulate with the Servian deputies the tneaturex le/deh. 
effected the ririhts and iimmuiities of the Pn'ncij>a/ities, and which 
■were ofierwards to be embodied in an Imperial Firman, to im 
issued williin eighteen months of the date of the Convention, and 
to be moreover communicated toHussia. 


Objects of the IVar. 


•The Porte, not having been able to carry into execution this 
slijiulation, 'undertnok, hy tlie sixih articlp of theTrealyofAdrin- 
nople, in ttie intut solemn manner to fulfil it without t\\e least 
ilelav. and witli the most scrupulous exactitude. The firman 
furnishptl with the Hatti-Slirriff' (r. e. an imperial order), ci'tn- 
mmulifiif Ihe execution of the. mi'it clauses^ was to be dclerniiitcd 
»nd f^rticially coiuinuniciitpd to the Imperial Court of Russia 
within the term of on^e month, reckoning from the sigTialure of 
the treaty." It is evident^ then, by this article, that all Russia 
stipulated with regard to Sert'ia was the carrying out of certain 
concessions made to that province, the terms of which, conferring 
internal splf-povemmpnt, when oaco fulfilled by the Porte, the 
right of Russia to interfere reallv ceased, except as virtually 
^nranteeing to Serbia those concessions she could intprpnsq, qji 
the demand of tiie vJiabilants^ to prevent the Porte hereafter from 
either withdrawing or violating them. The treaty gave her no 
jwwer whatever to interfere in the internal affairs of llie Prin- 
cipality. IJut Russia endeavoured gradually to extend this gua- 
rantee as against the Porte to a right ui interposition as against 
the inhabitants. She sought lo exercise a direct control over 
the administration. Jler Consul-Genera I arroganlly dictated to 
the Servian goverrument ; and when, in 1842, the Servians, exas- 
perated by bad government and by the continual inlenncddltng 
of Russia in tli^ir affairs, expelled Prince Michael and sulisli- 
llited the present reigning Prince AleiLander, Russia insisted 
upon tiie revocation of the acts ol (he popular parly, and the ex- 
pulsion uf the popular leaders. Alcliough every enlightened 
StAtesinan of Europe was of opinion, that Russia fnr exceeded the 
powers conferred upon her by treaty, yet Lonl Aberdeen, as it 
is well known, and Austria, inHuenced by a selfish policy, sup- 
porteil her pretensions, and compelled ihc Porte to acknowledge 
her claim lo exercise the same control over the affairs of Servia as 
she arrogated to herself in Wallachia and MoKUvia. Although 
Austria, unwilling to see a revolutionary movement successfully 
mrrie^l out in an adjoining state, and dreading the growth of 
liberal institutions, backed the demnnds of Rus&ia, yet $be 
ei^ually fciired the estiiblisLtnent of Russian influence in Servia. 
A struggle ensued between the two Powers for the sujtremacy, 
whilst both united in checking progress and iii inipc<iing; the 
development of internal prosperity. The Servians were thus 
made llie victims of the jealousies and suspicions of two Powers 
which claimed to be their protectors. 

To understand the importimce of Senida to Europe ns well as 
to Austria and Russia, it must be borne in mind that tha.t pro- 


Objeda of the War. 

vince is iniiabiteJ bv a Slavonian popuUtloo, fbrming tlie 
□uricus of similar racps not only iiihabitingr the Turkiftli Uonii- 
Qions, but tbe adjac^nl Austrian terti lories. As she tins obtmD<'ii 
for berseir an almost inde)H>ndeLit nationolilv, and has made lapid 
progress in devploping' ber inslitutkms ami strengtbening ber 
^ovemincnt, tb? Sclaronians ol tbe south imturally look to ber 
as tbeir represenlaUvp, and »« a ral lying-point liereitlter wben a 
Sclat'onian state shall be formed in soutliern J£uropc. Tlie 
Austrian cabinet has viewed witb deep jealousy and ilietmit 
this proo^Rss, and the tmdenc-y shown by tbe Servians towards a 
free and liberal government. Whilst Russia has endeavoured to 
enlist tbe n»liunai feelin? in Seriia in ber favour, aud tu direct 
and control what has been termed tbe * PausL-lavonit ' movement 
in ttie South, Austria bss done ber utmost to check and to crusb 
it. TbrouErb ber fixintier authorities and ber diplomatic agvuts 
in BelgTorle she has waged a continual strug-^le with the Servian 
government, tbrowo every iinpedimenl in the Way ot improve- 
ment, and by iier intrigues has fomented dissension and disunion 
amount tlic leading men of tbe province. The Servians bare 
resolutely ojtposed to tlie best ol tlieir power this iDterli.reace ia 
tLcir national alFaii^, and bave, with remarkable coui~a«c and 
peraeverance. defeated, by more than one public act, tbe attempt 
wbicb Austria has long beeu making to obtain a direct inUueuice 
and ronlrol over the administration of their alTairs and tbclr 
public oflicers. Wbcn AuHtxia endeavoured to iudme tbe Sultan 
to sanction an armed occupation of Servia as well as of tbe 
Danubian Principalities — an occupation to wbicb Knglaod 
would probably have given a ready consent — tbe Serviattt indi^ 
nantLy protested t^inst sucb a violation of their national inde- 
pendence by a Power upon wbicb they looked even with more 
jealousy aqd fear than tliey did upon Russia. Tbe laneuage 
of tbe protest wbicb tbcy at that time addressed to the Porte 
jH'ovcs tlie depth and vcliciiieiiccr of the uational fe^Ung against 
Austria. Tbe Guvenunent declared that 

^ tht^y saw in the threatened oecupatJDu of thtj Servian territory an 
isolated action of Auslna, wlio, und«r t]ie pretext of acbiig in i;o-o[>era- 
tion with the general |M»bcy of Kurope iiiauiiport oftliieOttoniauEoipite, 
cmaleti for liereclfthe nieaus of invading SeniO-, and of causing in Ibat 
principality, by heruujual anri oppreMive behaviour, that very disorder, 
ttiftt very confuBiOj], aud ibat very ri^olation, which it is partieiilarly 
the int^est of the Ottoman Kmpire, as it is that ol' the i>ow<ini aUird 
to it, tu prevent, and the dangers of whkh the goveniioent auJ uatiou 
of S«rvia would devote theiuiielves with all tlieix eflijrt* t« keep off 
fnun their couoiry^' 


Ohjecti of tfie tVar, 


How well foumleJ were tlic apprehensions of the Serriaiu fau 
been abiitiilanlly pnived by the rerent condocl of the Austrian 
sathuritics in WaUacbia aod Muldavia. 

I 'The Servian nnlinn/ the protest goes on to declare, ' lias so decided 
B mistnist, if nol hatred, fif Auslriii, that the entrance of the Aiutriant 
into Si-rvia wtmld be immetliiiicly considered] by every one as so 
imminent n danj:rer. so gTpat a itiisfortiiiie, tlmt all the jiroeeedmfrs of 
the Serviiiuis would be direcltid aOTiiiBl the Austrian tfoops, nil the 
energy of the nntioii would be employed iu resisting; those ememie?, in 
whtmi is al^Taya supposed to be pereonfied tliat cupidiiy which urges 
AuBlria Eo seek to exercise iu j^ea^'ia, no uuLtter under what patrouage, 
an e^tislic intlueDce.' 

That interference on the part of Austria which the SeTviaia 
have so 1dii» and sn energetically resisted, nnd whicli has hitherto 
only been attcmpled by indirect and ille^l means, would have 
been authorised by treaty bad the four points been accepted by 
Russia. But even greater injury and injustice would liave been 
done to Scrvia. Hitheito her rig'ht of self'^orcrnracnt has been 
admitted, An bereditary surccssion has been eBUibliabedf wi^jlst 
in Moldavia and WaUacbia the princes are named by the Piirle 
in conjunction with Russiji for seven years only. Her adminift- 
tmtion has l>ecn organised upon a very efficient basis, and has 
been gradually improi'in?. She has to a certain extent repre- 
aentalive institutions. The chiing^cs and refwrnis which have 
taken place in the govcmmcHt have resulted frnm the acts of the 
Servian people, and hare not been brought about by the inter- 
ference, nur have required, as similar changes in Waltachia and 
Moldavia have done, the sanction, of Russia or the Porte. 
Nererthcless, bv the anrecmert rome to at the confertnces wilh 
rx'gwd to the first point, the Porte, * cotiBidering- that the three 
Principalities are very nearly connected with the pcneral intercBts 
of Europe,* — that is to say, that Austria and Russia dread in them 
a well-eslablisbed, progressive, and liberal government,— bind* 
itself to make arrangements fur modifications in their legislation, 
and to coTTimunicale to the contracting Powers for their approval 
and guarantee the Imperial act recording 'the whole of the regii- 
latinns relative to the rights and immunities of the said Princi- 
palities,' It is, indeed, provided that the Porte should * consult 
the wishes uf the country,* but auy one accjuainted with the mode 
IB which a similar cunditton has been hitherto fulfilled ^vith. 
regard to Wallachifl and Moldavia will know how far the real 
wants and opinions of the Servians wouUl have been consulted, 
and how far they would have been allowed the free exnresaiott 
of them. Moreover, it U Btipulated that, In case of any doubt 
arisin^r QS to the inlerprelation of the imperial ad, it is to be 



Objects of the War. 

Tefeired to the guaranteeing poWeM. TKe amount nf the natloDal 
armed force is even to be a. inalter of consideration with Austria 
and Russia, and nn nrmcd int^'rvention on tlic part of those 
two Powers is actually sanctioned bj the ambiguity of the 
ternij that it cannot take ptacc ' without being or hecominif the 
Subject of agreement between the High Contracting Parties' — 
which wo presume means that the agreement is to be come to 
aj'ter the occupation may liave taken place* 

Tlie remarks we ha%'e tnade as to the bearing of the first point 
upon the liberties and pnigress ofScrvia, are equally applicable ui 
Wallacliia and Moldnvia, the injustice being only less palpable 
heraUse it Would appear to be warranted by precedent. These un- 
fortunate provinces have been for nearly a century the battle-field 
of Russia and Turkey. Exposed frnim their position to continual 
invasion and occupation on the part ol Russia, they have sufiered 
X\\c double calamities of war and oppression. On the first sus- 
picion of war Russian armies have been poured into them, whether 
hostilities had actually comniE^nced or not, By gradual encroach- 
ments Russia had snccoeilcd in establishing a right of interference 
in all th'eir intt-mal affairs, and in exercising almost a direct 
sovereign autliority over tliem. The mode in which by succes- 
sive steps this power was obtained strikingly exemplifies the 
political action of Ilussia upon Turkey, and llie sureness and 
steadiness of her progress. By the Itlth article of the Treaty of 
Kainarji (1774) stie obtained a rijrht to 'remonstrate in favour* 
of VValJachia and Moldavin ; the Porte promising to listen to her 
remonstrances ' with all the attention which is due to friendly and 
respected powers ' — a modierate concession, but one which has too 
frec^uenlly been the foundation of very different pretensions. By 
tbe convention of Akerman, in 1826^ this right of represenlaiion 
and remonstrance was extended to a guarantee of internal regula- 
tions affecting the government and privileges of the Principalities. 
The Treaty of Adrianople converted this g'uarantee into a direct 
power of 3,11 pervis ton, and virltially of temporary occupation. By 
the organic statute of 1834 Russia arrogated lo herself the pro- 
tectorate of the Principalities; and by the convention of Balla 
Liman, in 1849, the right of armed intervention. Whilst, there- 
fore, tbe claims put forward by Russia before the wnr would not 
have been tnalcrially curtalh'd by tbe new arrangoment, the most 
objectionable of ihein would have been actually sanctioned by 
treaty; for, with the exception of the right of Interference, dis- 
guised under the term * guarantee,* being extended to four powers, 
we can see little or no real distinction in prtncii>Ie, and in the 
probable results, hetwem the provisions of the agreement come 
to at Vienna on the first point and those of the separate act of 


Ohjfcfto/tAe War, 


the Treaty of Adrlanople. The latter document is indeptl more 
explicit ID thp de&c-Tiptiiio of tlie privileges and immunilles 
■ecured to the Principalities ; but, in fad, all it contain* may be 
included in the more vague and general terms of ' tbe develops 
ment of the first point.* 

But the extension of tlie right of interference to Austria, 
France, and Kng'land wouSd be most miscli ievous, and would 
inevitably lead to falal results. As in the i-ase of Servia, it i* 
quite evident that neither France nor England would be iq a 
pusttinn to intermeddle with the internal affairs of the Princi- 
palities, althougii jjerhaps their diplomatic of consolar atrcnts 
migilit be too ready to en<niiie in those intrigues uhich, whilst 
they indulge self-imporlance, and gratify personal ambition, are 
most to the interests of a rising state. Austria, 
on the other hand, would arrogate to herself the right of repre- 
icnting these two powers, and under their sanction would prose* 
cute the desigrns which she has always enterlalaed, if not upon 
the actual territories of the Principalities, most undoubtedly 
upon ihcir polllical independence and prospects. A continual 
Blruggl*? for supremacy belween Iier 3nd Russia would Ije the resqil. 
To their jealousies, and their united determination to prevent all 
libera] self-government, the true interests of the Principalities 
fwouhl be sacrificed, and their internal prosperity would be en- 
tirely destroye*!. Already the results of an Austrian occupation 
have auffictently shown her policy. Our own diplomatic agents 
have officially reported the outrages which have been {^ummitted 
upon the unfortunate inhabitants ; how taxes and impositions of 
I every description have been imposed upon them ; bow martial 
law has been proclaimed to compel them tu submit to a tyranny 
even more oppressive than that to which they were subjected 
during the Russian occupation. Representations and remon- 
strances have, it is said, been made on this subject by the Brili&b 
I Oovemment to the Court of Vienna. Evasive answers or direct 
[contradictions have no doubt been given ; but although tbcy may 
[l>e accepted, ibey cannot blind us to the real condition of the 
icipaliti^s, or prevent the inevitable results of ibJs most nnjust 
oppressive invasion, 
"^e do not M-ish at present to enter upon the straleirical con- 

^B]de^at■onH connected with the Austrian occupation of Vlatlactaa 
and Moldavia. That the issue has proved most favourable to 
Russia no one can doubt. The forces with which she previously 
defended her frontiers on the Pruth ag^nst aggression have beea 
released, and have Ijcen poured into the Crimea, where they 
have contributed to tW long and successful defence of Scbas- 
topoh We have been unable lo avail ourielves of the feeliugs 



Ohffcts of the War, 

of the Mnltln-WnStarhian popuLatdon a^inat tbe Russians, and 
hftve been preveiiled raising a m<jst efficient force of from sixtv '<i 
a Iiundretl thousand men. parti j* Irained to militnjry expfccws, »nJ 
willidij to enter the ficlil in our cause. It is ai-|E^ue(l tdat a 
considerable poiiion of the Xuiki&h army lias Wen at Die sau)6 
time released from the defence of tbe Danube for service in tlic 
Crimea ; but it appeM-a to be forg^otlen that they have only been 
removed to meet those very trnopa which would otherwise bgva 
remained, perhaps inactive, in Bessarabia. 

There is one article (the seventh) in the agreement relating M 
the //(;'ee Principalities which we cannot read without feelinffs of 
surprise and iadij^nation. However replicant to Engliiih feeling 
an eatraditioii clause for political offences, and directed a;^inst 
political icfugees, may be, we are nevgrtiiL-less willing to admit 
that there may be circumstances under which such a clanse in a 
treaty might be to a certain extent ne<-eSsary, although we should 
at all times be loth lo see it oilieially sanctioned by the 
British fiovemment. We will even ^o farther iu this speri6c 
case, and ndinit that the peculiar position of the Piinci]>tditie? 
with regard to Austria and llussta tni^ht have authorised a 
demand on their part for the e^tpulsion of those who were known 
to be engaijed in intrijruos daoij^eroua to ibe interests of the neij;ii- 
bonrin^ slates, although we should have regretted the insertion 
of an article conferrinir that power in nny treaty to which we were 
parties. But that a Hiitish statesman, and that British statesman 
Lord John Russell, should liave put his name t« an engai?emcut 
calling U[K>n the Sublime Puiic ' to enjoin on the Principalities 
tlOt to allow the local iuluiLitants to meddle with mattejs danffrrntu 
to th« tranqn-iilitif of their own coiintrsf,' would seem to us 
n.n incredilile supjio&ition bad we not the fact present^ to as 
in tbe most autlicniic form^ — the official records of ibc Cnu- 
ferences of Vienna. No reaionable man could entertain for one 
moment any doubt as to the object and results of such a clause. 
The vagueness of its language would enable Austria and KussiS' 
to ptacc any roostructton upon it they might think fit. By in- 
sisting upon its execution they could interfere in every change, 
however advantii^eous to the prospeilly and projn'ess of the 
Princip^ilities. It forbids every cxprrssion of public opinion. 
Jt prevents every reform, however consistent with the wuits of 
the people and the spirit of Ibe age. Its insertion in s ireaty 
would complete the work which Awstiia and Russia have com- 
menced, and would render it impossible at any time hereafter u» 
convert those provinces into A bamcr against Russian encroach- 
ment. We can imagine nothing: more dishonourable to tliis 
country than its sanction to such a treaty, or more discreditftblo 





Oiijcrts of the War. 

to the name of one wbo Iieis hitherto cULmed to be the charapjon 
of liljcral opinions and tlie representntive of free inatitutioDB^ 
than its beln^ fiffii«(l to aufli a dociitnc*nt. 

Nor is it scftrcply less a matter of Biirprise, that, in disCDSsin^ 
ami settling qne5 lions affcctin!; the independence, prosperity, and 
happiness of above fotir milljons of buman beings, nyt one pereon 
representing" their irants and wislira should have been consulted. 
TIml Ihc iniifthitants of WalLicliia nnd Mo!dft\-ia should receive 
■otherwise tlian with dis^iist and indignation terms t!uis attompted 
to be impiwiHl upon them cannot i)e surprising. We understand 
ihat a protest a^nat tlits most ille^l .ind unjust mode of diCJiling 
with their best inten-sts lias been addressed to the British 
Government We confess it appears to us that the treatment of 
thfse provinces, if tbc terms of the a^eemrnt had been csrri^ 
oot, would have been little less cruel and wicked than the 
partition of Poland. Jn this mse, too, there wouhi have been 
inevitablv the s^me pnlitical retribution for polltica! inimorality. 

It is lint surprising that Russia should have willingly ac^ 
■cepted the terms proposed to her, and that Connt Nessclrode 
shi>u!il declare that, ivliatevcr may be tlic resntt of thft war, the 
qucstioTi affecting the Principalities has at least been settled. liVe 
trust that in this respect he will be most completely deceived. 

The first point having thus been dispose*! of, the plenipo- 
tentiaries proceeded to discosg thi' second article, which fleclared 
that * the freedom of the navis^atiuci of the Danulw should be 
completely scrured by cfFectiinl means, and under the control of 
ft permanent syndical authority.' As in the case of the Prin- 
cipalities, the firel proposal came from Auslria, ami Baton 
Prokesch read a tneinoranilum explain inj^ the ideas of his 
fforemtnent on the practical appbcniion of the principle of free 
narigation. Tbjs memorandum modilRefl was finally adopted by 
the plenipotentiaries. 

By thrTreaty of Adrianople^ the southern oulletof the Danube, 
known as that of St. George, was to form l!ic boundary-linp between 
Turkey and Russia. But the Porte was compelled to stipulate not 
only that she should have no eslablishment upon the right bank, 
but that that bank should remain uninhabited to the distance of 
two hours, OT about sii miles, from the river. Russia on her aide 
agreed ' thnt in like manner it should not be permitted to make 
iBny establishment, ur conslrurt any for tifi rati cms, upon the island, 
which should remain in the possession of the C«urt of RtHiia, 
^xce]>tin°; always the quarantine whicti should be iherenpon esta]>- 
lislietl.' The Porte having thus, contrary to the public law of 
Europe, T>ecn compelled to withdraw entirely from the right 
bank of the river^ the entire superintendcute nml control of its 




Ohjecis 0/ the H'ar. 

Navigation remained In the bands of Russia. &bc atglecleJ^ 
howeier, the duties imposed upoa her! The obstructions 
in the outlets of the Danube, which threatened very shortly 
to close them, altogether acjainst vessels even of ^ooderste siiie, 
had for soDie lime been the subject of ur^jpnt remnnslraDces on 
the part of the British GovemiTieiit. Whilst tbe navigaliott of 
this partof the river bad been confined ty tbe 'i'urks, the mud and 
silt accumulating at its muuths were contlnuallj- removed bv a 
very simple process, every vessel leaving the river being com- 
pelled to drag a kind of rake to stir up tbe deposit, which was 
then carried away by the stream. The Kussian government, to 
meet tbe representations made to it, constructed a dTed^ing-- 
machine, which after having t>eeu worked for a very short tkme 
was declared to be out of o«ler, and was removed altogether, 
tbe river being again left totally neglectod. It was tbe evident 
intention of tlje Russian government to close if possible tbe 
southern mouths of the Danube, and to throw the streiun into 
the most northern oulliet, which, being more completely within 
her own territories, she could shut whenever she thought fil 
against any other power. 

Besides neglecting the duty imposed upon her of maintaining 
the navigation of tbe mouths of the Danube, she had, in direct 
violation of the Treaty of Adrjanople, erected fortifications and 
considerable cstablisbmcnls un the islands formed at the oullels 
of the river. It is pretended that the words of the treaty imply 
that tbe quarnnllnes should be fortified stations. It appears to 
us^ however, that they are perfectly clear on this subject: 'a 
I'exception des quarantaines qui y seront etablis, il tiy sent 
pcnnts d"y faire aucuin autre etablissement ni fortification.' The 
evident intention of the article is, that, whHst Knssia mav 
maintain the line of quarantines, she is not to erect fortiftcations 
in the true sense of tlie term, — tlie utmost i>ower she possesses 
being^ to render the quarantines themselves secure against violation. 

The objects to be attained by any new arrangement between 
tbe Allied Powers and Kussiasbould bo to render the navigation 
of the Danube, where it forms the boundary, perfectly iVec- In 
both states, and to secure the removal uf all obstructions to it. 
We do not think that the first object at any rate was secured by 
tbe projected settlement of tbe second point. By the public law 
of Europe tits stream is Justly considered to represent the river 
when a river forms a boundary. Should this not be tbe case, u 
change in the (ourse uf the river at its mouth would have tbe 
cflfect of removing the navit^alion entirely from one branch to 
another, and consequently from the control of one of the two 
Slates. Such changes are not uncommon, especially in rivers 


Objects o/Uta War, 




wbicb, like the Danube^ flow tfaTough a ^eat f^leal of low 
maxsby land, and whose waters consequently deposit mud and 
silt largely near their mouths. They have token place conti- 
nually in tbe Danube, as a glance at n map giving it& various 
months, some now entirely closed, will at once show. It 
ahuuld. therefore, have been stipulated that henceforth the main 
navi^ble fitr>eBin ghg^uld form the boundary-, without reference lo 
the posaession of th« islands or delta formed by ttic river deposits 
■t its mouth. Lord Westmoreland appears to have seen the im- 
portance of this arrang^^ment, aijd in the fifth eonferenc-e offered 
an opinion, * that, as it was in contemplation to apply lo the river 
l>iinube tbe principles established by the Congress *il' Vienna, it 
would be desirable that the rule that the Tbelwe^ (the stream) 
form the bounda,ry, — a rule having the efiect of a law in the rest 
«f Kurope wherever rivers separate two States,— should also be 
put in practice when the new boundary between. Russia and 
Turkey is settled." The plcnipolcnlinries of France and England 
had previously declared 'that the boundaries between Russia and 
Turkey, as fixed by the third article of the Treaty of Adriaouple, 
were annulled by the belligerents in consequence of the war.' 
The new principle of boundary, as proposed bv Lord Westmore- 
land, might therefore have been adopted, especially as by the 
separate act of the Trcalv of Adriannplc it \ras applied to the 
two Principalities. But his sujrgestion, important as it was, 
appears to have been treated with complete ind itfercnce. The 
adhesion ol Lord Westmoreland's colleague to it is not recorded, 
and it does not appear to have been again adverted to. 

After the declaration of the French and British plenipoteiw 
tiarlcs, that the boundaries established by the Treaty of Adrian- 
ople were annulled, it might have been reasonable to suppose 
that at least the unjust and olijeclionabic provisions of that treaty, 
which prevented Turkey from having any establishment or 
inhabitants whatever on her own bank, would not have been 
re*-i^eil. We find, however, Ciiunt Buol alliiding^to the obliga- 
tion as one still in force, aad merely suggesting some modification 
of it. M. de Titoff accepts the admission, returns an; evasive 
reply, that * there would perhaps be no objection to c<:iiuider up 
to what point the stipulations in question were Susceptible of 
moditication,' and declares that the examination of this questioa 
Would be premature ! Thus the two {joints which really concerned 
tbe ioteresta of Turkey, and upon whirh the Allies might have in- 
sisted as some advantage to her and to Hurope, and some return 
consequently fof the sarrittces they had made, were entirely 
passed over, notwithstanding the specific declaration in Uie 
Memorandum of tbe i8th December, that 'it would be desi- 


Oii/ecta of the H'ar. 

table that the ctrnree of the Lower Danube sbimld be witlnlr^wo 
frnm the territorial jurisdiccion cKi&ting' in virtue of the liiird 
article of ibe Treaty of Adrianople.' 

VVhnt^ then, were tUi? concession:! which Russia made on the- 
second point, and which were eonsider&d by the British Gorem- 
m^nt 93 suft!ci4.'>nt for the settlement of the second point ? She 
consented in somcwliat ambiguous terms not to erect fortifies- 
tioDS where she was ciparly boiind by treaty not to erect them ; 
•be agrenl to witbdrair her quarantine establishmeyls (rum the 
Suliiia brancli ; and she consented to be aided by a temporanr 
European rommission, jointly named by the five Powers, and 
by an exeiytive rommiasion composi-d of deLegntes t>f the river— 
bijrderiti^ slates, in doin^ that which &he was botind by the most 
Solemn obligations to perttum. 

The sote real concession is the withdrawal of the quarantine' 
from the Sulina branch, and it is of almost too in&igniiicaul a 
nature to deserve further notice. The only legitimate object of a 
quarantine is proUK'tion a^rainat the pla^lle. i3y the Treaty of 
Adrianople Russia is bound, we conceive, to leave the islani^s at 
the month of the Danube uninhabited, except as Ini as the quorate 
tine is concerned. The third article can scarcely bear any other< 
construction. Therefore, the removal of the quorantineestablis 
meutsfroui the islands and delta to the left bank of the Danu 
would, under no circuiniitances, Inflict any injury upon Russia, 
expose her to any real risk, even supposing the disease were ragii 
in Turkey. But the plague has so entirely disappeared from tbi 
Turkish dominions^ that quarantines against her have been abch> 
lished by Austria, e'xcept that there is a political detention of 
a few bouts on some parts of her frontier, and by nearly all 
other states. As far^ therefore, as the question of public health is 
concerned, there was no sncriftce whatever on the part of Russia 
in rlosin|i eslablishuieols whicli were maintained at {'onsi<krable 
expense, for nu object whatever except a political one, and as an 
excuse for keeping up a threateuin^ military post. Even this 
concrasion^ tritiljig as it was, could not be made wilhiMit tluU 
hypocrilical affectation of a deep sense of the public ^ood, and 
of a sacrilicc to it of natioual interi-sts, which cbarncterises (ht^ 
lanrruage of the Russian plenipotentiaries throughout the ne^rtia- 
tiuns, and which is scaieety less offensive than that overbcorLug 
and menacing tone. which Russia knows so well how to as&u 
when she is dealing with a weaker Power. Tliey * expressed • 
wish that the intci-est of the public health, which was also an 
European interest^ would never ^ive cause for reletting th»^ 
proviaion !' 

Two eummit«ion.s — a somewhat ilumsy mode of dealing with 


Objects of the fVar. 





the question — were to be appoLoted to superintend tbe nnrigTition 
of the lower course of tlic Danube; one to consist of deleg-atea 
from iJl the ■rontractlng Powers, whose tluties were to consist in 
dramnn; up the bases of a reguJarinn for the navigation, and 
for rivet and manli-iiie police, as nell as iostructions to servtf] 
as ii rule or fii"*le tu the otlier, or executive commissiun, wfiichj 
was to be compostKl only of :he delegates of the three riveit.l 
bonlering States, nameij, Austria, Russia, and Turkey — Lortll 
John RllssoU liaving in vaiu repeatedly Fiejirescnted tbe desire of j 
hii Govemraent to be represented io it. The first was not t*f 
be permanent, but was to be dissolred on the consent of the] 
parlies to the Treaty ; the other was to be permanent, and would i 
cnn3t>f|uently be invested with ibc real authority in the maintei^\ 
itnre of the navigation. « 

It isagaina matter of surprise that neither the Wnllachians nar| 
MoldfiviaDJ, whose interests are so deeply affecte*! by the liavigatic 
of the lower part of the Danube, should have been coasutted is] 
%)niin^ to a Kcttlement of this question, and that it was not pro*-] 
Vide<l that they should be represented in the executive coOimi^] 
CIO". Ahbout;!] nominally subjects of tlic Parte, their cuminercial] 
interests are dislIncL, and have been subject to local rejjutaliona;^ 
It can scarcely then lie ai-giied tliat those iattsrests would be fairly^ 
represented by a Turkish commissioner. 

A proposal that the cootracting Poweis should have the rigbtj 
of slationiiisr one or two vessels of war at the moutlis of the, 
Danuhewas reserved for discussion bv the Russian Pleoipoten- 
tiarlea on the reasonable jTroutids that it Could not bu en tcrtf lined 
until the third point was decidei.1, and it was detenniaf^d whether] 
the Straits were or were not to remain closed as lieretofopow[ 
Although the French, British, and Austrian EMenipotentiariei ' 
dpcn.ed it e.Tpedicnt to record tbe principle, tbe Russian Pleni-| 
potentiaries adhered to their reser^-alion. 

It will srarcL'lv be contended, therefore, that any important 
coneissions were made by Russia on the second point, or that the 
rights of Turkey as regards her just share of the auperi'ision 
of the nnvtjration nf the Danube ivere secured or even admitted 
by the proposed settlement. As ip tlic article relating to the first 
poinT, A usiria was the chief gainer — for to her was given the powei i 
tu superintend the uavig^ntioii of that part of che Lower Danube i 
wbiuh did not tniverse her territories, orul over which, therefore^, 
she could nut claim bv public law the exercise of any control. 

Th? first two pnints having been settled to the satisfaction c£\ 
the Flenipotenliaries, the third became the subject of discussion 
in A conference held on the 'Z\J\\\ of March, That article was 
declared to establish tbe principle that, by a revisiun of tbe Treaty 



Ohjects qfOie War. 

of July 13, 1841, the existence of the Ottoman Empire should 

be more completely connected ivith the Eumpean equilibrium, 
and that an em! sIiquUI !jc put to tlic pri?p(>nd<:TaDce of Russia irt 
the Black Sea. It is not very clear how these ends could be 
attained by the tneri; retUion of a Treaty which bad no other objtct 
but' to {'lijse ibe Dardanelles against the lleels of foreign Poweii. 
Greater importance, however, was allached lo the discussion of 
this article than to that of cither of the others; ajid the ^enerd 
impression oi the European Courts and of the public appears to 
have been, that, if it were onee settled, no further ditficuities were 
to be aiiticipate^d in scenting the bases of a satlsfacton' peace, 
AUhougb we were far from being of that opinion, yet the retisons 
for these anticipations were eviJent enough. This article con- 
tained a completely new principle, ' (bo cessation of the pr^ 
ponderance of Russia in the Black Sea,' which, if enforced, would 
have- entailed upon that Power a patent an<l notorious concession 
— -one wliieh might re^Uy have affected her prestige and ipliluenee 
in the East, whilst neither the one nor the other were diminished 
by her so-called concessions on the first ami second [loints. 

The Russian Plenipotentiaries were invited tu take ibe ioi' 
tiative, and to submit lo the Conferences a ]}lan for the attainment 
of the objects contemplated by the third article. The uffer w»a 
of course decliiicd, but Prince OortchakolT declaied himself residy 
to refer it to his court, a declaralion whicli, in the convention^ 
phraseology of diplomacy, * all the members nf the Conference 
reeognised and appreciated, as showing an intention of fac^rilitatici^ 
the solution of the point under discussion.' Tlie promised re- 
ference had no such object. It was important to gain time, and 
eighteen days^ with a siege of such inagnitude pending, might 
produce events which would materially affect the position of 
Hussia, and Infiucnce her in deciding U])oii the rejection oi 
acceptance of the overture m^ulc to her. It must have liecn 
et'idcnt to those members of the Conference who possessed the 
least diplomatic cxpciicnce that the first proposal upon a queslioa 
of this magnitude, and affecting so intimately the rights of Russia, 
could not Come from her» The declaration, too, of I^ynl John 
Russell, somewhat ostentatioualy and tmnecessarily put ft^rward, 
as it appears to us, that ' the best and only admissibJe conditions 
of peace would be those most in harmony with the honour of 
Kussia,' would uatumlly lead the KusGian Pleni))utenliaries to 
Infer that the proposal which the Allies were prepared to make 
Would not be very disadvantageous to her. It was, therefore, 
evidently bis game to sec the cards of his opponents before he 
li-entured upon playing out his own — tlje weil-knonn maxim of 
diplomacy being e»pecially applicable in this instance. 

Ohje<:ts of tlie iVar. 


It was not until the 17th of April that Prince Gorlctiakofl^ 
faaving^ received the nnawer from his court, announced to the 
Conference tbat he was instructed |i) decline the proposal made 
by the Allies. The Plenipotentiuries of France and Englimd 
expressed ihcir surprise at the rejection on the piirt uf Russia of 
SO advanlogeuLis an offer, and Ijjrd John Russell, having' recourse 
to his welt-known historic lorr, made an ineffectual nltempC to 
prove to the snli&factiun of his Russian colleag-ues how great 
and ^loriious sovereigns could consistently with tlmir true in- 
lerosts and dignity limit their rijr^hts of sovereignty even in their 
Own territory, in order to save the effusion of Ijlooil, He unfor- 
tunately quoted to illustrate his argument the eonseint of 
Louis XIV. to the demolition of Dunkirk, a precedent which 
was speedily demolished by the superior acutencss of the Russian 
Plenipotentiary . 

The principle involved in the third article was then divided 
into two distinct parts — that which referred to the admission of 
Turkey into the European efinilihriuin, and tliat which related 
to till"' prepnnderance of Itussia in the Black Sea, With regard 
to the first it was agreed that the Turkish Plenipotentiaries, as 
reprcsencing the Power mo&t interested in the uiattcr> should 
make the inilintory proposal. A stipulation was accordinfl;-ly 
submitted by Anii Pashu to the Cuaference, and, his colleajrues 
concurring' in his views, it was einbndicd in two ai'tictes by M. 
Drciuyn de Lliuys and Count Buol. They were couched in the 
following terms: — 

' Art. L The hi?h contracting parliPB, Mishing that the Siihlime I'orte 
should parti('i])a(e m the advantnn^'sof the ^j'steni established by public 
law lienvceii the different Plaits of Europe, eiij^age thenurtlves severally 
In pesjieel die inde]H-nilen(-e and tt'rritoriul integrity uf the (.Mtomail 
Cover nil K-ii(, guarantee I<>geliier t)ie j^trict ubservance of this en^ge- 
meiit, arid will iu consequence cuH^i[Ler even' act or event which .should 
lie of a iialure to infringe on it na a quealitin uf Kuro]H'Jxn hiteresl. 

' Art. 2. If a tni!<underM]i.oding .^lioulil ariiie Iretween the I'orte and 
uue of tlie conlracting jiariie^, thL'^e twn j^tate^', before having reiH>urse 
to tlie eiiiploynieiit of liirw, should place the other jwwers in a posi" 
tJon to anticipate this extreme coursB by pacific mcaus.' 

The rtussian Plenipolentiaries subsequently insisted that the 
guarantee of the territorial integrrity of tlie Ottoman empire did 
not plarc Itussia under the obligation of going to war evciy 
time that inte^ritv was violated. And consi^lcring- the vague and 
ill-defined limits of the Ottoman dottiiilions, and their re]>eated 
violalion during- tijis century, in quarters far distant from the 
Russian empire, and scarcely recogriising the sovereignty of 
the Sultan^ we are not surprised that Prince Gortcbakoff sb^jutd 


have hesilaled to enter into the engagement proposed by the 

StJine importance has been attarhed tf> what are again temiedl 
' thr conressiiins of Russia ' in afrreeiiifj to llie first half of the 
tbiird point, tint did Russia ronrcdr anytliing? It is tnie ibst 
9I10 liad ejL;rlndeil Turkey from a pnrticlpalion in t!ie CoOgre** of 
Vienna, and ihat it ha* been hcv policy tu separate the Porte fri>m 
thr Koropean system that ahp mtj^ht insist upon tier pretmftion 
to negotiate with it alone even on questions of Hsropean import- 
ance. Bui the adniiseion of Turkey into that system has become 
11 political ncccssitv. reco^ised, in fact, bv tlie treaty of 1841, 
and since fully Jic:led upon as proved by the recent Conference* 
of V irnnn. Thcrp was no merit on the part «f Kussia in con- 
icedinjl that to which she had not the remotest leg-itimate rijrht 
Her claim to reject, as an infrinaeint-nt u( riglit, the interference 
of the Eumpean powers in her quarrel with Turkey and the 
ifiva.sion of llie Sult.-in's territories, was suinmnrily tejecletl before 
the breaking out of the war, It scarcely required anv trenty 
stipulatinn to establish a self-evident fact ; and it appears 10 a« 
to be somewhat absurd as well as iiiUiL-cessary tn declare ' liiat 
any act or event which sbould be of a nature to infringe on the 
mde|unidenre antl inte^ity of Turkey should be considered n 
qursdan 0/' European ititeresf.' TIil- en^agenipnt proposed wonld 
have amounted to one of ttinsc vag-ne territorial ^arantees which 
are not unfrequenlly insffted in treaties, and which are respected 
as limg only as it sails the convenience and strength of thote 
powers against whom they arc specially dirccteil. 

The first half of the article having thus been settled, M, 
Drouyn dc Lliuys propuseil, a^ a solution of the second half, 'the 
limitaliun of the Russian maritime forces In the lilnrk Sen,' 
supp(irtiiit» his proposal by the ingenious, though Certainly tvot 
conclusive, argument, that the consent of Russia to the terms 
offered by the Allies could not be viewed in the light of a mn- 
cession on her part, but, on the contrary, rather as a concessinn 
on the part of those pjwers who now hold the whole of ihe 
Black Sen, and are wiUinf; To allow Russia Mo rtvenler into 
the possession of a part nf her sovercitmty.' To attain this nbjet-t 
he enbmitted ten articles to the cnnsideration of the Kussiau 
plenipotentiaries. The first (or the third after the two articles 
previonsly agreed on) stipulated that Russia and Turkey should 
entrnjfe respectiiely not lo havp in the Black Sea more than four 
ships of the line and four frijE^ules, with a proportionate EnitnbeT 
of li«ht vessels, and nf unarmed vessels exclusively adapted to 
tliB transport of troops. The second confirmed the rule of clofinp 
the Straits Uid down by the treaty of 1&41, with certain except- 


tiiMis. Tbe third pmrided tbrt mA of Ibe 

M had no (? naral) establbhHm in tW Bbck Stm : 

Mithorued by finnan to 'baof mt» tbat sen a ^^bcr of ' 

equal to half the naval focoea laB^ined to BaMaa ^ri Ti 

The fourth declared that ediy b^bt nmeh Ii1iii-m 

Embassies, as provided by the tno^ of 164L. siianld : 

the Golden Ham ; and ^lat in tive <tf peaee «■!▼ i* 

of the line of the oantiarting partiea, alio haw na < 

in the Black Sea, tbonld be allowed to be M tfea 

Coostantiix^ile, and then far not Move than t&m' 

By the fifth article the Sohan Raemd to hiwailf tke i 

opening the Straits in case of menace of aej^wMMi : aal W ' 

sixth, consols might be estaMisfaed hi the Rmsmb ^^ Tnridah 

ports of the Black Sea. 

Before entering upon a diaausun of tiiese p so poi ita. Piiaw 
Gortchskoff satisfied himseU, by a direct appeal to Come Baal^ 
that Austria was not prepared to go fiirther tfa» to wtaammtmi 
their adoptiim, and that in case Ra«a rrfnied to a ccept taoB 
DO coercioa was meditated on her part. M. de Tisatf made ^ 
ineffectual attempt to indnce the allied Powns to aSam m» 
Tarkisb and Rnsaian {denipotentiaries to co^ie to Aieut i ipis 
nalifxis between thenuelTcs on these i|i Hiisii Tw« davs m um 
then given to Prince Goctcfaakoff to comidcr the plan paapcaed 
by M. Dronyn de Lboys. 

On the Sist April Prince Gortcfaako^ after readui:; wm cjalo- 
rate azgumeat to prare that the saperiorinrof Rnva intbeHack 
Sea arising from circnmstances orer wfaicfa she had linie or wm 
contrc^, was the result of the whole systtm of ber political rci»> 
tioDS with the Porte, and that a powerlnl Rnsaian naval ipnc- 
in that sea, so far from beinsr a standinsr iimiimi to Taikcy. waa 
actually necessary for the maintensnre of her jr^t- pm^rar^ . aoh- 
mitted a oounter-proposititMi to the Con fai e me , The propoail 
Consisted in opening the Straits to the fleets of all nst ion a , aritk 
a power granted to the Saltan of suspending the free paan^ 
during a state of war or in anticipation tA hostiiiiies. Tboa 
snggestim having been unaimoasly rejected, the Ficock and 
English plenipotentiaries declared their instructions to lie ex- 
hausted, and Lord John Russell immediately ffoiwtd Vii ami. 
Prince Gortchakofi^ in a subsequent Confermce, iKidified kia 
first proposal by suggesting two articles, one of wbic^ cunfinoed 
the provision c^ the treatf of IMl as regards the ciaainf «f ike 
Straits, and the other reSCTved to the Saltan tW power of •pmn« 
them * whenever he ^oald consider the secority of bis daoBJaaana 
menaced.' The French and EngUsb Plmipntnui irifa a^Eais 
replied that, as the p""^pW of limitatioa wna ^at f**^i*— * 


Ohjecti of the War. 

by Kussin, their instructions were exhausted, and that tbey did 
not consider themselves at liberty to discuss the fresh proposi- 
tioD oi' Prince GortchakolT. Count Buol, Uuwevcr, declared ibat 
that propos.ll contfkined the elements of an unders landing, an 
opiniim in which M. Drouyn dc Lhuys appears to ha>-e 

Acting upon tliis declaration, Count Buol submitted at the lut 
Conlerence, held on the 4th of June, five articles drawn up by tlie 
Austrian Cabinet with a view of recnnciUng the difference^ which 
existed between the proposal of Russia and tbatnl the Allies, and 
of affordinp; a satisfactory solution of the third g'uarantee. It was 
proposed tliat the Russian and Turkish I'lenipotentiaries, after 
coming to an agreement between themselves, should announce 
lo the Conference the 3mtiunt of eflfectivc niival force which 
Russia and Turkey should each maintain in the Black Sea, that 
amount not to exceed the aciual number of Russian ships then 
atloat in that sea; that thtj principle of closino^ the slrajta should 
remain in force ; that the other coniractiiij; piirlies should be able 
to send two frio^tes or ships (vf less force into the Black Sea; 
and that the Sultan if threritcncd with an attack should have the 
ri^ht to open the Dardanelles. Prince Gortchalioff dceloircd 
himself unauthorised, cither to accept or to reject these proposals, 
but pnmiisipd to make his Court acquainted with them, expressing 
at tlie same time fi persimal opinion not altogether unfavourable 
to them. The Plenipotentiaries of France and Great iJritsin 
declined %a biisd themselves even to submit ihein lu their Go> 
vemmenH, and reiterated tlieir declaration that, after the cate- 
gorical rejection by Russia of the principle of limitation, tliejr 
(.-ould not enter upon further discussions. The Conferences were 
consequently closed. 

It will lliLis be perceived that the neirotiations for peace were 
finalilY broken off upon the refusal of Russia lo consent to a 
recorded stipulat ion vsith thv Allies for a limitation of her naval 
force in the Black Sea. She considered this question as one 
atfectinp her dignity and the exercise of her sovereign rights. By 
ctmsputing- to a condition which enforccil this concession, she 
believed that she was sacrificing both. In this point of view it 
may be admitted that a great power, not yet subsCimtially crippled 
and liumbled, might be expected to reject terms which, whether 
to be observed or not, were on the face of them humiliating. 
We ctmfess, however, that essentially we do not attach the same 
importance to tliem as the Allies appear to have done. A limita- 
tion clause of rhis character in a treaty must be at alt timet 
but a va^uc and temporary mode of meetin{t a real difficulty. It 
IS only binding so long; as there exist the means and the will of 


Objects of the iVar. 

mforcipg it II fiin be evaded in a thoasand different tvavs. It 
has been suggcstinl that Russia cnuld have constructed vcsspIb, 
not exceeiliiig; the; number of the limitation, which in armament 
and efticiencj" would far pxceej any naval force she has hitherto 
possessed in the B!ark Sen ; that she might have hold in readi- 
ness as many unarmed vessels ns she might have thouo;ht fit, to 
be arnie«i in a few days on an emerg^encj\ and that she ivould have 
been even warranted in dirin^ so by the clause oi the |)ro|)osedl 
arrangement which enabled her to have ' a proportionate number 
of unarmed vessels adapted to the transport of troops ;* thnt even 
in direct violaiion of the treaty, she miglit ba%'e addeii to her 
ships without entailing upon herself a wnr, and that she could 
have found numberless eicuses and many opportunilifs when 
the ?reat Powers of Kurope were not bound together so ctosely 
as at present^ to increase hpr fleet in defiance of treaty stipula- 
tions. There is no doubt that such would have been the case, 
ftnd we cannot, therefore, attach any other value to a consent on 
the part of Hussin to a limitation of this nature than might arise 
from llie admis5i<in on her part thnt she had been defeated, and 
n ciinseqiient loss of that dignity and prcstig'e» to which as an 
Eastern Power she natumtly attache* the most vital importance, 

A ripfht conceded to France, England, and Austria, of havinjj 
each a number of vessel* equal to half the fleets of Turkey ami 
Russia in the Black Sea, would not operate »s a real check upon 
Russia, The jvrivilcge would have been, moreover, much cur- 
t»tle<l by the limilalion to four days of the time of stoppage of 
those vessels in the Gidden Horn. There is little safe anclior- 
fc{te in the Black Sea except in Russian ports, lor the opening of 
which to foreign ships of war no provision appears to have been 
contemplaledf and in the roadstead of Hatouu, inconvenient on 
account of its position and of its distance from the Bospborus 
and Sebastopol. 

The power of opening the straits to the ships of war of his Allies 
was not a concession made to the Sult'm by Russia, but is a right 
which he enjoys, according to the admission of Prince Gortcha- 
Jtoff, by virtue of his sovereign authority, and of which he had 
spontaneously deprived himself. 

The permission ]>roposed to be given to the three Powers to 
hare consuls in the ports of the lilack Sea had always been con- 
ceded by Turkey and by Russia, except as regards Sebastopol antl 
Circassia. The presence of consuls in that great nsvsl stronghold 
would undoubtedly have been an advantage. The Western Powers 
wtiuUi at least have obtained information as to the strength and 
condition of the fleet and fortress. 

Let Ds now compare the Russian and Austrian proposals with 



Ohjvcta of the fV<ir. 


those of t!jc AUies. The fir»t su^sestloii oisde by Prince Gort- 

chnkfifT was clearlv inadmissible, ftltbougU the tree passage of 
tbi; Sti'aiu Has Very p:i^Q^t'ally tidvocateil in tliis countiy at the 
cointnciiceniciit ol' tbc wtu: Sup|K>iiitig Turkey to have been 
willing, or to have lieco <:omi>ell«l to waive luer sovereign rifrbtx, 
and til linve ct>ns«nt0tl to the itpf^niii^r ui the lictspliorus iuiid Dar- 
ilanellcs, the <lati^r would iia\t; been immiDcnt to Europe. 
Hussin, at a time of prntoiind peace, could bave su]>poncHl » 
M^ncliikiiff missicia by a navid deutimstratiun under Tiie walls of 
Constantinople ; oi' Fi'ance uilgbt liavc eiiftjrced licr demAiids 
relbtin^ to the Holy Plates by a simiEiir procMdinp. The pro- 
posal was roiisecjueplly at oncf rejected, and n^it pers)$tiu*d in by 
its framprs. The uext plan ol' the Kus&iun Plenipoteutiary 
ndmiltrd the piiuciplc oJ' (lie tlctsing of the Slrnlts in Iirne of 
peace, and the |>ower oi tbe ^sullau to open tbem vhcn be cod* 
sidcrcti the security of his dominiotia menaced. This^ w« 
believe, to Ik the only safe BulutiuU ol tlio qiit^stion of t)ie passa^ 
of the Straits by the sbijfs of war of foreiiru Stales, and tbc one 
which, under any rircuni&Iaiices, must ultimately Ix* adopinHl. 
But as tlic Russian proposal wetlt ]lo lartlief. It left the queS'ti<ia 
of tbe prejionderaQce of Kussia iu the 13Uck Sea unlout-bcd, 
and it vas consequeally rejected^ Tbe Austrian proposition, 
tbe idea of whicb^ it would, appear^ originated nilli M. 
Drouyn de Lhuys, endeavoured to reconcile the conllieting prin- 
ciples advotale»l id tLe CoaferetiMs. It suggested^ as we have 
£eeo, that the two sea-lxirdcrui^ Powers, Hussia and Turkey, 
should agree between theirsclves as to the liinltatlun of tbeir 
ivespeciive fleets in tbc Ulack Sea, tvhicb shnutd not exceed the 
number of Russian ships then atloat. The agreeai'ent come tti 
between ibeni should then he communicated to the Conference by 
tbe Ptenipolcntiaries of tlie two Powers tu be annexed to a 
treaty V Prince Gortchalioff appeared inclined to accept this 
solution of the question, because the rig-hls of sovereignty would 
not bii infringed when the two Powers iutuiediately concerned 
came to an understanding without the tlictaliun or inlerference of 
the Allies. It would seem from the tone of the Russian Plenipo- 
tentiaries tliat the nature of the Austrian proposal was not alto^ 
f;rther unknown to the Russian Court previous to its being 
submilted to the Conferencif. We should infer, indeed, that it 
had even received its sanction, From Count Buors Circular o( 
the 25th May, it now appears that both Lord John Russell and 
M. Drouyn de Lbuys bad shown tbemsehes inclined towards il, 
and had undertaken to recommend it to their respective fliovern- 
ments with all tijelr influence. It *a3 however rrjeitcd by tlic 
French oud British Plenipotentiaries at tbe Coaferenre, on the 


Objecta of r/w War. 



j^rouml that tbey were not authorised by their instructions ta 
enter inti> tiny further discussion, after the refusal of Russia 
to agree l"t tl>e reduction of licr oaval forces ''by tnaly or v/i 
a biixU dumsscd at Oke Conference^' Had the estahlishnient of a 
satlsTnL'tiiry basis uf pearc depended Upon nothing elge but a 
limitation clause, vte coulees tliat the propiisat of Austria would 
have Contained, in our opinion, the elt-inenLs of a solution of the 
difficult} ; and, notTvichs.tuDdni;^ thg political disadvautago of con- 
ceding Ut Russia licr pretensions to negotiate with the Porte 
alone, we should have preferred tliis concession tn the risks and 
laU'iBce* of a protracted war. We do not understand the ai^rm- 
ments used hy Aali Pa»ba against the projiosal, ami vie can only 
infer from thcin and from tlie lauaruige of Lord Westmoreland 
and M. dc liourtjut-ncy, that, after the rejection by Russia of the 
original projKisitions of tliC Allies, lliey had determined not to 
entertain any Others wliatev^r, liowever mucli in accordance ihey 
might have been with tbcir original views. It was fortunate for 
the honour and dii^rnity of this country and for the future peace 
of tlie world that this was the case; but this determination, tardiij 
come to, does nut justify the unstatesmanlike Dio<1e in wbicli the 
negotiations were carried on, or the t«rms urigiunlly proposed by 
U$f for the acreptanu; of Russia. 

It would appear, from liicstatcm,enls contained in Ihc circular of 
Coinit Iluol of the 25tli May, which Lave been admitted by Lord 
John Hua^ell in the House of Commojis to be strictly in accord- 
ance witli facts, tliiit Austria had proposed a seconil alternative, of 
which however no ti'ate appears ill the prolucols of the con- 
fereoces. It consisted, according to Count Buol, 'of a progics- 
sive syHlcin of ^uarantei^-s against the development of Russian 
■Mwer io the Euxine, which were to be incorporated with the 
general body of European international law, partly by the treaty 
to he concluded between Russia and Turkey, and partly by a 
treaty between Austria, France, England, and Turkoy/ Lord 
Jolin Russell was also made acquainted by verbal conimunicaUons 
with tim projMsal, and to have approved of it to a certain extent, 
Ab the nature of this ' progressive system of guarantees* is not 
before us, and it is described in such vague terms, we are not in 
a iK>sitionto form any opinion upon the subject. It appears that 
llie plan was at once rejected by the Emperor Napoleon and by 
Lord Clarendon, notwithstanding the favourable rccoininpiidation 
of M. Driiuvo dc Lhuyft and Lord John Hussdh The French 
Mini»ler for Foreign Alfairs, u is well known, was, in c»o&e(|uencc 
of the sanction lie Lad given to it, removed from bis officy. 
Lord John Russell escaped a similar fate hy making a war-speech, 
denuunciog the four points altogether, and renouncing diplomacy 



Ohjecisnfihc War. 


for the more congeniut occupation of framing constitutions for the 

Alttiougl) Prince GortcliakofF prutesled that * lie attached ao 
political iJea' to the principle included in the founh point, and 
that it offered no serious difficulties in its solution ; vet, in truth, 
that principle involved the very csaenci? of the question which 
had led to the outbreak of tlie war, and upnn which it was im- 
porlnnt, above all others, to comt? to a distinct understanding. 
The apparent indifference wilh which il was treated by the 
Russian Plenipotentiary waS, of fourac, a. diplomatic ruse. He 
well knew its importance, and it was probably in anticipation of 
the difhcullies which would attend its discussion that tbe Allied 
Powers were JnJucctl to reserve Its Consideration to the last, 
and not to place the article in that order in which it would seem 
nalurjvlly to come' — after that conccmino; the protectorate over (he 
Frincipniities. It is evidenl that the Turkish Plenipotentiaries 
were prepared to insist upon the sovereign rights of their maatrr, 
and to rfject every proposition conferring upon tlie contracting 
Powers that right of interference on behalf of a large portiou of 
the Sultan's suhjccis which a positive guarantee of ill-defined 
immunities and privileges must necessarily confer. -Vor tan 
there beany reasonaljle doubt, not with stsjiding the declaration of 
Prince Gortchakoff, that Russia would have refused her consent 
to terms which would have materially infringed upon the exercise 
and increase of that influence over llie Christian populations of 
Turkey professing the Greek faith which she has ever conaideretl 
her peculiar and legitimate ligbl, which it has been an essential 
part of her national policy to attain, and whicli she embarked iu 
a great war to enforce. We s.ha!l show that the extension of this 
privilege to the four contracting Powers— bad Turkey been 
brought to consent to it — would not have materially interfered 
with its real, and, in fact, exchjsive enjovnent hy Russia. 

It must always be borne in mind, in discussing tiie objects of 
this war and the possible conditions of peace, not only that it arose 
out of the rclalions of the Kmperor of Hussia with the Greek 
Church, hut that the great danger to be apprehended from the 
extension of Russian power in ihc East rests upon those relations. 
It was neither the preponderance of Russia in the Black Sea, 
nor her power to strike a sudden blow against Turkey, which led 
to the quarrel with the Porte and the consequent interference of 
England and France, although these may be most important 
considerations in concluding a peace. However threatening the 
military and naval strength of Russia, and however helpless and 
exposed to sudden attack her neighbour might have bieen, this 
state of things would have furnished no recogniscfi subject of 


Objects oftfte fFur. 


difference, and no po&it'ive pretext for declaring war. TUat pre- 
text was afFordecl by an alt^mpt on the part of Russia to esta- 
blish an infiupnto nud riglit of interference over tlic Sclavottian 
Uld Greek popolations of Turkey, wliicli ibrealenod ere long to 
undermine the autliority uf llie Sultan, and lo substitute, almost 
as a matter uf necessil}', tliut of iLe Emperor of Russia. Had 
Prince MenchikofFs ulcinjatum been accepted, Russian policy 
would Lave achieved a triumph in the East which would have led 
to llic certain and easy, though perhaps not iminedinte, accom- 
plishment of the designs ^vtiit-h Russia unquestionably entertains 
on Constantinople and the Turkish dominions, 

AVitli the secret rnnespondence of Sir Hamilton Seymour be- 
fore thetfi, wilh the histor;^ of Prince MenchikofTs mission and of 
the first Conferences at Vienna, {^living even a more authentic in- 
sight into the true designs of Russia than that correspondence, 
and with the state documevots }S3ue<l from time to time from the 
Russian chancery, in eoimexinn with the war and ils causes, 
it is a matter of astonishment to us that there should be found men, 
' calling themselves statesmen, wlju still nssert that the fear of the 
< extension of Russian influence uver tlie Christian populations of 
Turkey is a mere phantom, and that Russia asked notliin^ more 
than which she had previously enjoyed, w!]ich in no way 
interferenl with (he independentc of the Sultan, and to which she 
Jjsd a legitimate right by treaty. If such were really tiie case, 
can any reasonable man beliei'e lliat Russia would have em- 
barked in a great war, entailing sacrifices uf &uch magnitude, 
to acquire privileges she already possessed, and which, after all, 
were of no real value to lierj' But we will not argue again (he 

Solicy of the war, and the dangers to be appndiendcd from 
,u$&ian influence in the East, We entered upon these subjects 
fully on the breaking out of t!ie war, and we have little to 
add to tlie arguments we then advanced. The question we wish 
now to consider is, whether the fourth article, as pro|)osed by 
the Allies for tlie acceptance of Russia, contains the basis of an 
arrangement wlilch might UtivR i!ic efiWt' of putting an end to 
that innuGiico hitherto exercised by her over the Christian popu- 
lations of Turkey which we believe to be dangerous to Kurope, 
and of preventiug ils reacquirement and still further cxietision 

The article, as contained in the Memoiandum of the 28th 
December, is as follows :■ — 

• Rtissia, in renouncing the pretennion to take under an official protec- 
torate the Christ iaij subjecis of the Sultan of llje Oriental ritual, equally 
renounces, ns a natural consequence, the revival of any of the articles of 
her former treaties, and especially of tfie treaty of Koulcljoulc-Kaiijarji, 

VOL. xcvir. NO. txciiL T the 


Ohji'vfa of the IVar. 

the errotieDus iitterpretatioii orvvtiicli has be(.ii the priucipol cau»e of 
the prBseiU war. In atlbrdiiig tlit;ir niuiiml ccK>pvratiou to obtain 
from the iuitialive of x\w OiCuiiiaii g:overDmeiit tlie contirmanoD and 
the obwrvancc of the rtli^Uiu» privileges of tlie iliflerent Ciimtian 
communities, wUhuut '(H»tijiciio»-uf sent, QTjd cuiijuiiitli^ turning to 
account, in the interest of the said communitjes, llie generous Lnlentiou'^ 
nmnifbsteil in ri-spwi of ttiem by His Jlitjfsiy the Sultan, ihey will 
lake thK g^-eatest care to prescr*'e from all atiufk the dignity of Ilis- 
Kiglmtss onii tlw in(le}>en()ei:tce of hi!$ Cron ii.' 

NotliiDg could be more vnu^ue and uointellifjible than the pUra- 
aeolngy of tliia proposition, and we have no hesitation in affirming 
Ihat, hnd tlje Powers roine to an undcrs tanking on the third point, 
it would have been impossible in settling the fourth to have acted 
on the terms we have quoleJ, or to liave extracted from tliein any 
definition wliatever of the principle involved which coutd have 
bound the various parties to the tonferenic^ It is to be inferred 
from liie Grst part th^t the plenipotentiaries admitted that there 
were other treaties besides thatof K.outchuuk-KainaTJi ivbicb coun- 
tennnred the ioterfcrence of Russia in the affairs of the Greek 
church. It is well known that, wilh tlic exception uf the seventh 
article of that treaty, there is no other treaty stipulation which 
a^rds even a pretence for such interXerence, notwithstanding the 
Unaccountable declaration of Lord Julm Russell, lu his well- 
known despatch to Sir H. Seyuumr, to the contrary. That 
article declares that — 

' T]ie Sulilime Porte promi^ie^ lo prntect constmitly the Christinn 
religion and ita chtirchcs ; and. it also aUftcs the JfuiUitfrx of the Jm- 
prrial Court of' JRassiu to make upon ail occasions reprex^rntatitm* a* 
welt iti favovr nj the new chnrck tU CanstH»tiiiople .... as un bebalf 
uf its oHiriatiiig miniiiters, promising to take such r«'prt!sejjtation» iuto 
due coiisitJeraliuii, Pis l>ein^ made by a coDflilcntial fiuictioiiary of a 
neighl>]iiri[]g aiLiE siocetely friendly power.' 

It is evident ftoin tlie context lliat tlie rig:bt of representation is 
expressly limited to a specific object, the churtih at Cuostand- 
nople, and doe:s not apply lo the general dec^I:LT»tion of the Porte 
in favour uf the Christian religion ami its churches, whieh was 
one naturally inserted in a treaty with a Mussulman power after 
the comUision of a war. There is ao questiun that at the time 
it was looked upon in no other light whakMer than as a mere 
expression ofa |;eneroU3 intention on the part of the Sultan, and as 
not cveti ciidvevinj; the notion of a guaraolee. But even putting 
upon the article the widest possible construction^ it would in m- 
way whatever confer a right of protection in favour of the Grf^k 
Cfiiirch, In consetjuence of religious symjiatbies and commuoil) 
of worship. The words arc ' the C/irialiati' religion, and conse- 



quendv a11 denominatioiu are included. 

therefore, of the trewtj was ODdiNiUetilr ^ 

have been meieljF necessuy, in order to deatror ibr 

of Kussia, to restrict her rigbt ta tbe pnTilci^cs «hicb tbe atlide 

did really confer, and the question o( aaj tptcisd ymtoctwM e • 

those professing the Greek faith woold bare bees < 

The s?coD(l part of the fourth point, as pi 
Memonuiduin of tbe' 2dcb Deceinber, a h> ttihipcd in tiw 
mystfi'ious jargon of diplaioacj as to be perCecdj 
Tloes * obtainmg from tlie initiatire of the ' 

till- coiiBrmatton aad obsfTTance of tbe teligions privileges «C IIk 
(tiiTerent Christian romin unities ' inettii, thai, wlnbc ifas 
of tbo»e privileges wa^ to come tram tbe toaz CblittiM 
ihe susceptibility of the Porte was to be respected br 
i! to pramul|^te, as it were prpjfrio matm^ its intenlioB ^ 
finning ajud observing them ? Does the expmuoa 'c wj oia ll y 
turning to account, tn the jnlerrst of tbe md canoMUlHBi^ (bit 
geoeroiis intcntinti' of the Soltao infer ibal tfce §OUr ftmKn 
arrogate to themselves tbe right of det^naining the mttmn of ibe 
future relations between the Saltan and ha Cfansdan anbyecte? 

would the ™^r 
gitannieed by tiealj 

Add supposing sUcb to be the 
those rights and privil^ea be 
Christians ? 

We presume thai the initenlian of the Allies was, as in the < 
of the Priocipalilies^ to replace tbe ezclnsire pnrteeteMe a 
gated br Russia hv a coojolot guu^antee of the liinF F« 
Wr do Dot hesitate to declare that such a 
would have lieen even more mischieTons and Mare i 
not unly to the independence bat to the tctj I I ill* III i of Xl 

than the indefinite awl uojustifiable claim ot _ 

forward by Russia whicli led to the war. Tbe tcst first objecf 
of the war, even with tbo^ wbo felt dispoaed to aim at the 
minimum of tbe advantages to be gained 6am il« ahonU have 
been to put an end to ail pretf ttce whatever on the paft of Ronini 
to interfere in the concerns of the Greeks. ^Vrtold suchn^aan*- 
tee as that contemplated by tbe foortii point have bad ih* aSBCtof 
prerenliru? that interference ? So far from such betog th« CMe, Jft 
wouki have given a sanctioai to a pretennoa pii iiimiIj muetif 
unfounded, and would hare enabled Tt nmi i nnder the authority 
of a treaty, to carrj out the very dcsigiu which that pii rimi— 
■w»s put TiLirward to promote. When certain privilcgeB and iIim 
lages are derine<l and then fftmratdfed by one or matm Powexa lo a 
portion of the suhjeits of another Power, believed to be BMomIv 
governed or to be deprived uf either their eivtl or rrligjom richta, 
we confess that we cannot see the disttnctioa bctWMB andi ■ 



27i> Objecls nf t/ie War. 

gtiarnntee and a direct protectornte. It is no answer tbat in ting 
instance the guaranlee r<?fer5 only to • religious ' privjieg'es. Russia I 
always ostensibly confinpfl her i^laims to the rrligioua priWictrt^t 
of the Greeks, yet she virtually extended it to iIjc civil, Unlcs* 
the ffu^nrnieein* Powers are able to enforce, by any ineans^ 
however extreme, the perforinpnce of the ptedges given, the gua* 
rantee is worthless. A general guarantee for tlie integrity nl'aslHle^j 
Ruch ns exists in the case of more than one independent Eurnjieaaj 
kingdom, is a very different ihlni^. The gijarantee is then] 
entered into afjainst other sta,teB, anil as against the pnaranleelnj] 
states themselves. It is of value so Toug as none of those stAtei 
becfime suflTieienily ambitious to despise treaties and sufficiently 
powerful to defy those who would enforce them. But a guaran- 
tee whicli gives to several Powers the right of insisting upon ^ 
the fulfilment of certain conditions in favour of a part of the 
]>opulalicm of a state, constitutes virtually nothing less than a 
direct ri^ht of protection and interference in its beh-ilf. 

lo the case of Turkey we have this double difficulty — hnw arfj 
we to define the religious privilet;es of the different Cluristiani 
communities, and how are we to separate tbem from tbeifl 
political privileges? In Turkey the two are so closely cunnerlcd] 
that it would, we believe^ be impossible to divide them. Th« 
main cause of Prince AlcnchikoflTs quarrel with the Porlc was 
this very difficulty. As we have shown in a previous article, llie 
bishops and priests of the Greek Church have hiilierto been 
invested with direct pfulitical power over their flocks, extending] 
to the apportionment nnd collection of taxes, to punishment for 
misronduct and to various acts of local administration. The 
Russian Government, for obvious reasons, has ahvays regarded 
this power of thc^clergy asftreli^ious privileg-e. We have shown 
how by its enjoyment the Greek priests are able to control 
the education of the people, to check the spread of libcnd 
opinions, and to persecute those who maybe suspected of an intcn-^ 
tion of leaving their church. It was to enforce this very privilege* 
of the clergy, to sustain their influence, and to preserve to them 
that absolute power over their flocks which the Porte is graditany 
curtailing, and which is opposed to the introduction of salutary 
reforms and to the moral and political advancement of tbe Scla- 
vonian poj^ulatJon, that the Emperor Nicholas sent Prince 
MenchikofT to Constantinople, and preferred a war to tbe relin- 
quishment of his arrogant pretensions. 

It is not by converting n single into a (quadruple protectorate 
that the evils wliich we have indicated will be avoided ; on the 
contrary, they will be increased, The influmce of Russia 
amongst the Christian subjects of the Porte professing tbe Greek 


Objects of the IVar. 


fnitli, fnrmmg tlirct?-fourtIi$ of t)ie population of llliiropean 
Turkey, is fountletl upon coramuniiv of rnce, of religion, and ol' 
latiguagp, and conspfjupntly upon mutual sympathies.* Although 
the Sclavonic populations may'ntjt on the whole be well disposed 
towards Russia, or inrh'ncd lo place themselves under hpc m3e» 
yet their clergy undoubtedly are. They look to Rttssia for sup- 
port, and for the mainteuance of that power which enables them 
to pillage, oppress, and keep under complete subjection their 
floebs. Russia, on tbe o^X^cv hand, has never £hf>Hn any real 
sympathy for the populations, whilst she has always been ready 
to insist upon the claims of the priesthood and to interfere' in 
their behalf. Supposing the spjar^ntec contemplated by the 
fourth point to form part of a treaty, Jn case of infringement on 
the pan of the Porle of any of the pretended privileges of the 
Greek clergy, they would at once appeal to the Russian mission 
or to a Russian consul, and not tu the representatives of any 
other power. Probably one of their principal causes of complaint 
would be secessions Iroin their Church to the Roman Catholic 
snd Protestant cominuuities j who^ on the other hand, woidd 
look to Prance and England lo mauilain their guaranleed privi- 
leges. A Constant antagonism would thus be createtl bttween 
the European powers, leading to endless disputes, in which, of 
course, as in the question of tbe Holy Places, the Porte would be 
the victim. In fai-t, such a guiirantee would leave matters, as far 
as foreign interference in bebalf of the Christians is contemed, 
in the same coudition as they Were before the war broke out, with 
this additional evil^ that the several Powers would now claim by 
direct irrnty right what they previously exercised only on suffer- 
ance. France Would again crtnstitute herself tlie protectress 
of the Catholics ; Austria would carry on her intrigues amongst 
llie Christian inhabitants of Hosnia; tlnglaiid would be ready to 
support the Armenians and Protestant converts. Any one 
acquainted with Turkey knows that each rommimity wouJd 
naturally seek for its defender and patron tbe representative 
of the I'cwer professing the same creed, and that a f/ejwrcl right 
of protection would not he exercised, except perhaps by the 
British ambfissador, who might extend his good offices, as he has 
frecjueotly hitherto done, tq persons of all denominations. It will 
be far more the object of the Russians to protect the Greeks 
against the encroachments of Protestantism and Roman Catho- 
licUm than against the oppreawon of the Tuifks. Jn addition. 

* Wtf iDi'ludv ihc Bul^riaDS iLtiiODgsi ihv Sclnvoutaii races ua account of coui- 
jaubity of luiiguagii' and rflipon, atlhim^ b it is well knoim thai the)* are of TBrtnr 
origiu. Ttii'^' preMMjt ibe curious t'thuugrapbical phenomenon of one race hBTing 
btMjii coiiipK'Wly stwarbwl inio pnoiher. 


Ohjccts oft}{£ War. 

therefore, to the continual strugrgle between the gTiarantceinp or 
protecting^ Powers ami the Porte, there would be constant difler- 
encefr and jealousy between those Powers themselves. whiUt aot 
a day would pass without remoDstmoces and rccriminatiofis be- 
tween the forei^ tnU$ions and the Sultan s ministers, which 
would eventually lead to the most serinus complications. 

No one will venture t(» assert thnt the independenee of Turkey 
WDvld have be^n •Eocured by a treaty which sanctioned and 
encouraged such a state of things. The Porte would have had 
recouTSP to endless intrigues and rnanceunes to escape from the 
obligations impose*! upon her, and to counteract the iresuits of 
this interference on helialf of its Christian suhjects. In its own 
defence it would have resorted to every available tneans to 
weaken and keep down the Christians, and to create divi&itHi 
and dissens.ions iunongst them. If would have endeavoured in- 
dircclly to check their progress and to destroy the sources of 
their wealth. And would it \ been a matter of surprise thai 
such should be the <«sc ? The Turkish Goveminent is well 
aware of the ends which this protection of the Christians, on ihe 
part of at least some of the Powers, has in view, and that it 
would be soon latal to the continitanceof the Ottoman rule. Wc 
do not mean to ar^e here bow far the establishment of n Christintt 
stale in the jirovinces now occupied by the Turks in Kumpe 
would or would not he desirable, apd whether or not our jK>liry 
should flim at this ultimate object. JBut we must be fair towards 
Turkey, and not forget the interests which she b^ at stiike. 
With us this is a question of policy, with her one of very 

Our readers will, we think, have now little difficullv injudsjiog 
how far the ' four [>oints,' according to the inteqi relation placed 
upon them at tljc Vienna Conferences, would have constituted 
the basis of ' an honourable and lasting peace.' That peace would 
hare been concluded upon them we never believed, admitting 
even the sincerity of the Western Powers in entering upon nego- 
tiations. It was impossible to bring the war to a dose wliiUt 
the «iej;e of S>ef>a5to(M>l wa* pendin^^nut that its capture would, 
perhaps, really improve our position, but its successful defence 
encouraged the Russian Government to persevere in the rejecliun 
<^f terms which under other circumstances It might have been 
disposed to entertain, and rendered a withdrawal on our part a 
national humiliation. "W'e much doubt whether any peace were 
possible whilst an event of tliis magnitude, and a slruj^gle between 
the belligerents so uncertain in its ultimate results, were still 

It may be inferred by the sj>eeche3 of Ministers in both 


Ol'Jtcta of the Wflr. 


Hoascs «f ParliaTnent tW with the close of the Vienna Con- 
feirnces the terms of peace ofTerpd to Russia were also cntirclj 
abandoned, and ihat ' ihe four puiiiCs ' are now only matier of 
history. On the otLer haiid, Russia, in a recent State paper, 
appears to consider the first two points as ronclusively scttlcl 
anil as irrevoraljly accepte<l by the Western Powers, iintl has so 
antiounted the result of tlie accotintioiii to Prussia and the 
Gennnn iStates, to whose sympathy and support she considers 
hersplJ' U|Hin these grounds even nuire entitle(i ihan aiie had pre- 
viously been. The Austrian Cabinet wouhl seem lo take the 
same view, althuusrh its lan^a^c on the subject is, as usual, veiy 
va?ne and equivocal, W'e conceive that ' the four points' were 
ofr<?ted as a whole undtrr certain conditions-^thal the rejection of 
a part, acoompanietl by a clmnp;e tn those conilititms. invalidated 
the remainder, and that ««nse(|iiently France ami Englartd are no 
longer bound by any understandings that may have been come tt» 
upon any of the poinls. This would be stiJeily in accordance 
with the public law affecting; negotiations carried on durinig^ war, 
and when cnnsecjn^ntly the relative jHisition of the Ijelligerents 
may ehanje from day to day, and must depend upon their re- 
spective successes and fjiiluros. Tlie arfruitienta put forward to 
tbe cootrnry by the Peelite members t>f the late Adminislni- 
lion, who have seceded and joinetl the Peace party, are perfeetly 
untenable. But whn.te\-er terms of peace be ultimately propfwM 
to Russia, some of t!ie principles contnined in ' the four i>riiot3' 
must form part of them. Let ns, therefore, see how far in their 
interpretation they could be made available for securing" the inde- 
pendence of Turkey and the pnjsperitv of the Christian subje<!ts 
-of the Porte. 

First, as Tesr^rds the Prineipa lines. Tbe main object to be 
aoe^nnplished with respect to them is lo remove all grouods 
not tmly for Russian but fi.r nil forci^TJ interferefire — to ^ard 
them, at the same time, n^inst any attempt on the part 4jf the 
Porte U> exercise illegal power in tlicni, and to secure to them that 
fonn of yovemmcnt which will best tend to the development of 
llieir internal resources and their national strenfith. In seeking- 
to arcomplish these objects, the distinction between t!ic political 
ctmditjun of Wallachia anrl Moldavia and that of Servja, and 
between their resi>eclive relations with Russia, so unaccountably 
(iverlonkinl at the Conferences, must always be home id mind. 
Wc tiave already ]>oiiited out in what that distinctiffn priucipally 
consists. Let ux then first deal witb VVallachia and Moldavia. 

These provinces are inhabited by pripulatigns claiming dest^nt 
ironi tbe Dacian colonies established by Trajan between the 
Oneister, the Carpathian Mountains, the Theiss, the I)nnuh>e, 



Objects of the ffar. 

aiul tlte Black Sea. Tbcy arc called from tlicir origin ' Hou- 
maos,' and sometimes ' Deico-Houmiins,' and sp(?ak a roiruptcd 
form of (lie Latin language. They pruless the Oriental Catholir 
or Ore-ek faitli, Tiii* Rouman men is not confined to tlie Prin- 
cipallUes, but alsu occupies the Austrian Provinces of Tiunsyl- 
vania, the Bukowine anil tbc Banat, and the Russian province of 
Bessarabia, and is scattered qier Turkey in Europe ajid parts 
of Podoiia and Hungary. It is supposed lu number nearly elevirn 
millions, of which about four occupy the principalities of VV'al- 
isfUia and Moldavia.* Tlie Romnan pt>p«Iation is tlierefore 
perfectly distinct in origin, in manners, and in langua^^e, Iroin 
tbe races surrounding it, and by rcfcmnf^ to a map it will l>e 
perceived that, uplted with tbe Hungariaps, it cuts, as it were 
like a broad band, into two distinct parts the great 8clavonian 
race, leaving Russia and tbe northern provinces of Au&Cria to the 
north, and Sclavonia with Austrian Croatia and Dalmalia to tlte 
south. Hence ila vast political importance, and hence the deter- 
mioatioo of Russia to absorb the Moldo-Wallachian* into her 
own territories, or, if possible, to extinguish them altogether. 

Neither WalBacbia nor Moldavia was conquered by the I'urkis.h 
invaders of the Byzantine empire. Weakened by 1 ongr-continoed 
struggles with the Sclavunians, the Matljyars, and other rckces, 
they placed tliemselves vohinlarily under the suzeraintv of 
Saltan Bajazet I., Mahomet 11., and Soliman IV^, who acknow 
Icdg-ed and sanctioned their rights and privileges by special 

Wo have rajiidly traced the history of Kuselan Inten'pQtion in 
these unfortunate provinces. Not only have their legitimate 
rights as indepcnident states, under Turkish suzerainty, been 
invaded by Russia, but it is to her tliat the}' owe their territorial 
dis.meml>ermenl. By the Treaty of Bucharest she compelled 
Turkey to cede Bessarabia, a province of Moldavia, of which the 
Porte had ni> legitimate power whatever to dispose. Vet we now 
fuid ber boastiitjj of having protected the Principalities, and 
generously claiminjt in their bebali tbeir territorial integrity I 
Thus, wbcn it has suited her interests^ she has insisted upon tbe 

• They are thus liiBtributeil, nccnnijng to the l»«t anthuritics :— 
Id TmnsvlTiLma .. .. l,48fi.tHKI I 
lu the Bukowiue .. .. 3011, OIJO J or 3,S71,0tW Auslrina fubJMts. 

la Bessaratiia (^'jii,(Klo RuBBiwi subjects. 

Ill WQl]lkChiQ 2,5nil,fKl') l . -r 1-1. ^- ^ 

InMoldayifi i^so^l^^j or 4,«W,000 Turkish mbjecbL 

To thfK sr» hided abaut a.U(Kl,|]UQ Mattered over Ituugarj-, Podnlia, Doraia. 
AltioiuaL, Mvcieiiimis, &c 


Object$oflh£ War. 






imtependence of the Principalities, and upon the limiution of tbe 
aulliority of the Porte to the mere exercise of the rights of &uze- 
mtntv ; whilst at uther times slic bas compelled Turke^T to 
fjxercise complete soverpign piiwer over thitai, even to the cession 
of their territory and to tlic iVaining of laws regulating their in- 
ternal government, 

Hftw different lias Ijccn the copdoct of Turkey towards 
■them I From iiia time they plat-ud themselves under her 
suzerainty ahe has faithlully respected the capitulations entered 
iuto with them, and has Hover — as Russia has done in the 
Crimea and iu rntiuus states taken under her protection — atr 
templed either to incorporate their teiTitories or to destroy their 
natumsility. When, in l)i*JD, thu Pulisii ambassador demanded at 
CirlowitK the cession of Alohlnvia, the Sullon replied ' that he 
could not cede that proviucc to any one, as it liad suIj- 
mttled of its own accord to his empire, and had not been eon- 
Mered by liie sword/ A rebellious pasha may at times have 
lad. his devastating hands over the Danube, or a Turkish ofiicer^ 
■ent lor specis-l puriK>ses, may have, hy his intrig:ne$, inler- 
feced wilii the local govemnient, and been tbe cause of much 
■WTonp; and oppression; but the .Sultans have never formally coun- 
tenanced those irrepjlari ti«s, and have frequently taken enerjjetic 
measures to punisli and prevent them. The suzerainty of the 
Porte was, until ihe year 1812, when the Russian emperor uit- 
fortuiialely announced himsE?lf the protector of the Principalities, 
the sureU ^arantee of their national existence; &nd those 
provinces aflorded during four centuries tlic unexampled in- 
stance of a small state living* under the protection of a ^eat 
empire, without any ambitious desig^n beltig entertained on the 
one side, or any suspicion on the other,* 

VV'Jieu in lS4y the populations, oppressed by the government 
which Russia had imposed upon them, and exasperated by the con- 
duct of their g:ovcrnors. who were mere tools in the hands of the 
Russian consul-f;eneral, rose against the rci|;nin£; princesi, the 
Porte appro»ed of the chaDg;es wihich were then mode in the con- 
stitution, and would have sanctioned them by her commissioner. 
RussitL, i}Q the other hand, interfered, and insisted upon theespul- 
sjoii uf Ihe leaders of the popular party. The Sultan received 
them with consideration and kindness, refused to remove tUem 

■ Thus writes one of dio &hlcsi of the Wallachiui nalional pirtjr ; — ' La roiv- 
rvinciu (>tltim3,n<r a I'lr, jinqu't'n IBia, Ib plus »flr gmant de I'lTxiiicacir dva Priii- 
clpaul'^!'. •-"' t^'t*' I'qiituiple Ji> pjus rpmarqitablv tl'iin pttit iux vivniii pvuiJaiit 
quAtrti tifecln 3t I'onitia' d an i^nuiil i%tx taut arri^iv peiiM.!.- d'un ^Cn{\ iajuf. il^tiEuic: 
dc L'imirt/ Wiih eJl her criiitfs aad her bults^ lei as at lease Aa juntice lo ilii? 
pgliu-cal boneitj' of Turkej-. 



Objects of the IVar. 

froni his territnrtes, atid confen-eil upon some of them honour- 
a.h\f public employTTicnts.' 

The main oTtject of any future arran^pmcnt should be t« put 
an end to all protectorate whatever in the Frincipttlities, not lo 
erect a guarantee wliicli -nuiuld give tkti ndditiunnl pretext for 
interference to Russia, Austria, and other stitc!. Let no treaty or 
convention belween the Porle and KuRsia affrctinjj the provinces 
be revived, but let the orig;inal capitiilittioiis agreed to between the 
early Sultans ai\d Mohlnvin, and Wallachia l>e taken ss the basis 
of iheir future relations witli Turkey. Those capitulatiotis were 
oooteivetl in a just and liberal spirit. Tbty declared that ihe 
Suitun undertook fur bimsplf and his successors to protect the 
Priijcipttlilies sind ut defend thein a^inst every enemy, in retom 
for wtiifhtbey were to leeog'niBe his suprcmaty apd t« pay him n 
smalt annual tribute. The Sublime Forte was not to iatef- 
fere in any manner whatever in their internal administratiion^ 
flJid nu Turk was even lo enter them. Tliey were to be RovOTned 
by their own laws ; the prinucs, elected by the metropolitan and 
boyards, were to have tlic powerofmakin^warand peace, and that 
of life and deatli over theirsubjects.t To these privileges let there 
be added a. modiBed represcnialive system, founded upon an 
assembly of the nolab!c-s, such as the proviiK'es once enjoyed, 
but which was destrcned by Hussin, aad full liber^ would be 
secured to the Moldo-Wallaehiaji populations. There need be 
no fear of any attempt on tlie i»art of the Folate to ir;terfeie with 
tbe inlemal uffiurs of the Principalities, or to violate tlie terms of 
her capitulations. The time is ganc by when such an attempt 
mig-ht have been apprehended. When the Porte was strong 
enoufrh to have made it successfully it even refraine<l ftum doing 
so. Tbe Principalities, themselves do not dread it, and are 
willing enpurrlv i,, dust to the Sultan for tbe enjoyment of their 
privileges and ri^^diis without that protection and guanmtee of a 
forcig^M power which has proved so l.Ttal lo them. 

At the sistli Conference M. do Bourqueney proposed a plan 
for the union of the two provinces into one stnti! under an heredi'- 
tary Prince recog^nising- the suzerainty of the Sultan. This idea 
has been lon^ entertained by the moi^t enlightened Moldavians 
and VV'allachians, and its accomplishment would not only be 
popular in the PriricJpalities, but would tend greatlv to their 
strength and prosperity, unless indeed they were banded over, 
like Greece, to some etfctc German family, which would exhaust 
their revenues in the frivolities of a court, or in pauderiog u, ^ 

• One of ihc noit enlifbu-be*! of [Lone gtiitltinf n is iiotf goreiiKW of; 
+ fIfltti-HuniayTin, or imp^Tial onlinanr* of S-ultun Bajftset I. {xA>. 1 
csfltulaljon sigti^il hy MBhomui II. ■□ favour of the Wiillachiaiii, 

MS), and 


Oljfctsofthe Wot. 


foolish Ambition. It wonld be the tfuc policy of the Sullan to 
accept it ; 3nd be might, there is little doubt, ujkhi being brought 
to understand the interests nf his cmpin*, ho induced to dn so. 
Hus»ia and Austria i«-ouUl both opp(>se il — Russi.-i because it 
would Irad to the foundation of a strong state formin? a barrier 
between }ier and Turkey? Austria be«ktisl^ a perinaDent and 
libera! government in the Printipalities would be a source of 
cuntinuat feir and anxiety to heron account nf its influence upon 
her adjaefnt provinces. But should the French proposition be 
adoptfd, there must be no farclgn protectorate or guanmtee 
other than that nhieh affects the gr^neral inte^ily of Turkey. 
The stale of flrecre is a miserable illustration of the results of 
foreign interference and of diplomatic slrug^les, 

As this pinn did reallv promise an approach to a satisfacfnrj 
colution of the first point, it was, of course, not enlertniued, but 
was put aside for future consideration; IVincc Gorlchakoff very 
aipnificantiv obsenino; '(hat there could be natbiD» binding but 
what the plenipotentjaries had '^ jxirapfiC.'^ ' 

The addition of Bessarabia to Moldavia and Wullachia would 

render the proposition for establishing an independent slate under 

Turkish sUKerainty Complete, and Would entirely isolate Russia 

from Turkey. There is no reason why the results of the war inig-bt 

not enable us to insist upon such a concession. 'J'hst pmvincc, a 

part of iVloldavin, was lIleLp'lly ewled by Turkey to Hussia witliin 

I half a ceotun'. Its populatioit has remained almost unchanged, 

H'A stjile thus constituted would lie a Source of real strength to 

^■Turkey, and would be the best barrier a^^inst Russian tnva- 

^ulon. Enjoying' fertile soil, inhubiletl by an industrious and 

1 intel!i*ent rare, possessing a j^ieat rivet oullet fur Its Commerce 

and sup[>lyin^ Kurupe with last qunntities of com, and beoi>minjr 

Pllieref'orc Iwiunil up with the L^urnpefin sysfetn by the most useful 
of ties, it Would 9oon become pri»s|>erous and powerlul, A con- 
siderable standing army would aer^'e to protect its frontiers and to 
^^ secure its independence, from whatever side it niifi;ht be menaced, 
^P^d, freed fnim guarantees arnl the interference of diplomatjsls, it 
I would enjoy internal tranquillity, and develop to the utmost it> 
Tesources. Thus would, at the same time, be solved one of the 
greatest political pn>blenis of modern limes — the means of pre- 
' renting the advance of Husisia to the south, and of puttinj; an end 
^■to that iniluence over the Sclavonian populations of Turkey upon 
^*'whicb she counts for the ineviCable success of her wary policy. 
That bn>ad line which we liave destTibcil, consisting- of nations 
difieriiig in origio and langua^ from the ScSaves, Would tlien 
divide into two distinct jKirls tbat great and powerful race which 
threatens to absorb the civilisation and freedom of Europe ; and 

a ^clavonian 


Objects of Hie H'oT. 

a Sclavonian power mig-bt ultimately be establisljed in llie south 
which would serve lo conn tor balance ihat wliich meoaces Europe 
intai tlie north. Such a solution oftfie first polnl woutd iudeei! offet 
some compensation Tor the sarrifiees of tlie war ; but it is not one 
which the short-sigtjteil and nurroW'Tnirifled statesmen of the diiy 
are likely ti> conleniphMe, murb more to attempt. 

Tlio establishment of such a seini-lnilepeiident state as we 
have deserib*tl on the banks uf the Danube would remove from 
Serviii one of the principal causes of direct contact with Ru9»is. 
The iruLt policy of Austria slumld consist in obtaining this result, 
but her foolish dread of liberal governntentsi and free institutionit 
in proximity with her own territories blinds her to her res-l in- 
terests. And yet of all the European powere she has the most to 
guin and the most to lose by thi^ war. VV'hen the Emperor Nicholas 
sent his armies into Hungary (o put down, la ttie extremity of 
Austria, a rebellion of her own subjects, he showed himself to 
the Sglavoniaii populations of Austria and Turkey a<s wielding the 
great military sten^th of Europe. Austria has since struii^led hard, 
but unsuccessfully, to efface the eff'ects of a policy which was nol 
that of Prince jMettemich, She is too timiil, perbaps too weak, 
to enter u|)on a war to extricate herself from thein. But the 
time will surely come when she will be compelled to take a share 
in ii, unless she wishes to confirm tlietnuviction existing mnoo^t 
the Sclavonian populations of her entire subserviency to Russia. 

W'c have dpscribod the peLuliar importanire of l>ervia to itie 
European system, and wc have shown that Russia liad no 
right of guarantee, much less of protectorate, as regards ibe 
ad ni inistration of her internal affairs, Let none be creattsl. Let 
the Servians remain under the su/erainly of the J^orlc without 
any other protection than that afTordcd by their oivn slreoglh and 
prosperity, Tliey are willing^ to regxdiitc their own relalloDS 
witli the Porte, and tliey do not seek roreii.Ti interference. Ther 
have (■■onquered their independence, and tliey will know how to 
maintain it. They have quietly but securely advanced since 
they threw off the Turkish y«)kc, and they owe their ptojrrcss 
to a nntionnl cliaracler, distinguished hy many remarkabU* 
qualities, a sturdy feeling of independence, an honest industry, 
ami a sound morality, ofTerin^ in these respects a strong rontrast 
t^i thut of the Greeks, Unlike that favoured race, with which 
they commenced their career uf independence, but under very 
different auspiccsj they hnie maintained ami graduallv improved 
the Iree institutions whicti iht-y won. They have no expensive and 
showy courts or public establishments ; thev do not exhaust their 
resources in diplomatic missions, useless oflices of state, and 
wholesale public corruption, and they do not ape the worst 






fashions and rices uf Europe. Tbey have ccmsequctitiv no 
national debt, ihey orR luoderalrlv taied, and tbeir yearly re- 
venue is amply sufReicnl to meet nil tKeir Wants. Eflucfttidtl 
is mnkin^ |;ai>rl progress, nnd tlic intenral tranquillity of lite 
Country has been scrured. The Servians are the best represen- 
tatives of a powerful race, destined lo play » jereat part in ibe 
future history of Europe and of the world. Let us leave tlsem to 
the development of tlieir own institutions, unshackled hv gna.- 
mntees and foreifim interference, and the time will probably come 
when they will afford a more complete solution to the Easterc ques- 
tion than anv complicated system which diplomacy could devise. 
Any stipulation for the free navirration «f the Danube must 
depend a jrotKl deal opnn the ultimate position of the Princi- 
palities, The importance of their grain and other ttade with 
Great Britain and many parts of the Continent, which has 
of late vears attained an Fxtraordinary development, gives to 
these provinces a greater interest in this question than ran be 
felt by any European stale, and we cannot believe that in 
a future arrangement their wishes will not be consuhetl. and 
that no provision will be made for ^ivinjc them a share in the 
management of the local details for cjeartn^ the bed of the river. 
The unjust restriction forced upon Turkey by the Treilr'of A<Iria'- 
nople, not to allow her subjects to establish themselves within two 
hours ol the rijrht hank, oufrht not 'to be revived; and the stream, 
in acicordance with the public law, shonld be declare*' 1" t>e the 
boundary without reference to tlic islands and deltas which may 
be formed at the month of the river. Even of more importance 
than the opening of the mouths of the Danube would be its coiv- 
noMon by railroad * with the Black Sea before it takes that sadden 
beiiit to the nortliward near Rassowa, and the construction of 
a prt>per harbour at Kustendji, Varna, or any other spot lo 
be chosen as most convenient for the place of outlet for the com- 
mence of the river. Both plans are perfectly feasible, and foreign 
enterprise has been more than once ready to undertake them. 
Hitherto Russia has shown the most determined opp<isitioa to 
any siich scheme, the execution of which would at onre remove 
fnnn her vole control the navig'ation of the Danube, and be a 
source of incalculable advantn;;e both to Turkey and the Principa- 
lities. We trust that the Porte may l>e encourag[ed and per- 
suaded to execute this gjeat work, which wo^ild Jevelop i6 an enoi^ 
mous extent the resources of the Principalities, the Banat, £tnd of 
her own provinces, and wuuld render her completely lodepeDdent 

* We sii>' bv miEroAd, hecaoM tlie oracrted rxistfnw at s caitAl iu Itcmiui tiiuc* 
is a myth, anf itt execution la de«Utvd by cnguieen to be impncotiblp. 



Ohj&is of the War, 

oi' Kussia. Tliis, for the Porte, would be the best solution of the 
second point. In llie arran^Pincnl proposed at the Conferencps 
of V iennn., Itic iateresis uf Austria appear to have been mamiv 
consuHiMl — those iti Turkey and ot the Principalities to haTe been 
eotijrely overlooked. 

TIjc tiiird point i& undiiulitedly the most diilicuU to deal with, 
not Ijpcause it is of prcnter im]Mirtance than the others, bul 
beoAuse of its vattupoess and of its dependence upoa the actua] 
results of the war. We have shown the iosutlicieDcj uf a limita- 
tion clause, and of any article of a treaty entered into to prevent 
the inerease of Russian ships in the Black Sea. But there 
are other questions besides thnt of the strength of her Heel 
connected with the prepomlcnince of Kussia in that sea. The 
Circassians, iDcited by us to rise against the Russians, have 
atreniiy, with our aid, captured and destroyed every stronghold on 
their coast. Gircassia is now completely freed from her invaders. 
Are we to restore to Russia virtually, if not actually by treaty, 3 
country wtiich was never lawfully ceded to her, and to which we 
have never hitherto recoirriiseil her claim V llie long and heroic 
resisTaoire of the Circassians deserves a better return, and it 
would be an net of base itiojatitude and injustice, after inducing 
them lo take pari in the war, to leave them to their inevi- 
table fate. Here at least is a case for a ^arantei?, and we 
might very reas<:ina.bly by treaty place the independent slate of 
Circassia under the protectorate of tlie Western Powers. But 
aeiihrr Russia nor Austria would be hrouolit to cfjnscnt lo such 
an arranorement, however mucli inclined they may liave been ta 
sanction 3 quadruple guarantee in the Danubiao province*. 

The complete destruction of Seljiastopol, and an undertakiu;;aa 
the part of Russia not to reconstruct forttficaUous in the Crimea, 
as well a* not to rebuild her fleet, are conilitiong which must 
depend uyion the success of our anus. It is im|>ossible to specu- 
late at present upon the possihility of oitr being In a pnsitiuu to 
insist upon such tornis without entering into this question at a much 
greater length than our space will permit. It is sufficient to 
observe llmt anv inert^ undertaking not to build fortresses in the 
Crimc^a wixuld be of the same value as a limitation clause with 
regard to the flectj and would only he of temjiorary value. If wc 
restore the Crimea to Russia^ and it is difhcull at tliis moment 
to suggest any other alternative, no stipulations with regard to 
the fortifiraklionsof Sebastopol or any other spot could be perma- 
nently enforced. Experience has now taught us how rapidly and 
with what small means a place open lo attack can be placed in a 
condition to resist one of the largest alid most jjowcrful armies 
that ever sat down before a city. As sooa as Hussia found her- 

ObJetU tifi/ie H'ar. 


■elf in a position to be in need of fortifications, tliat is to snj when 
strong coouccl) tj:> taka aootKer step in ber onward caret;r, and tit- 
(letv Kuropc once more, slie would kaow well enough bow lo 
evade tbc nrtlt^les uf a ti'eaty. 

But tlierc are rprtain principles wliich, under any circumBlaates, 
must be bomp in mind in contludine a future treaty of peace; 
uinont^t thpEii, llie closiiifj ot (lie Straits tu the ships of war of 
foreign ptiwers, except to a certain niimbf^r wliicb mig:lit Iw at all 
times permitted to cruize* in the Black Sea, tUe Sultan, however, 
rcscning tt> himself the ptjwer of i^llin^ up the fleets of 
his &llie&^ wLtn neccssArjf for hli own protection nnd de- 
fence. Tlie entrance Co tlie Bosphoru* sliould be furnished 
wilb all llie means ol defence lliat mudem art can supply, 
so as to l>e rendered completely secure a^inst a surprise, as 
should the Turkish fortresses norih and south of tbe Danube. Tbe 
Ottoman ^vermnent should be encourap;ed to construct ports 
in tbe Bhiek Sva — for instance, at Sinope, Sumsoun, Batoun, and 
Varna — nmd roads from them into the interior, b^ which tlic pro- 
duce of the country could be brimg^ht down and shipped to various 
parts of Europe. Trade witli Circassia shifutil be opened ; and 
tbe unlaivful blockade for so many years maintainetl by Hui^sia 
alcKi^ the coast should not be renewn]. IVo or more English 
and French cruisers should at aJl times watch that no obstruction 
be thrown in thp way of merchant shippiut; in any port of tbe 
Black Sea, nnd should hy their prcsecict- enforce the arra^Oge- 
ments made with re^rd to )Cj> tree navigation. 

Bnt, aisove all, Turkey siiould be induced to offer every facility 
for the increase of her foreign trade, and more especially that 
in {n"ain. For Ibla purp<»Be the commercinl treaty of Balta 
Liman should be revised, with n view to lower as much as possible 
the eJtport duties of 12 per cent, upon Turkish produce. Depots 
should be formed at dinercnt points in the Turkish dominions, and 
more than one port mi^ht with signal rLdvanlagc be declared free. 
By tbese means, if no tciTitorial change were possible, Kussiaii 
preponderance mi^ht be limiteil, and perhaps ultimately destroyed, 
ta tbe Black Sea ; but not by the miserable expedients sug|;;ested 
OS a devehipment ol the third point at the C'gnlerences of Vienna. 

There remains dip principle tmolved in the fimrtb point. la 
the case of tbe Christian population* of Turkey — as in tliatof the 
Principalities — let the protecCorale he abulisbed altogether. The 
time is past when the Porte cuuld npprcss to any j^reat extent 
herChrisliaa subjects. Undoubtedly Isolated ^ts of injustice and 
of cruelty will occur. The reports of our consuls will furnish 
them at any time, more or less aulUenlic. But these are not the 
acts of the Govermxient, and are iuevilable in an Empire in a 



OhjccCs of the War. 

sftite of tmnsition, where the supreme siuthority is not yet fully 
enfoi'ccil in tlie piovinces, and wliore the cluas of giivemrtrs tcpre- 
senting; the new system is not yet formed. The public opininn 
of Eui-ope has {jreatcr power in Turkey than is generally 
imag-meJ. TliK Porte tlnrcs not outrage it, arnl, if left to U»eU, 
wcnld well liiiijw thnt the Im-st mode of brlnfrinj; bark that 
system of fnrc-i^ prcilectifm and inlorference wliicK it 50 
henrtilv fears and dctc?sts would he to ill-trpat any portion of 
its Christian subjects. As far us the Christians themselves arc 
concerned, it is this very system which, on the pretence of 
securing; their privilrges and inrreasinjl their prosperity, subjects 
them to persecution, leads to disLinion, and checlis their real 
progress. We have now the cvidonee of the Emperor Niebolas 
himself, nnd of his mitiisCcrs, that the ivar wns mainlv provoked 
because liberal opinitmswerc |E;ninin^ ground loo rapidly amongst 
the Cliristians of TufkeV, and berawse they were becoming too 
prosperous and independent. Prevent the undue influencG of 
any foreig-n ptnver. and the Christian races of Turkey have as 
fair a pi'ispect before them as their best friends could ilesire. 
If it be tboug^ht that a right of representation bv a foreign 
ajjent in particular cases of oppression be absolutelv neces- 
sary, owing to the diftiiouUy of oiherwisc bringing them to the 
direct notice of the Turkish ministers, let that right be veste<l 
in some second-rate power whose interests do not clash with those 
of the Porte, and who has no views of ambition to carry out in 
'i'urkey. Sardinia, as a liberal government, has been sug'gested 
a* the one best qualified to exercise this privilege, and ber reli- 
gious toleration would be a security that she would exert her influ- 
ence in behalf of all Cliristiarts without iJistinction of creeds. 

We have thus placed before our renders the terms of peace 
which niiffht have been proposed at the Conferences of Vieima, if 
the princii>tes involved in the ' four points' had been legitimately 
carried out. They would m.t have been exosbitiinl ; they would 
have been consistent with our honour ; they would have puaran- 
ieed,toag'reatextent, 'the independence and intf'prity 'of I'urkev, 
and thqy would have afforded some hqpps of results favourable to 
liberty and civilisation. We do not mean tn assert that much more 
be nor requiredj and ought not ulliinatelvto be obtained. We have 
merely sliown liow the principles contained in the 'four points'* 
could have been interpreted with some prospect of o satisfactory 

Although modenite success ought to place the terms of peace 
vac have sketched out within our reach, and some compensation 
might thus be obtained for the sacrifices we have made, yet we 
feel the most aeiious misgivings and the deepest anxiety as to 







tlie results of this war. These* fcelinsa arise more frnm ihc 
cliaractet of the state&men who Jirecl the affairs of llie nation 
than from any other cause, as was justly remjirked by Mr. Laypird 
in one of his able sppeclies. They have not entered upon the war 
as a war of principle. They have never antiripat*Ml events, or 
looked forward to the attainment of an object really worthy of the 
efforts of a great country. They have been well satisfied to meet 
the exigencies of the day, and to calm popular indication by 
temporary success. Lord Aberdeen's Government plnuged the 
nation into the war by its vacillating and un-English policy. The 
section of that Administration to which the manag-ement of the 
war Wins principaLlv confided having;; ur^ed the people to a despe- 
rnte enterprise, by proclaiming that the reduction nf Schaatopol 
and the capture of the Russian fleet would atone offer the pr<fspect 
of a safe and honourable peace, sanctioned terms whieh included 
neither the one nor the other, and were huniiliatin^ to England. 
Finding their country surrounded by dangers and difhculties 
which they had mainly created^ *bey deserted her in the hour of 
her utmost need, united themselves with those who at least 
have been consistent in pursuing from the very commencement 
what we believe to he a, most unpatriotic and most dangerous 
course, denounced the war altogetlier, and even repudiated as 
too severe upon the enemy the conditions of peace which ihey 
themselves had prop<'>aed. It U fortunate fur England that iuch 
men as Sir James Graham, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. Sidney 
Herbert have been reinoved from her counsels: it would have 
been more fortunate had they never exercised any influence 
over her destinies. But there are still those in the Govern- 
ment whose conduct we cannot view without the deepest 
distrnst and suspicion. From the first amonc^st the most anient 
advocates for the war, Lord Jobn Russell was sent lo Vienna 
to negotiate the terms of peace. We have now his own confirma- 
tion of Count Buol'a statcntent that not only did * bcstiow himself 
inclined ' towards the Austrian proposal for the settlement of the 
third point, but that he actually ' undertook to recommend ihe 
same to his Government with all his influence.' It was gene- 
rally rumoured, on his return to this country, that he pro- 
fessed the strongest desire for peace on the conditions offered 
at the conferences, and the deepest repugnance to the continuation 
of the war. Public opinion, however, declared itself openly and 
unmistakably against him. Atl England felt that the acceptance 
of such terms, and the withdrawal of our baflled armies from Se- 
bastiipol, would be the seal of national defeat and national disgrace, 
Lord .lohn Russell, the true type of the statesmen of die ilay, rose 
in the House of Commons, denounced those very terms of peace. 
^UL. iLCVti. NO. cxciti, IT repudiated 

290 Objects of the War. 

repudiated with indignation any participation in the sentiments 
of those whom, after his declaration to Count Buol, had he been 
honest, he ought to have joined, solemnly warned the country 
against the impending dangers of Russian amhition, declared 
' that the fortifications of Bomarsund would ^ve Russia com[dete 
predominance over the Baltic, and that neither Denmark, nor 
Sweden, nor any other power, would ever hold a finger against her 
in tbat sea,* described the wide-spread influence acquired by 
Russia over Germany, and proved to the country that no peace 
could be safe or honourable, no security could be obtained for 
freedom or civilization, until this fatal preponderance of Russia 
should cease to exist. And yet this is the statesman who, a 
very few days before, had declared himself satisfied with the 
Austrian proposal, and recommended it 'with all his influence* 
to his colleagues in the Cabinet ! Are we not justi6ed, then, 
such being our rulers, in looking with the most profound anxiety 
upon the results of a war in which the honour of England and 
the destinies of the world are so deeply concerned? 

The country is earnest and true, the national resources are 
inexhaustible, the courage, discipline, and spirit of our army were 
never exceeded. Yet advantages such as few, if any, statesmen 
who have directed the affairs of a nation ever possessed, have 
been thrown away, and a great cause has been sacrificed to in- 
competent men and an unworthy policy. 



[^AT. I. — Hsict^ EvSijue fCAeranches; cu Le Sceptichme T}ico~ 
Icffique. Par Christian Barthglmes*. Paris, 1850, 

IN" a passage of the 'Critical Review,' pronounced ' ing'enious 
and wcU pxprpssoti' bv Johnson, and therefore inserted hy 
Bosweil in the 'Life,' llie reviewers divide the eprotists into 
four flnss^s. In the third class tlicy place * those who have given 
imporlanci? to their own private history hy an intermixture of 

■literarj anecdotes and tlie occurrences of their own times ; the 
Celebrntetl Hiictius hns published an cntertaininji volume on this 
plno.' If any person's curiosity has ever led him to search the 
great collection of French Mcmoires for Huet's, he would have 
been (tisappninted. Tfiey arc not there, because iheyare Avritten 
id Latin, ' P. D. Huetii Commcntarius de Kebus ad £um [sic] 
pert! ncntih lis/ is a small volLime puhli&hed at the Hague in 
1718, and has never been reprinted, U is somewhat meagre in 
facts and feeble in presentation of character, which may l>e ex- 
plained by the circumstance that the author wrote it at the a|ie of 
ei^hlj-five, when ho had just recovered from a severe illness. 
He had known most ti-f the celebrated men of bis time, and has 

^-recorded the names of some hundreds of persons in his pa^es ; 

■"but the record bears a. Renter tescnibtance to the Second Book of 

"the ' Uiadi ' than to Lortl Clarendon. In 1809 Dr. Aikia mani- 
pulated the volume; in his hnnda the small ISmo, ^cw into 
two vols 8vo,, being an English version, with 'notes biographical 
and critical,' in the Doctors way. Coleridge was certainly too 
hard upon Aikln when he called him 'an aching void;' bnt 
it must be admitted that the biographical notices do not shoty 
any very profound acquaintance with the literature of tiie lime, 
and may al!, we believe, be found in the * Biojrraphie Univer- 
sclle,' or perhaps in the ' General Uioirraphy,' of which the 
excellent Doctor was editor. ^^. Bartholmess is, as far na we 
know, the next person who has laboured upon Muct; but in the 
treatise whose'' title is (riven above he has confined himself to the 

^■philosophical opinions of the Bishnp. 

^P Pc?ler Onrtlel Iluet was boni at Caen in 1630, of Catholic 

parents, as he thanks God. And indeed it was a misfurluuc in 

\OL. xcvii, NO. cxciv, I more 

292 Feter Daniel i/wei — Life and Opim&iu. 

more than one way to have liad Hu^cnot parenu in France in 
the geveateentb centur)'. He sbdWed from the first a good dis- 
pofritinn for learning, and was fortunate in escellent tcaclien in the 
University uf his halive plnc^, amoag whom be always tDOsidered 
himself particularly indcbtei3 to the Jesuit M&mbrua, Profes«>r 
of Philosophy^ who bpslowpd ppculiar paijis upnn bis most 
promising pupil. Having lost Lis f&thcr when young-^ Huct 
fuund himsulf at onc-and-twenty ia possession of a meliorate 
iadepriidence. His first use of this was to visit the bookshops 
in the Rue St. Jacques, and he rc>turued tu Caen latlcn witli books, 
and with an ardent desire for the acquisition of knowledge of 
every kind. 

The i^onmiunity of Em-opcaij learning had not yet been hmken 
up by the disatH-ialim^ furccs of tbe growth of the new diaWts, 
and the consolidation of the great mooarchica. Th^ republic 
of letters w*» still one, of which Latin was tbe diplomnltc 
tongue. The nattunal literatures were indeed bom, but they 
were yet in their infancy. The highest talents, the xommitrt, 
rose :ibove the natiniial ai»l vernacular, into tbe J^unipenn, sph«r«. 
The scholar especially was n citizen of the world, not only io hia 
fame and in bis tastes, but in bis abode. Literature was thus, 
like capital, a highly moveable qoinmodily, attracted hither or 
tbJtheras the conditions favourable to ita developmcDt were pre- 
sented in any part of f^uropc. Precisely in the middle vear of 
the century, 1G50. and lor alwut four years before, and as many 
after, tliat date, the <cutre of attraction was found in a new and 
apparently mi)St unlikely quarter. The rise of -Sweden into the 
first rank of European powers iu the seventeenth century, like 
that of Prussia in the eij^bteenth, ts an instance of what may b« 
done hir the most backward and unpropitiously situated txiuntries 
by the personal character of their rulers. The military genius 
'of Guslavus y\dnlphu5, and ilic administrative abilities of Oxen- 
atieinn, bad forced, not developed, a rude, jXHjr, and remote 
country into political consequence. To the glciries of arms it 
appeared that the splendour of letters was about to be added : 

' De conducencJo loquitur jam rbetorc Thule.* 

Christina, the hero's daughter, inberited'tiiat genius so nearly allie<l 
in the\asa family to tbe insanity in wiiich, in more than one in- 
stance, it afterwards terminated. This natural capacity bs<l re- 
ceived by Oxenslierna'ft care a cultivation wbich Lad placed her 
only too far in advance of her own semi -bar bnmus subjects, Sh* 
asserts in her ' Memoirs of herself,' that ' at fourteen she knew all 
the languages, all the istiences, 3nd all the actoiaplishments her 
imtructurs thought fit, or wero able, to teach her.' She tben 


Peter Daniel Huet—Life and Opiiwati. 

Ill herself, wUbuut an^' master, Gertnan, French, llalian, and 
SpanUli, Nor were her powen *liowi] oolv ia langu&gt^ or 
accoiniilishiiienCs, Philosuphy, potitlrs, tbe delalls oT btiutiet*, 
in turns displayed her vi^urous mind, felicitous memnry, mod 
quick apprelieusion, 'Elle a l«ut vu. ell* a tout la, eUe «ait 
tout,' says a jirivate ci>rTt:'S{K>D(leut to Gn^semli. Alter making 
allowance for the natural exaggeration of those who £>iiiid all 
these superior gifts iji a crown^^l bead and a girl, tbere will 
I remain, not indeed an intellectual prodigy, bat a rare wiien of 
great qualities, wliich in a happier era of her ciHintn''» exijtenee 
might Lave inspired tbe oatiunnl mind with some pf her own life 
and genius. She had not^ hoHever, the material out of which she 
Could develop a national taste, and sbe sodg'ht to engraft foreign 
learaiu^ ou llie Scandinavian stock. Tbe learned men of tbe day 
were chiefly gathered in or about the Low Cowntries. Tlie i»- 
viving ascendancy of orthodoxy was crushing letters in Italy ; io 
England they had not yet talien root ; in Germany a barbaront 
war, and oquaUj barbarous relig-ious polemic, had nipped them 
in the bud. To the Low Countries, thoD, and to France, tbe 
pbilosopliiral (jueen turned her eyes. From tbe Dutch Univer- 
sities came Grollus, Saumaise, Isaac Voss, Descartes, Cooring, 
Meibom; from Fiance Cbevrcau, Xaodi^, Raphael do Fresoe, 
Bochart. All ibeie were provided with posts and pemioas afaoiil 
tlie court. Il{^id£-3 thosc who settled iq Sweden, tbe Qneen'i 
currespoudence embraced nearly all tbe learned men ai the dar. 

Huet, who was only at this time, was not yet so 
koown abroad as to receive a direct invitation fiom the palmneM 
herself. But be hod before this introduced hitruelf to BochaiC 
Samuel Bocbart was one of those men of solid lemming and fjmwe 
pivty wbo adorned for a very brief period of the serenteciitb 
century the French Huguenot Cburcb. In Orienlol loMv im 
was one of tbe leading scholars of his age, and his Gto^rajMA 
Sacra, recently publisbed, was tbe most leanied work on biblical 
antiquities that bad yet been produced. He was settled as 
tniuistci' of a Calvtnist coDgre^^oU at Caen, and being Pn^ 
lessor in the Calrinist College there, was a teschei of sudi rrpate 
as to attract pupils from England. Lord Romnnmaii, tlw liarl 
of StmlTurd's Qcphe^-, was among ihem, afxl we may peTliaiis trace 
tbe superior scbolanbip, as well as the ' nnspotted lavs of tbtf 
pf>eL, to his Calrinist master. His tuune is still viaibW at Cara, 
in tbe Rue Bockart (so named in 1*^33), and in tbe Poblir Libtary 
may he found some of bis books, with mu]giinl note* in his own 
hand. Huct had sought assistance and »lricc in hlf rmfasmma 
to teai'h bimaclf Ore«l( and Hebrew. I'his led to so inttmacv 
though such was the position of the IVotestaQtji in Caen, wbera 




Ptier Daniel Huet — Life and Opinioiu. 

the Catholic Uiuveraity overshadowed them, that it was a^eed 
that the visits of the young Ktudeitt to the Calvinist minister should 
be paid after dark. His own fame and the reoommeQdations of 
Isaac Voss procured Bochart a flattering' summons to Stockholm. 
Inferior is was the position of p. Dissenter in France, it was with 
reluctance he acceptcHi the invitation. He offered to talie Huet 
with bim. The young student, eager for self-improvement and 
now his own moister, wanted to travel. To visit foreign Universities 
and to seek the intercourse of scholars^ was then as much a part of 
a flcholar's education, as to visit capitals and to be introduced at 
court was part of the gentleman's. But it was to Italy he designed 
to go with these views. Though the spirit of the former century 
Tvas fied or banished from that country, it still, as the birthplace 
of leamin«;, possessed attractions for scholars beyond any of those 
tramontane districts in which letters were as yet but youngs. 
Bocbart, by much persuasion, prevailed on Huet to change Italy^ 
for Sweden, not by any hope of preferment, but by visions of the 
illustrious men they would see in passing through Holland, and 
the ' vestiges of Gothic antii^uity to be found among the rock* of 

Jusi as they were ready to s.tart Huet fell ill, and was obliged 
to be left behind, Bochart, however, was detained long by con- 
trary winds in the mouth of the Seine, and his young (umpanion, 
travelling in a car instead of on hofSeback otl account of bis weak- 
ness, reached Havre just in time to hear that Bochart had sailed 
that morning'^ He came up with liim^ howeverj at Amsterdam. 
Here the travellers joined Isaac Voss, who was on his rotum to 
Sweden, and a commodious carriage was engaged to carry the 
three. At Leyden Huet saluted and cultivated Saumaise : at 
Utrecht a recurrence of his disorder procured him the distinction 
of being attended by the physician Du Roy, the antagonist of 
Descartes. In Denmark we do not hear that he found nny Golhic 
antiquities; his chief object of inquiry appears to be Tycho 
Brahe, an interest which ho ascribes to a boyish itnprcssioa 
derived from a print of the Observatory at Uranienberg, in the 
frontispiece of one of that astronomer's treatises with which he 
bad been familiar at the housoof a. relation. He preferred a visit 
to the isle of Huen to lionizing Copenhagen. He did, however, 
see the King, going tn church for that purpose, and mai.le himself 
so conspicuous by staring through his spectacles in the gallery 
opposite to that which was occupied by the royal family, that 
his Roya! Highness (as he afterwards heard) complained at dinner 
of the rudeness of the Frenchman. His travelling companions 
did not share his astronomical enthusiasm, so, while they walked 
about the city, he took a boat tu Huen. On landing ou the islanil 


Peter Daniel Huet — Life and OpinioTu. 




be fuund the Luthenm minister extremelj hospitable a^d dq less 
igTiornnt, for he had never so much as heard the Dame uf Tycho 
Braho. An old man, however, was at last found who pointed out 
to them the site' — for the site was all that remained even then uf 
Uranienb'erg and all the ingenious constructions that had sut- 
toundetl it — for nearly twenty years the ce^nlre of European science, 
the cradle of modem astronomy. The report of Picard, who was 
«ent in 1671 by the ' Academic des Sciences ' to determine the 
exact position of the Instrument^, conflnns Huet's description in 
every particular. The reflections which tiiia scene of desolatioa 
call forth from our traveller arc more like those of his old age 
than of his youth. * May t be thoug-ht not to hare lived in vain 1' 
was the wish with which Tycho Brahe had expired. ' How,' 
thinlis Huct, 'can Itg be considered us having reaped the fruit of 
his labour who experienced the enmity of the King and nobles of 
his country? who saw his toils held in contempt, their products 
abortive^ and himself prohibited by order of the court from cotl- 
tinuin^ hi& ubserrations I* Here speaks the sub-preceptor of the 
Dauphin and the Gallican prelate, not the youn"; protege of the 
Calvinisl Professor. How half a century of Louis XIV. had 
debased, the minds of even the men of letters, may be seen by 
comparing this outburst with the attitude of Casaubon to Henri IV. 
The ill-will of the Danish nobility! What a different spirit 
breathes in the dying speech of the Dane I We may console oar- 
selves by llic reflection that posterity thinks no worse of Tycho 
Brahe because he Ha* persecuted by the Danish nobles, the 
name of one of whom is only preserved by tlie fact of his having 
played the part of petty tyrant towards the astronomer. Huet, 
too, might have remembered that Tycho had before bis ei;ile 
entertained a King (our own James 1. in IbdO) ; that when he 
left Denmark he only exchanged the patronage of a King for that 
■of an Emperor (Rudolph II.); and that Christian I\'. of Den- 
mark himself, who was a boy at the time of liis disgrace and no 
way blamcable, made every reparation to the memory of the InSIl 
of science whose greatness he l^d learned tu appreciate. 

At Helmstadl^ at that time the first town in the Swedish juris- 
diction, a Queen's messeilg^er brought Voss an order to return im- 
mediately (o Holland, and not to show himself at court till he 
had inade satisfaction lo Saumoi&e for an injury which the latter 
considered Voss had done hiM. Voss may have been in the 
wrong, but this despotic style of treatment of ber preceptor and 
adviser must have forcibly reminded her guests of the prectirious 
tenure of this royal patronage of science. 'One sucks the orange 
and throws away the skiOf' said Frederic II. when he was Ijc- 
ginning to be tired of the tutelage of Voltaire. And who ahall 



Peter David Huet — Life and Opinions. 

blame the princelji orang^-ealers. as long as the ornng^s show so 
much aniiJctv to he. 9uck<?il ? Thus our party, not a whit discoa- 
certed by the fa(c oi" their companion, continued tlicir route lo 
istuckholm. Tbej arrived in June, 1652, a season propitious for 
exhibiling the rich vegetation of the environs ; the profusion of 
flowers, lilies of the vallcY, wood straw I jerries, nnd chc?rries all 
around exciting Huet's aiimiration and surprise, as he was not 
prepared for Buch products in a northern latitude. The 
senson of court sunshine did not appear so favourablo, D«^ 
cartes was dead. Voss and Saumaise were absent, ns wc have 
lefn, and the rest of the ' cohors piiilosophormn ' were nol jost 
then in high invour. They were nither thrciwn into the shade 
by n certain lively Frenchman named Bourdelot, half abbe, half 
physician, but whole Courtier; one of thoSe insinuating^, in- 
triguing, ' omnia novit* personag'es, 'busy and astute,' in wboin 
we recognize llic type of the Grcnk Colas repeated. We should 
not be disposed to rely much on his having- been si igrMfttised 
as ' a monstrous liar and gambler, ' by Guy l^atin, whoie 
* mt'disances ntroces' were scattered over gtiod nnd bail alike. 
But we know the antipathy tlint nature has implanted between 
the plausible adventurer and the man of genuine knowledge. 
Especially the physician, whose success has chieflv been owing 
to his address in the cbawing^room, or his agreeable qualities ftt 
the levee, must ever he the natural foe of the man of real science 
whose imlependcncc of mind disdains those smalt ads of eonci- 
liatiou and courtesy by which the other ingraliates himself. And 
we must accept the opinion of Huct, himself not at all indisposed 
to worship rank — an opinion delivered without any appearance of 
rancour^timt the dismissal of \ oss and the cold reception of Bo- 
chart were to be ascribed lo the ascendancy of this unworlhv crea- 
ture. But it should be added, to the exculpation of the yo'i'^ 
Queen, that this precise moment was with her one of those inter- 
vals of revulsion after overstrained intellectual exertion, whic^ 
have often occurred Id the menial history of young genitK. 
Hume's sober description of liis .depression after an intellectual' 
debauch, of which only a young and ardent mind is capable, is 
well known. Whatever this singular woman did, she did with 
the same unlempcrpd ardour. She rode, she shot, she jilungecl 
into state- business with * foreur." So when she embarked on 
books it was the same. She es^pecttnil Descartes in her study at 
five o'clock every moTning, and shortened his life by an exertion, 
HO severe to the philosopber whose favourilc place of sliuiy wa* 
bis bed. Her passion for knowledge was a ri^al not an aftected 
passion, but it had its pauses of lassitude, and nf one of ihete, 
Bourdelot, or Michon (for it is characteristic of the class to have 


Peter Daniel HhH—UJwA 

an alias), availed lilmsclf to insinuate tbe modves li]&clj to rom- 
bat tli^ love of study in the mind of a §^L Fifst, as farr medirua 
be forbade lit^r toucLin^ books. She w&s ' htiTtin^ b» kealtli " by 
studying Tliis was uadeuiablc. He tli«n tried to bvii^ to hax 
the ridicule with which a leanu'd ladv was regarded bj llw 
eleg;ant dames of the French court. H*f ammed bw by h*» irfti 
ami court anecdote, rontrostin^ strongly wiih the p^ve discxianB' 
on Tfu-itus and the Ideas of Ptato which sh* had with Natifleaiid 
Bochart. She gradually gave up her ImxiLk, apd almost rrpentetl 
that she had ever learned anything. This dispositioa was ooly 
transient; lier character was too solid to be long nadrr &e in- 
fluence of a frivplous man. But it lasted duting^ Hnet*B itay, and 
uccasioncd bis departure. 

Huet was a man of re&earch in books, and of ftn ioqnifb^ DUhI 
into ohjccis of nature and antiquities. But be bad no disccfii- 
ment. We ^ain from him do nolion of what the Swedish Court, 
or the l&ame«l foret§;n coterie was like. He pnUses OxetHstiefUa, 
but it i& in the same va^e, laudntorr style in wbicb be speaks 
nf evrrv ^reat man whom he has occasion to mention. How lilde 
he knew with nhom he had lo deal mav be seen in bis noOon of tlt£ 
Queen's own character, when he af!inns that ' berdt^Mmtiaa wsi 
so weak ruid flexible, that she was entirety depmdmS oo Other 
people's opinions.' Few sovereigns have tlioiight now for 
themselves than the daugliter of Gnstav Adolpb. Even if Miiet 
could Dot see this at the time, it is stn;^lar that be »t>oald baTv 
written thus nith her later bistor>' before him ; thongb tbete ia 
abundant teslimonv from much better judges — e^ g. ChasMtl, the 
envoy frotn the Court of France — to her precocious exKibititjK) of 
a Etrm^ decisive, ri^ht^ud^n^ mind, caxr^iDg iindepeodenrv even 
to eocentriciiy, Huet iru easilv able lo coosoW hinutlf for the 
comparative ue^lect of the CooTt, by tlie ample librarr, botii 
prinlfd and MS., which had been formed at Stockholm, partly 
out of the plunder of the German monasleriM, partly hy jodicioBft.] 
purchases made under the superinlemksioc ol Voss. He soon' 
attached himself to a MS. of Origen on Sl Matthew, and his 
hours were occupied in making that tranirript of this bool(^| 
which IwcaPie suhsecjuetitly the foyndaljou of hia vtlition. Ori|;afti 
excepted, however, Huet found nothing to inrluce him to prolcnyj 
his staVi arul though a native of X'ormnndy he feared the rifWOT 
of a Scandinavian winter, Desiiles the indifference of Ibe jvUBg 
Queeu to the Soetatic discourse and soirieir in which tlie fau 
once delighted, were added the murmurs «f the nattvp oonritera at 
the pensions and emoluments lavished on the foreign favouritca. 
An old grievance. * These Scottish men spend a' our Quwnis foe,' 


Peter Danid JJuet — Life and Opiniont. 

ay the Norwegians in the ballad; ami the behaviour of the 
French, probably, wag not conciliatury. We fintl Huel makijig-, 
epi^mmA on the gross manners of the; Swedes* and the Calvimrt-' 
D;inister Bochart enjoving tlienij and showing them £u/t rosa to 
the Queen, who reliaheil them quile asmuch, but iterj judiciousiy 
suggested that their circulation should be confined to the French 
ami Dutch residents. 

Another circumstance urged bimto return home: his previous 
intimacy with Bochart^ his having- accompanied him to a Protes- 
tant coji't, and hh continued r^^sidi^ncc thcr^^. had given rise to 
reports injurious to bis religious consist encj. He therefore applied 
fur permission to depart, pleading business at home, and volun- 
tarily offering a promise to rcturu to Sweden in the spring. 
He tells us honestly enough that at tbe time he gave tliis 
plettgc to the Queen, he made a private resolution never to come 
back again. He Joes not olTtr any apolopy for this perfidv, w hich 
he even vented in hcndecasyllables, though tbcsc he did net 
show the Queen. Dr. Alkin evidently does not like the look 
of the lie as it stands, and sug-gests ' that it may admit of some 
CKcuse from the apparent control exercised over him by a sove- 
reign of whom he ivas not the subject,' The casuistry of this 
we leave tu the reader, Huet, who bad bad the benefit pf a 
Jesuit educalion, evidently lliinks such a trifle beneath his 
nutice. However, IiU return, had be meant it, would have hceti 
otherwise impossible ; for Christina's abdication took place within 
less t!ian two years. This finally scattered the phllosophicai 
coluny ; btit the cipeniiieiil had iiad quite sufficient trial to 
enable us to pronounce upon it. U must undoubtedly be added 
to the record of failures on the part of princes to create a taste 
for learning, and a society of learned men, in a court where tbe 
native tendencies to such a state were wanting. Though a short, 
it is not the least instructive, chapter in the history of patronage. 
Aa absolute sovereign can suppress, but cannot rreate, learning, 
J»y any mere acts of power, li is with the products of mind, as 
with those of industry. All the costly cfTorls of the late Sultan, , 
or of 3lehemet Ali, have been unable to naturalise a single 
jnanufaclure in Constantinople or in Egypt. So the predisposing 
causes must exist in a country — a people must he sufficiently 
enlighteneiJ to receive the higher cultivation, or they will look 
upon the importation of a cargo of philosophers with contempt 
and aversion. When the prcparalury stage has been jjfisscd 
through, a liberal patron may do much^ and an Augustan age 
may then be evoked from the resources of a country * by a 
jiroper organisation of institutions and arrangements for educa- 




lion, of attractions to great powers, of aids to great necessities, 
of induueniKnta lo great exertions, of liberty and freedom to great 

As to Huct^s special share in this disappointment, it was not 
great. He was j-oung; he was nnl one of the invited, bui had 
Inivelled on hia own accouut ; and, if qverlooked at the time, his 
merit was nut unappreciated. For he was afterwards invited by 
the Swedish nobility to become preceptor to their young^ ^^^R ; 
and by Christina to Join her Court afler she had dually ciitabllsbed 
it at Rome. He declined both proposals. 

The next twenty years — from his return from Sweden till his 
being appointed sub-preceptor to the Dauptiin in H.i'O — Were 
passed by Huet at Caen, thoug^b with freq^uent visits to Paris, in 
a life much more congenial to his tastes. It was gpeat in study 
unusually escuisive and diversified in its i^uige, but profound, 
serious, methodical, in its purpose. In his own words, * I 
laboured to furnish myself with an accurate knowledge of an- 
tiquity, and to attain to the very fountains of erudition-' He was 
not en^gcd in any profession, yet bis means, though moderate, 
were not such as to allow him to indulge his wbh of removing 
bis abode to the capital. The difference of expense between 
provincial and Parisian life was still greater at that time than at 
the present. The literary task which he had prescribed hjinself, 
and which he carried on leisurely, without suffering it to absorb 
liim from tbereadia*!: by %vhich he was forming himself, was the 
editing' of Origen, Of the six books into which bis Memoirs are 
divided, two record this periofl. There is notjiing that deserves 
the nameof events : the nariAtive is divided between the subjects 
of study and the connexions continually formed with learned men. 
For next to study, which he sustained throughout this whole 
period with all the zeal of a profession, he seems to have made 
the aiquisition of leametl acquaintance an object of special 
pursuit, Tbe large space ivliich these connexions occupy in 
bis memoranda, show that in Iriuking back on bis life they were 
XLut tbe least cherished of his recolleclions. Few bdve united in 
an equal degree the true solitary passion for books with the 
Social iastinrts and the desire for an unlimited extension of friend- 
ships. That bis love of reading was niore than a mere taste — 
that it was a devotion, real, serious, and engrossing — Is certain 
from bis whole hi&tory. The best-known story about him, 
jierhaps, is that pregened in the Svjreetiana, of the cownlrymaa 
who was denied access to him after he was Bishop of Avranches, 
because the bishop waS studying. Tbe applicant retired, 
grumbling a wish that the King would send a bishop *qui a 
fait ses L'tDdes/ Yet tbe list of bis literary acquaintance la 

prodigioui ; 


Peter Daniel Iluet — Life and Opimmm. 

prodigious ; extemling' as it does to every person of <*ven third 
and fourth rate eminence in letters ro France, an<l including 
many of Germany, Malland, and even Englnnd. He deelares 
{Ihrr(iaiia) thai 9i the ape of twenty he was already 'in onre- 
spondcncr with Sirmnntl, Pclau^ Dupuis, Borliarl, BlHUidel. Labbe, 
BouiUand, Xfiufte. Sanmfiise, Hoinsius, Vos3, Stldcn, Dosrnrtei, 
Gassendi, Menage.' This list was swoHen by ibe time br* \\w\ 
rearhed the age of fort^-, to some liandreds. True, manv of tbetc 
correspond encps went no further than a single exebanpe of com- 
plimentiirj" letters, or a single visit of ceremony ; but tiiey were 
not the less stored up in the memory of nne of the parties., and to 
originate ihem was ft serious otcrupalion of his life. Nor was 
much preliminary introduction thought necessary. To the 
greater savans, the young: Norman, in the pride of conscious 
mprit, made a tender pf liIs spontaneous admiration by Irtlef. 
Dill a great court personage, known as making any preteiisions 
tn taste, visit Caen, he waited on him immediaiclv, and ex- 
plained Ijis pretpnsions. Chance brought in not a few, as in the 
case of 31ailelenet, Richelieu's late ■secretary. 

' It was accident thiittlirew me into the harbour of Gabriel Sludeteiiet'e 
frlendfiliip. Aa I was hMjkiiiig over (he eatah.ig'ue of puhliealioais in a 
book^'ller'tt eliop [in Parbj, aiiJ was nnlering diose of some' Tiio<)em 
poets lo be sent home, Madelenct came in. " I see you like jwetry," 
saifl lie, "and to judge by the sekeiion you have marie, you hove 
a just taste in if, I have some thai 1 can bIiow you, whicJi you tnay, 
perJinji?, not dislike/' at l.he eimit' time pidling out, &c. I ronlrnctrd a 
friend^iliip with Madelene), wlioni I reganltd as a poet of no liumble 
6tniias, hut wortliy to be comjiared to the ancirats.' — Memoirs^ p. 168. 

Huet must have been a treasure lo this class of poet, irell- 
known to Boilcaii^ who, 

' Aborde en reciCanC quiconqoe le salut, 

Et poureuit de st* vers les pai-sans dans la rue.' 

The great means, however, by which men of science sought 
mutual acquaintance and improvement was in Academies. This 
was the age of Academies in France. They were Imrrowed 
from Italy, where they bad already gone into decfiy with the 
decline of learning. But in France they were stdl in all the fresh- 
ness of youth, and had not yet become mere empty titles of 
honour^ or clubs for the publicitinn of Transactions. They were 
centres of personal communicatinn between men of commoD 
tastes and pursuits. All of ihem, even the Academic FranCj-aise, 
had arisen in friendly meetings in private houses. The earliest 
members were opposed to being chartered, and always ItXfked 
back to their private aD<l unpremeditated reunions in'the houfe 


P«ter Dimui Hvet—L^e a^ "ifiifni 301 

of Valentine Conrait u their Golden Age, when the ■«■- 
bers without noise and parade, and in tbe li e cduin of *^— lu— 
intercourse, conversed at their eaie on topics tlial iiiti ii ilid 
them. Caen for a provincial dty was aan^bLriv rich in ^tt» «f 
letters and liberal parsnits. It vas far SaaoMmdv tctt mndt 
what Montpellier was for the Sooth of Fnuoe. Bendes ite 
Universitj — much the most fiistiiq^iuibed sdiool of die Xortfa «f 
France — many persons of birth and favtoae had irtiied these finr 
the sake of society. The UnirersitT of Caen had posaesaed a 
classical press in the fifteenth centonr, and a Horace, p i iiili H 
there in 1480, is among the biblit^raphical rarities. It was de 
original berceau of the Academy movement In Fiance, nor haa 
it lost its character. It was here that in 1830 spnng op Ae 

* Societe pour la Conservation des Momunens Histdniqnes,' riucb 
has been the means of rescuing so many ranins of anliqailj 
firom destractiiKi. Here tot», in 1833s originated the scientific 
congress of the laeant of France and Europe. An Academy bad 
been formed here daring Hnet's absence in Sweden, and the 
first tidings which greeted him <m his return were, that himsrff 
and Bochart had been chosen associates during their absence. 
The meetings were originally held in the private mansion of ooe of 
tbe members, and bom the first the society nnmbered some waok 
of distinction in its ranks. Among these was S^gxais, wfaoae 
pastoral poems are still included in the Collections of tlie Poets 
of France, though he is better known bv his connexion with tbe 
romance of 'Zaide,' written by Madame La Fayette. Of this 
Academy Bayle writes in 16S4, * It n'v a point d^Academie dans 
le reste de I'Earope qui soit oomposee de plus habiles gens que 
celle de Caen.' It survived tbe Revolution, and continues to 
subsist in vigour, publishing from time to time respectable 
volumes of Memoirs. The name of Huet^is still tbe boast 
of this enlightened body. It endeavoured only a few years 
ago to commemorate him in a mode widely adopted in France 
and Germany, though hardly known among ourselve*, viz^ by 
proposing a prize for an ihffe. Tbe iloge is intended to be not a 
TBgue and fulsome panegyric, like the old diMcourt de rieejpHon 
at the Acad6mie, but, according to the better taste now pro- 
vailing there, a general survey of the subject. However, the 
spirit of the d^enerate sons of Caen did not respond to the 
-invitation. Twice was the prize proposed without any success — 

* bis patriae cecidere manus ;' the third time, in 1851, only two 
essays were sent in, to neither of which were tbe judges aUe 
to award the prize. The dissertation we have placed at the 
head of this paper, and which still leaves mnch to be desiied, 
comes from a different qoarter. 


302 Peter Daniel Huet — Life ami Qjiinions. 

But Ibis assemtil^" was confioetl to literature, and Hurt's active 
■n<l inquiring minil embraced a much wider domain. The rapid 
strides wliich phj-sical discovery was daily making, aUratteil 
general attention, and Huet joined with his usual ea^crnpss in 
the pursuit, which speedily led to assodatinjS a fpw jwraons, 
■who were to meet once a week at his bouse to carry nn the 
subject. This nas the fouDdation of the Academy gf Sciences 
of Caen, an association wliich soon acquired a high reputation, 
ond received approbation and contributions to its funds from 

'As there bad been sent me from London Bonie accurate observation* 
hy niftiibers uf llie Royal Society, in which the anatomy of the Jiuuiaii 
body was esliibited, we determined to join our labours id thia pan of 
physica. And as the public hospital of the city was in tlie vidnily of 
my l:ir>use, we commissioned one of our body »-ho -was a curgeon, lliat 
vXiBw any of tiie patientH should d!ie of nti unkrioMu malady, he should 
^ve me a summons titat vre niig^ht ascertain \\ie disease and the cause 
of death by disaec-tlou. Nor did we employ our iiidostiy on tli« humaii 
body aloue, but carried our researches into those of quadnipeds, birds, 
fish^, servients, and intiects. In this conrse it is increilible how many 
new and iiingular objects, well worthy of remark, came under our ob- 
eervation, all which I carefully recorded, Aud although we bad no 
lack of carefid dissectors, yet wo sometimes, when peculiar nicety of 
experiment was required, employed our own hands. Fur lay^lf, Iwing 
«bort,sig!ited. it was particularly my study to obtain detuonstratjoEis of 
the fabric of the eje. I tun safely aflimi that with my own hand I 
have dissected more than iJOO eyes taken from the lieada of animaU of 
-every species. And that 1 might more clearly understand what it was 
Xliat chiefly couduced 1o aculeciess of vision, I compared the eyes of 
^tbose animalii that are thought to enjoy the quickest sight, with tttoM 
whose sight is supiiosed to be weak and dull, as owls. I carelully 
separated the parts of the eje, and compared vitreous humour with 
^'ilTeous humour, membrane with meiMbrane, nerve witli ijcrve.' 

tlis inquiries extended to astronomy, and to cliemistry, which 
lie called * a compendium of nature' (naturae breviarium), though 
he did not, a9 might be expected, entirely shun the quicksands 
^f alchemy. It was in this Academy that the principles ui the 
Cartesian philosophy, physical and metaphysical, first attracted 
Hurt's attention. He possessed a. set of astronomical instruments, 
iibserved eclipses, procured 'the newly invented instruments^' a 
thetmometer and barometer, and himseU projected a hygrometer 
and an anemonieter. By so much actiYJty and public spirit 
shown in so many departments of knowledge, Huet began to be 
considered one of the leaders of learning in France, and be was 
gratified accordingly by finding bis name in Colbert's list of lite- 
rary pensions. This measure, which included the tavarts of foreign 


counlriea as well as those of France, is usually put forward by 
tlie historians a^ one of the spleniHd and judicioos liberalities of 
the Grand Afonarqtte, which bas been too little followed by le&s 
absolute governments. When eiamincd^ however, Louis XlV.'s 
patronage of letters will be found In contain as much base Jnet^l 
as the other glories of the Siecfe. We are obliged to pronounce it 
a piete of preposterous ostentation, intended, not to encourage 
learning^tbe Jree spirit of whicli was as liatefol to Lovis as It IS 
to all despots— but 1o be relumed in adulation, for which his 
appetite was insatiable; and the only effect of ■which was to 
liuiniliate the receivers, arid to include the learned class of 
Europe in that promiscuous crowd of adoring worshippers who 
were prostrate before the narrow miml and selfish heart which 

■ was now disposinij', for its own girntifiratioa, of the wealth and 
resources of the most flourishing; country in Europe. It should 
be added that the totnl sum devoted to this purpose was only 
100,000 livres, and that as soon as the finances became em- 
barrassed these pittances were among- the first objects of re- 
3lut the circle nf Huct's multifarious pursuits is not yet 
exhausted. He adilirled liimself to poetry with the same enthu- 
siasm as to anatomy or chemistry, and to the society of poets as 
congenially as U he had not been the founder and life of an 
* Academic des Sciences/ His taste for natural scenery was 
bearty and sincere. He loved country walks, and to lie in the 
shade of the old oaks with Savarr, wlio read In bim his verses. 
^ lie liked to make visits at country-houses, and has celebrated one 
^b JQ the neighbourhood of Caen, where — 

' the rocky coast was excavated into cavern* by the waves. Burying 
mjEelfiri one uf tliese, I remaiuwl whyle tiay* with tie otlier companion 
than a book ; efiji'jiiig the prospect of a, snii»olh sea and vessels gliding 
by with a favourable breeze, or at other liiues of a raging ocean.' 

B He also declared against the reigning style in gardenings 
condemning, as a depravation in taste, the 'jardin a la mode,' 
wilU Us hot, broad, sanJed walks, and Jets d'eau of muddy 
ditch-water ; daring, and this in the days of Versailles, to prefer 

■ to these 
* larc^ns et mperehenes de 1'arl, ees gazons nutiques, ces pclouses 
cliaiiijit'lres, les ombrages verts de ces hctrfs toufi'us, et de cea grands 
chOiies qui »e trouvirretil a la nativetO des Itiaps, une fontaine sorlant 
IL gros buuiUouii ilu pied d'un rocher, roulant sur un sal>le dur4 l«s plus 
cluires et les plus fraiche* eaux du monde.' — Huettana, 

Scgrais was his townsman, and intimate till they had a 
coolness about the interpretation of a line \u Virgil. VVith 



Peter Daniel Hnet — Life and Opinioas. 

Chapclaiii, the French Blackmore, he maintained ■ regular 
cfirrespontleocp, and Lad read (wc could tuQt venture so incre- 
diblt? }\a assertion on auything less tliim his own authunty) the 
twelve unpublished books o/ Cbapetain's epic. The twelve 
published bouks of this, the lirst, and, except the JJenriadg, 
only, ppic, in the French lan?iia^e, the public and the criuca 
wen* agreed lo Consign to oblivion. Huet is persuaded that 
Imil tbey scl'd the whole twenty-four, their decisiion would have 
boen different. He bad been one of the select lew admitted 
to a reading of the Gnirlande of Julie^ the unpublished poems 
of the Hotel Kainbuuillet. 

' 1 Lad flifleo begged, and been ciften promised, a »i;?lit of this famous 
volubie, A new-year's present fraiii the Due de Motitausier to his 
mistress Julie d'Aitg;eiiue«, At last one day, as we were rising from 
table, tlip Duchess d'Uzi-n consented lo gralifj- my curiosity. She 
locked me into her cabinet aloiic with the Guirlanile, and did mit 
return to release ine till dafk. I can affirm that I never in my U£c 
passed a mote a^reeabiii afterbtiCHiJ—Huetiaua. 

Huct himself poured forth poetry in the earlier period of Lis life 
with a facility of which he was proud, but as bo wrote then cMefly 
in Latin, his verses have not found their way inlo the cuHectiuns. 
Poetry, indeed, was cultivated in Caen with no leas favour than 
the sciences. There had formed routid SegraU ijuite a fchoi^l 
known as the Caen Puets. When the Court, the City, and the 
French Academic were once at issue upon the merits of two 
sonnets, the Duchesse de Lonjjueville proposed that the case 
should be referred to the Caen ^onc^sters, and that their srateuce 
should be decisive, French poetry, however, was the only 
poetry read In Paris, and he who wrote in Latin bad to content 
liimself with a reputation in Holland. A 'young; friend' who 
visited Huet at Caen, ' extorted from ' him various pieces of verse, 
carried them off to the Hague, and, ' without my concurrence,' 
put ihera to press. ' Thus 1 was regarded as a tolerable poet in 
Hollaxid, while in France I was scarcely supposed! to have 
rea-cbed the foot of Parnassus' (Memoirs). Kuet must hare 
been grati6ed by the state of poetical taste in I loltand, for hi« 
Pocmala went through repeated editions. These effusions, though 
M. Barthuhntiss thinks the immortal odes on Aulnai equal to 
those which Tibur inspired, have nut usually been ranked among 
the choicest specimens of modem Latiiiily in vig^our or polish ; 
but ihej breathe a natural taste for rocks and rivers and smiling 
scenery — their general topic, which contrasts favourably with the 
frigid and com'eutiontil gallantries of moat of the vernacular rose 
of that Lige. 

A much better known work of Huet, his ' Essay on the Orig:ia 


Feler JMnivl Ilaet — -Life and Opinions, 



of Romnnce,' bLlows him to us in a new walk of literature. This 
i$, {>erhap$, the most original of all bis piQiliicltnus, une io 
(vliit^b, tbuug'h he baa Iiad laaiiy followers, be Lad do predecessor, 
except Giraltli of Ferrara. It shows a last amount of 'novel- 
rtaUini:' in a m&D wbo hiul read »o much else, aivX was inilccil 
a proof of 3U extraordinary uiemory, if v/e. ;uv lu Lake to the 
letter what lie Says, — lliat it was written during a visit tu Maile de 
Robnii. in a setjuestcrfcl convent of nuns seveu miles dislout 
from I'aris, It originally appeared 'prelLxed, as a prefatej to 
the celcbnitcd ciovC'l ut' Zdid^, This story, by the Contcsse Lu 
Fayette^ marks aa epoch in the history of fiction, as tlie iirst 
transition from the heroic roiuancc to tbe tale of probable adven- 
lurea and Cuuteinporafy manners. The autliorcss, a very accom- 
plisbed wuman, who bad learned Latin from Menage and Kapin, 
pleasiintly observed to Huet that they bad made a marriage 
between tJiejr children. It was not an unpropiliou8 union between 
the most popular novel of the day and this instructive and not 
heavy essay. Translation speedily carried them through Europe, 
oud as Zii-de has been the prolcfie parent q£ Ibe modem nuvel, 
so tbe Yraiti' deVOrigine des Jiomans has been the source to 
whicli flurd, Percys Scott, Dunlop, Schulz, may be traced, 
though tltc more extended research ajid better historical criticism 
of the modem inrc3ti;^ator5 have entirely superseded Uuet's 
attempt, and made it even seem superftcinl by their tide. 

He vfns, tfyu, not merely a critic of rontancesj be had written 
his novel. This was co<mposed at four-and~twenty. And It is 
singular Chat all the incldenls were taken from real occurrences, 
although it was inspired by the readurg' aloud to his sisters, 
before ihey became religious, the 5,600 pages of Honorii d'Urfe's 
Aftri-e, one of the most unreal and aii^- of the pastoral insipidities. 
He had long before, when a boy, exhausted Amadis <le Gaul 
and (be chivalrous romances of the Spanish school ; and his first 
classical attempt ha^ lx?en a translation from the Greek romance 
of Lonsus. ' Diane tie Castro, on le faux Vncas,' however, found 
no sym.pathizing friend to steal away with il and get it iniprinled 
at the Hague. U remained in the secrecy of bis desk for fifty 
years, and was only published after his death as a curiosity when 
public taste had long gained a new direction. 

He b.itl a lurn for ;uiU(}uities, and spent DO little time lo. 
researches into local history. We have seen how the 'Gothic 
remains' Templed him into Denmark; he did not overlook those 
of his own conniiy. When he becauic Bi«hop of Avranches he 
drew up a history of the province — the Avrancbin, and a list of 
all the noble families wbo had territorial possessions in it. These 
atill vxist in maaiucripE. Of bis native place he uudertouk a 



Peter Daniel IIuet^Life and OpinionM. 

more complete survey. Le& Oritjinex de la ViUe de Caen came 
to a secomJ edition in 170(>. The first was a very incomplete, 
hasty, superficial affair. He interleaved it^ and brought it out 
aUqgetlier re-written. Topo*r&phy, Ute everything else, ho* 
underj^one great improvemenls, and few antiquarian histories of 
that date are satisfactory now. But the ' Origines de Caen" are 
marked by peculinr faults characteristic of the author^para- 
dox, Tancifal theory, unsiii>portcd conjecture. He ^citcs docu- 
ments »-fl^uely, without the requisite specification ; they are 
often nut cittrqctty copied ; sometimes tbeir import is misunder- 
stood. He continually uses the loose phrases ' oa dit,' ' on croll,' 
' on pense a. Caen.' He htid formed in his mind a system as to 
the original ground-plan of the city, with which he endeavours tu 
force the existing facts into harmony — often with violence enough. 
Indeed, in this work, as much as in any other, may be seen 
9II the faults of criticism which made Heyne lung afterwards 
describe him as * vir opinionibus plura superstruens parum 
explorata.* How much topo^aphical science has improved since 
that date may be seen by comparing Huet's work with the 
sebolar-like contributions to the same subject — the antiquities 
of Normandy — made by the Ablj^ De la Rue, 

These subjects were after all the recreations of his leisure; 
ire have yet to mention the more serious labours of his lif*;' 
Ever since his return from Sweden be had been engaged on 
Origen, and his repeated visits to Paris at this period had for 
their object the preparation for this great worlt. The collations 
for the text, and the collection of materials for the life of Origen, 
might well have employed the whole time and strength of 
the most retired scholar. But it does not seem to have inter- 
fered with the various occupations and the mixed society in 
which Huet ao freely engaged. The theological Bubject was 
the one to which be attached himself by preference, and the 
editing of Origen was to him a work of devotion as well as 
philology. For the mere critical part of the task he had no 
love, and often spoke with contempt of those * Weedcrs of the 
soil of letters' — the verbal eraendators. Hence he has succeeded 
better in the historical and biographical province than in the 
teiftual, and his Orifjeniana have been repeated in all the sub- 
sequent editions of Origen, and still form the moat valuable con- 
tributioa that has been made I0 the illustration of that great 
ivril<;r. Huet's edition, in 2 vols, folio, appeared in 16GD, It 
Contained only the esegetical works of his author. The rest were 
intended to follow, but Huet some years afterwardi furinally 
renounced the design, partly from the intervention of other 
engagements, partly from finding that the labour of editing was 


Peter Danitl Haet — Life and Opimona. 



one above his strea^b. It is observable tbat tliough Caen veas 
the seat of the University of tlie North, and the administrative 
capital of Lower Normandy, Huet was obliged to print bis 
Oriiijen at Rouen, whither he went lo reside while it was passing 
thruugli the press. Ho designed a dedication- — -r moie ira- 
portaiit matter tbcn tlian now — lo the Bishops pf the Galilean 
Church. He made this offer to them then sittinfj in Assembly 
in Paris, and it WOs grariously ticceptcd. At a bint Jrom 
Co'lbert. however, the Bishops wcrt! thrown over» and the name 
of the King substituted. An unworthy yet necessary compliance ; 
only too characteristic of the servility of the age, and of the 
gnisping cupidity of lAtnis, jealous of every scrap of campli- 
uieot or homage which was to be had. 

In estimating the edition we must pay due regard to the 
state of Greek criticism nt that epoch. If we test Huel's Greek 
text by this standard, we find that it will bear comparison with 
the best specimens of Greek editing then jiroducej. He had 
neither the eipcrienre in ihe task nor the knowledge uf the 
lang;uage possessed by Casaubon, But in the fidelity with which 
he represents the reu-dings of bis ilS. authorities — he had only 
two — he equals nr exceeds that great scholar. In conjectural 
criticism he displays a wonderful sagacity, best proved by the 
fact tiiftt many nf his emendations have been established by the 
13»rberini and Bodleian M^S. On the other hand, bis knowledge 
of Greek is unequal to his aculeness and ingenuity. He delects 
a corruption hy a quick perceplion of logic rather than by ac- 
fjuaintance with idiom. H^ni-e he often offers both words and 
grammar which are not Greek at all, or not the Greek of Ori- 
gen's age. But the most serious blot on his critical character is 
his assuming, as a principle of editing, that, where there is doubt, 
the reading must be decided by dogmatical consideralions, 
Not, be it observed, that be considers that what Origen wrote 
ought to he altered, but that Origen, being a Father (though 
not a Saint) of the Church, must have written that which 
was orthodox. To expect bim to baVe been etnaiicipated from 
this idea, is to expect hiin to have been above his age. To 
understand the full extent of Huet's merits, it is only necessary 
to have an acquaintance, liowovcr slight, with the edition of the 
X)e la Itues. This splendid product of the labour and learning 
of the French Benedictines is sadly marred by the incompetence 
of its editors in Greek. They appear unable to Value rightly 
Huet's suggestLuns, and, as we must suspect, from theological 
antipalbv, to be studiously concealing the large extent to which 
ibey are nevertheless indebted to him. 

This edition of Origen cirsX him one of his oldest friendships — 

.VOL, xcvii. No. ca^Civ, 



Pet«r Daniel Uuet — Life and Opinioax. 

that of BochaTt, Daring: ^he preparation of his task lie liati 
been in the habit of commtmic&tmgF to Bochart his notes nnd 
manuftcripU, and among th<? re&t tlie transcript frhicli he bod 
made of the Stockholm MS. of Origen's • Commentary on Sl 
Mattbe-w.' This work nf Ori5:en contains a passrage not a little 
famous in the Eueharistic controvL-rsies. and which lias fcweti 
uniformly cited by all the Pniteslant writers as decisive of his 
opinion againat Transubstantiation. VVtiat w»s Bocbart's asto- 
nishment when he I'onntl that this passage, or at least the most 
tcUincr part of it, was &.bsent ffom Huet'g transcript! Bocbnrt 
himself knew assuredly ttLat it was to be found in the Stockholm 
volume, for lie had more ihan once produced it to the great 
CJisCoinlilure of two Jesuit Peres who were secretly preparing 
Christina for her change of religion. He mentioned the omis- 
sion among his partisans in Caen, and thoQgh be declares tbat 
he himself was cautious to spare bis friend's character, otlitrs, 
who did not know Hoet so well, conceived^ not unnaturally, 
great Suspicions of bis honesty, Hiict complained that Bochart 
was traducing him, and 'a correspondence' ensueil, Hnet, »t 
first, stoutly maintained the (idcHly nf his copy, and that the 
disputed passage was Wanting' in the original M^- ; l^ot cbal- 
lenged I3ochart to send for it to Caen. Bochart replied, that 
he might as well desire him to a»k for the moijn fts for a MS. 
which was so jealonsly guarded ; that Christina would not allow 
it BTcn to be luken to a private room for the purpose of copy- 
in» it; and that no one knew this better than Huet, ss he had 
hiinself been refused that permission. After 'some shifting ol 
ground on the part of Huet, he at last admitted that the omissfon 
was an oversight in transcription. He took care to insert it in 
its proper place in printing the text of bis edition, and in an 
article of his Oriqemana dismisses its import, which he finda to 
be perfectly compatible with the Catholic doctrine on Traxwub- 
stantiation. These are the facts of the case, and. it must be 
allowed, look very ugly. Neverthelesis his integrity Comes out, 
on inquiry, unimpeachable. The omission was am oTersiglit, 
ascrihable to a common cause of such lacunnp, viz. homoiotelcu ton^ 
Bochart in the handsomest wav expresses his satisfaction on this 
point: but Huet's character for honesty can only be established 
at the expense oi bis vigilance aa a collator. To have overlooked 
stich a passage, which the controversialists, from the time of 
Erasmus downwards, had been fighting over like a dead Patro- 
clus, was inexcusable carelessness. The suspicions creatfld ia 
the minds of the learned in the Protestant communities by the 
blunder were so far from being unnatural, that as Bochart says, 
* all the history of literature can flCAK*? fumish A parallel instance.* 



To these manifolil etigagements of tboug^ht, some of t'icm v«*iT 
igrussin^ and laboriouSj must be added, to complete our jHt-tuTe 
this active and rcrsatile genius, that h was eininenfly sus- 
ceptible of the sealiment of pieiy. Literary tastes, in proportion 
as they are strongs are ncimriuusly cnniblneil with rt'li^irjus In- 
clifferience ; wiitu tli^y are (latnJnaiit ttipy seem to nlmguish the 
sentiment of reli^on altogether, as in Volioirc aod Goethe. On 
the other bJuid, strong devoliitnal tendencies are apt to absorb 
id Centre io themselves nil the other powers, and to duninish 
the energies neressarv for other pursuits, if not Ui decline them 
as profnnp. Huet united an intense passion lor literature with 
gfent iocliiintions t*> a life of religious ccjutemplallon. While a 
y at coUe|2^e he bad been captivatetl by the austerities oj a 
Dominican fi»ivent in Caen,, and had bena only prevented from 
joiniDgr that order, in wbieh one of his sisten was a nun, by 
Ibreihle detention on the part of big friends. He was suffi- 
ciently aware afterwards that they hod aetcfl wisely for him. 
Vet from time to time the religious instinct showed itself on 
ihfi surface. He gratified it tliroug^h one ut the best provi- 
sions of the Rotnan Catholic chnnrh, the practice of spiritual 
retrents, till it led him to enter orders, to assume the manag'ement 
of a diocese, and finallv to resien those duties for the leisure ol" a 
monastic life, though not under one of the austere rules. One of 
those retreats occurred soon after the coinplclioa of the 'On'ffen,' 
aomewhere about 1G70, and at the time that the refnrtQ of La 
ruppe was exciting: much attention in France, though JIuel 
wliere menlionii De Ranee. He nenl for the purpose as Inr 
the Jesuits' College of La Fleche : 

' It wa» some time since I ha<i duly explored the recesses of my 
nscience and uiiftftded them in the Divine presence. Fur this piir- 
I repaired wUh alacrity ti> La FEwhe, whtire my trietLd aud former 
iptor, Mambruii, presided over the iheolci^ical studies. After 
ng some conversation with him on Dur otRiin*., I resolved to »et 
an entire week for the atlenlive recoUeelioii of all the error* of 
past lifV?. and tiie more careful regukiion of tuy fuiur« days purmiaut 
uith* injimctiinis of thii I>ivie]e law. Aiul oil ! that I bad in eariietrl 
adhered to iny en^^eniecitsl but I loo readily sutfered JuyseJf Io lie 
borne awny by the lire of youth, the alluremeiiu of the world, and the 
pleasures of Hiuily, whicli by ih'eir variety irO tilted luy breast and elx^d 
up all its inluts with an inanity uf thought, that it ga^e no uthnif'^iou 
tu tliuee inliRiaie and eliariniiig courereiiccs \(ith the Supreme fitting. 
Under this ftt-bkne-^^ of soul with nepect to Divine ihiu^'H 1 have 

rbouretl during the whole course of my life; and even now llie frer|tient 
'anderipgs of a volatile mind blunt my a.«pirations to God. and Inter- 
ieept all the benefit of my praycre. When from time to time Ood has 
inviteit me to jodly exercises for the purpose of confinning in my f<oul 




Peter Daniel Huet — Life ■and Opinions. 

the sense of piety, and washeitg away the Btaios contmcLeil fruiu uiler- 
cuiir.--e wilh men, iE hath been iny custom to retire to plocea suitable 
to those inluotionsj — either lo tlie Jesuiw' Cifllegie at Cn^ii, ur ih« 
Prseuionslratensiaii Abbey of ArdL'ii, onu league ilistiiut from Cucu, 
Or to our OWD Aulojii after I was placed at the head of it.'— J/enwirjf, 
p. 174. 

During tbis retreat at La Fll'die, the desire to renounce the 
world £ot good revived in him with all us former slrengtii. Tlui 
titne it uaa Mambrun, who interposed hii judgment to prohibit 
a vijw whicb must have cntaiied inevitible misery on a spirit 
so independent and restless, and tastes so various, as Huet's. 
The Jesuit professor, with the skill of bis urder, may liave 
understood a tcmpernment in which be could little sympatliise. 
He is one of the most vigorous of the Jesuit Lfitln poets ; but 
his scTvilitj of imitation w:is such that he wiote ten Kclu^es, 
four GeorfTtca — wljich, however, treat uf the culture of the mind — 
and iin Epic, on CotiBtantine, in twelve books. 

Iluet's life bad bithertu been provincial, though Lis conneiiotu 
and his reputation were extendtn;; tiiroujjch tlie world of letters. 
In tlie year 1G70 he was drawn within tbc sphere of the court. 
Laving been selected to be sub-preceptor tu tbe Paupbin, He owed 
this (Ustinctiun to tbe friendship nnd discemirient of the Due de 
Montau^ier, who bad bepgnie acquainted with Ijim in bis capacity 
of royal lieutenant of Normandy. Montaiisier, by birth, by niiU- 
tury service, and by rank, was one of the most dislinguJibcd 
nobles about the court. IBiit he was still more (lis.tiiigui!ihrd by 
virtues little known and little ■valued in that atmosphere — sin- 
cerity and ind^^pendcnce of mind. His were among tbe few 
Jips from which the King ever beard the truth. Vet such was bis 
grace of manner and dignified bearing, that Louis bore from him 
the plainest language without ulTence. The courtiers, inlolirant 

a manly freedom of tbouglit and speech whicli Ifaey dared not 
tercise tbcmselves, culled him ' a cynic/ 'a bunch of nettles,* 
insinuated that the Misanthrope of ^^oUere had been drawn 
rom hini. Tbe sarcasms of these sycophants signify nothing muie 
than what Madame de Sevigne meant when she said that the Duke 
* reminded ber of the old times of chivalry,' or what Montesquieu 
implied in saying that ' Montausier had in him something of Ibe 
old Greek philosophers." We might rather wonder how such a 
man, tbe fittest and therefore the most uuUkely in the king^doU), 
came to be selected as Governor to the Dauphin. But Louis, at 
least up lo this period of his reign, chose bis servants well. The 
King consulted Montausiur ai to whom ho would wish lo have 
Tinder bim as iiistructors for bis royal pupil. He had made np his 
mind in favour of Huct ; but as Loui« wu extremely jealous of 


PetcT Daniel Httet — Life and Opiiiioiix. 


hi* patronage, it was necessary lo employ artifice to brings hJm to 
the desired seleclii)n. The Govcfnor read over to tbTi K ing a list 
of the persons who offered ihemselves as candidatps for the office, 
nmounting^to nesra hundrctl. Heth^n subjoined to it the nnmcs 
of those who had not offered, but seemed to him worthy ttf the 
p4ist, stating- the (jualificatioDS of each, nlid concluded by saying 
he thouglit he mi;rlit name tnit of the whole number three men 
who seemed most erainenlly fitted forthedutv — Menage, Bossuet, 
and Huct. He foresaw that Menage Would be rejected; Bossuet 
he did not think would be preferred, since he had spent all his 
life in theolog-ienl contrnversies ; and that therefore the choice 
inuat end in Huct. He was mlstalcen, however. The Kin^ 
caught at the name of the celebrated preacher, whom he tlionght 
a very proper man for preceptor, but consented to have Huet 
appiinted his second. Tlie sub-preceptor, in his 'Memoir*,' 
characteristically slurs nvcr his subordination to the Bishop of 
JMeaux, of whicti he need not have been ashamed, in the ambiirunus 
phrase ' succentiirlatus adjunffor,' which Dr. A ikin, by translating 

• coadjutor,' converts into a positive misrepresentation. 

This mark of distinction was flattering, and the change of life, 
at first, agreeable enough to Huet. But on the whole lie dues 
rot appear to have derived much satisfaction from it. In his 
pupil he could have none. The Daitpliin had nil the coldness^ 
inrliffepence, and dull sensuality of the Bourbons. After he had 
outgrown schooling he never touched a biHik, and with all the 
care expended in his education, hts literature was limited to tlie 
Article de Paris in the ' Gazette de France,' conLiining the births, 
deaths, and marriages. For this man the ' Dtsctjursc on Uni- 
versal History* was written by Bossuet, the ' Delphjn Clas- 
sics' arranged by Hurt! If a princely dunce, of whom scarce 
anvthing is recorded than that he was fond of killing weasels in 
n bam, could have been improved by any traininir, it mif;ht have 
heen by that nf Montausier, who was not likely to show less 
spirit in his conduct to his pupil than he did lo his pupil^s father, 
The Prince chose to pretend one day diat his Governor had slrnck 
him. and called for his pistols in a fury, * Brilto; his Hlglincss's 
pistols,' said the Dakc, coolly; then turning to the Dauphin, 

• Now, sir, let ns see what you mean to do with them.' On 
another occasion the Dauphin was practising pistol-firing at a 
mark, and bis balls were very wide of the target. The Marquis 
(]c Crequi had next to firPj and though an escetlent shot, he 
went a foot further from ihp mark than the Daupbin. 'Ah! 
little serpent,' cried MontausicT, 'yoii ought to be strangled.' 
When the Duke gave up his post, and was taking his final 

leave of the Prince, he did it with the words, * Sir, if you are an 


Peter Saiiiel liaet — Life and Ojjintona. 

UoncsL man, ^ou will love me ; if ^ou are not, 70U will bale mc, 
ami I shall console myself,' 

The Dauphin wa* nine years old when Huet was thus plnrn<I 
in his household in 1670, and the next ten years were nc- 
cordingl}- spent by him in fitlcnfJance on the court, Fouil of 
society, and not ioiicnsible to the charms of intercourse with the 
greal^ so lavourahlo el pusitinn was naLurally pleasing to him'; 
but as tiic doYelly wore off, the want of men of lilci-aturc and 
knowledge 10 the frlvoloos circle of Versailles, and the tedioiu 
fonnaliues uf court cliqueltc^ made him pine for opportunity to 
resume his beloVcd Ltccupalioiis. The lessons, do doubl, were 
neither long nur frerjuent, but the uttE^ndance was tonslaut ; the 
regular Iionrs whi<:li the Kin"; exacted from everyone abftut him, 
the dressing, the continual removals of Ibe court Irom Versailles to 
Marly, from Marly to Paris, from Paris to Fonlainehleau^ seemed 
to precludic all possiblUty of continuous study. Nevertheless all 
tbeso difficulties were overcome by the ardour and determination 
of Huel, and it was during these years that he csetutcd the 
longest and (after the ' OrlgcO ') most laborious of his wnrks, * The 
X>eiiionstratio Erangelica^' and that he s u peri ntcm led tlie publi- 
cation of the celebrated series of the Delphin Classics.. The 
wsnt of leisure for uninterrupted thought — the »-ar>t of books of 
relerence which he could not carry about, and had not even room 
to set up in the narrow apartments of the smaller palaces — ujl 
these obstacles he met by extreme diligence and great economy 
of time. He emj>h)yed readers, ivho read to him while dressing, 
while travelling, while going to sleep. Often, after devoting the 
day to the Dauphin, on the approach of evening he rode ulT to 
Paris and spent a large part of the night in his library senrrhing 
out and copying passages, and returning at daybreak tu the Prince. 
Huet, however, was not the stiff pcdaut who could not enjoy the 
world, or the recJuse philosopher whose finer fancies pcrijihcd by 
contact with hi and he seems lo liave mingled, when lie chose, 
with ease and satisfaction in the amusements of the ^lalace. The 
aathor of the ' Demonstriilio Evangellta ' did not disdain to exe- 
cute a specimen of minute calligraphy— twenty verses of the 
'Iliad' written in a single line of a narrow slip of paper, to 
coH'iinre some incredulous person who would not believe the 
account of tiic Homer which was contained in a walxiut-shell, — uur 
to celebrate in elegiacs the virtues of tea. He must have been 
one of the earliest to adopt the use of this beverage in France, a< 
he says he derived the hint from the • \ oyages ' of Alei. Rhodius 
the Jesuit. It ap]>ears tliat the leaves were iKiiled on the fire, 

' The experiment succeeded saniuL-hhevoDd my liopeg. that I scenied 
to have acquired a new stomach, strung and active, aucl nu longer Mibjecl 


Peter Darnel Huet — Life and Opimons. 313 

to indi^tiOQ. On Uuh account leA roBe ta blgb in my esteem, that X 
scarcely i^uiTered a day to pa^a witlkout driiikittg: it. I derivi^il from it 
the furthi^radvatitage that its salutary Ifdvcs, ivith theirbftitgn vapours, 
H svepi the brain, thus meriting tlt^ tltleof brushes of the undervtaiid'utg.* 

Acnitlst these enfifageqaentx was compleleJ (in 1679) tlje * De- 
inoiiMr£ktii> Evaiigelica,' the publkatiou by wliith I'lu«I*s tljeolo- 

Igifiil fliaracler was eatfiWislieil. It shows ^reat ermlilion and 
some originality ; but the title wa* bcrrcwed from a work by 
Eusebias, and the form IVotn Spinoxa. A converaation witii 
a leameiL Jew of Amsterdam hnd su^gpsted to him tite sub- 
ject. He affects (o adopt the mailifmalical melliod «f proof, 
beg'ins with definitions. pogtnjlnti?3, and axioms, and builds an 
tbem ten prtfjtositinos, AH this is uf course illusory, and^ a* 
was said at the time, the author has devuvntraied nothing but 

I his own IcaTQiDg. The more original and cliamcteristic part of 
the book is tbe fanciful tracinrr of pa^nui personages and cere- 
monies to Hebrew sources. He liberally reduces lo myths the 
Sttges of antiquity, most of whom be finds to be only fancy- 
portraits, «x>pied from Moses— tmajinations pursued to such a 
, length iislo be rejected at once even at a period in which the deri- 
H vatinn of the beathea reliirions from the Jewisli was an accepted 
^1 Wlief. This system of Huet, says V'oltaire, 'n'a Irouvt* aucun 
H partisnn. tout absutde qu'il est.' We muat a^ain repeat the 
^V caution that the uierit uf huoks, as nf opinioEis, is relative to the 
V a^ in which they appear. It will be- enough to iiiention the 
Tvpeated editions and translations into most of the lang^a^cs of 
Europe of the ' Ucmanstratio Kvangelica,' lo prove tliat it con- 
tinued to be the standard work on tbc ^ Evidences,' till it was 
superseded by the more methodieal productions d Abbadie 
among the Prcilestnnts, and llie Abbe Hoiitteville amone the 
CatJiolics. Coniplimeulary letters from friends cannot go for 
much; jet tlutc of Lcibnilz to Huet hat aEl the wei^rht that a 
naiiia cmn ^ve. The author was ]ierbaps more flattered by Che 
^Tcat Cond? having read the work through immediately, which 
be liecords with salialaclion, ibougli be does not tiiefllioti tbe letter 
of Leibnitz. 

fietter known at the [wesent day is tbe other undertaktuf; with 
which Huot was occupied durius; the period ol tiis ntti-iiilnDce 
on tbe Daupbin. This is the celebrated series of tbc Delpbin 
Classics, liveryschoolboy is uow familiar with the demeritsuf these 

Ieditums, yet the protect fonna an epoch in tbe bistnry of classical 
Learning in France, The credit of thcdctdgn rests between the Duke 
of Monlausier and Huet. The latter, a man not ^iven to taking 
less than hi* share "f such honours, ascribes it enlirdy to the dukc% 
and MonlaUBier's talent and knowled^ quite warrajit tbe clnim^ 



Peter Daniel Huet — Life and Opinions. 

The CUsstcs were the companions of his campaigns ; he read ihem 
with pleasure and facilitj', but glJU was often at a loss in a tlifti- 
culty. Commentators were too bulky to be carried about in the 
iield, and he had often wished foe coinjicTidioUS edition* which 
should gire just sudi assistance as was wonted hy a soldier, who 
wtis scholarly but not erudite. 

Whether Montausier or Huet were the actual projector of 
the Delphia Classics, it was one of thoae happy ideas, which, 
though due to the siig;ge5tion of some one individual, happens to 
be precisely the thing which the public is wiuitlng. Ancient 
learning; in France had been sulTerin^ a grai^lual decay since the 
time of Francis I. It is beside the purpose to suggest the causes 
of this decline, but the fact is nolurious. The public were grow- 
ing indifferent to the subject; the Universities lan^ished; the 
Jesuit schools were lapsing into ^lolh ; men of learning: were not 
so learned nor so prominent as they had been in a former genera- 
tion. A steady development of a wholly new boily of know- 
ledge was going ijn f|.lnng with this eclipse of classical lore. Tills 
later growth was various, and was not at that time mapped out 
into distinct bninehes ; but it was mainly physical and mathc- 
jnatical, in part also metaphysical. The momentum had been 
given in the former aulijects by Kepler, Galileo, and Bacon — 
tltough the last was liot bioiself a discoverer in physics. In me- 
taphysics the impulse had sprung chieBy from Descartes, thongb 
he had also pursued with distinction some branches of mathema- 
tical Science. Cut id all its parts, one characteristic of the new 
inowledge and of its cultivators was an entire renunciation of the 
dependence on antiquity. They bruke off the whole connexinn 
with the past, and passed rapidly from the idolatry to the di$d»iii 
ol the ^reat mimes of aacient teaming. Bacon and Descartes, 
Spinoza and Malcbranche, aprt'c in this respect. By this with- 
drawal of the best and the inquiring minds from classical learning, 
it lost ita depth and progress. But it still maintained itself as «n 
institution, constituted the formal education, and the knowledi;c of 
Latin (at least) was recognised as universally necessary. The 
learned lang-ua^es ceased to engross attention for ihcir own sakes^ 
just in proportion as they became more identified isith general 
literature and liberal cultivatioo. At &uch a period a demand 
not urtQatumlly arose for popular editions of the more generally 
read aullior* : not new recensions containing the fhlit* of a 
life's sludy, but easy abridgments of the best commentaries adapted 
for c«mmon use. To this new want the Variorum Classics in 
Holland and (he Classics in vsiim Delphini in France were the 
reply. There was this difference between them, that, while the 
Variorums were a bookseller's speculation, the cost of the Del- 


Peter Danid Huet — Life and Opinions. 


defrayed rvul of the royal purae. Populf 

phin CInssirs 

they aiterwardg proved, so smaJE was their sale at first, that 

no snqiicr was the trensury subsrriptlon wttbtlrawn than the 

printing' of (hem stopped. On the Dauphin's marrragt! in 1G79 

the Aus«njiis was withdrawn from the press at the 160lh page, 

I and it was not till 1730 that a Parts bookseller was found bold 

H enoilg'h to tako up and complete this, the last of thp series. It is 

H Dot often that state patronage has meddled so successfully with 

H the press. Nearly sixty volumes were prtHluced in about ten 

or twelve years, The assigTinient of the contributors, tbe 

choice of the authors, and the general superintendence fell to 

Huet, One dnv in every fortnight he went to Paris, where the 

different editors attended at stated bours^ each with the portions 

of his work which he had finished ; but it is not to be supposed 

I that he examined every note so as to make himself responsible 
for it. The coUahoTateurf were all French, most of them young; 
professors connerted with the University of Paris, and none of 
them names dislinguisbed in the annals of philology. Per- 
lijips the best known are Madame Dacier, (Charles) De la Hue, 
and the paradoxical Hardouin. Huet sought the co-nperation of 
Leibnilz, &t this time residing; Jn Paris, and had proposed to him 
to edit \ ilruvius. Leibnilz consented to be employed, hut ex- 
cused liimscif from Vitruvius as requiring: a knowledge of archi- 
■ terlurp, and those Mnrtianus Capelln, He made some progress, 
■nd submilteil a specimen of his illustrations on this favourite 
classic of ttie middle ages, to Huet. But on his quitting Paris 
sooo after be seems to have dropped (he task, and it is not known 
what beciiine of his notes. The latest editors 4if Capelln, Kopp 
and Hermann, do not appear to have known anything of his 
abortive attempt. 

I The series was confined lo Latin authors : the scholarsliip of 
all the Universities of Frnnt;e at that trine would have been 
unequal to a eollection of Greek rIassicB. It is true that all the 
lists of the Delphin editions in the hiblionraphies include the 
Callfmnchus of Madame Dacier. But that is an error, for her 
Cnllimnchus is not, and does not profess to be, numbered among 
the Delphin*. !l has none of the marks ; it is not dedicated to 
tb* Dauphin,, but to Huet ; it has not the words ' in usum 
serenisslnii Delphini," nor the well-known engraved title ' Arion 
and the dolphin.' The new features which Huet designed in 
the sehcme were the 'ordo verborum,' which was placed under- 
neath the text, and a complete verbal inde:: to accompany earh 
author. And finally be intended that all the separate inde3:es 
should be fuse^l into one index, and thus constitutca enm- 
plete vocabulary of the language, though this part of the work 

316 Peiei- Daniel Hust — Life and Opiaioru. 

was never executed. The otiier portiuns of the plan were not 
Jtricllj,- novel. Tbere existed already complete verbal indexes j 
to Lucretius hy Piireus, to Juvenal by Lange, to Virgil Ijj Ery- 
thrirus, bt&ides others. Apain, the parapLrase, or orrfrt, had been 
apptifd to Hora*:e anil Juvenal by Cerulo ; to the ^neid of Virgil 
by Pantanus, and to ibc Eclugurs and Cieorpies by Frischlinius. 
Tlie novelty lay in ils being unifurmlv earned throuffb the wbole 
of ihe Latip pyets. The merit of the cJilTerent editioiM ■» very 
unequal. One of thein only, the Paner/r/rfd Vetercs by De la 
Baune, has pretension* to bo a scholar's book. The sole con- 
IrabutJon, we believe, to originjd critirism which the series can 
show was furnished by Huct liiuiself. This waa in the sliape 
of 3uin<! nutes un Manilius, ft very diflirult author, and who had 
fallen inlo the hands of an editur wtio was not et^ual to the task, 
thougli of same reputation in the tltiiversity. Huet's Appendix 
in part rede^-'inef] the charBcter of the work. For some of Ills 
conjectural emendations, he has merited to be coupled with 
Scali3:pr in the phrase * viros egregios,' bv the next editor of 
MaiiiliuK, Hichard Ilentlev— a critic not merciful to rash cor- 
rectors. The mediocrity of portions of the editing Huet candidljr 
admits, apologizing for it by the youth of some of the persons 
employed, and their impatience of dr^' labour, — an impatience, we 
may add, tthich is at tlie bottom of tlie inferiority of the Freach 
nation in classiral criticism. That tlie Delpldns h'C^ld their 
ground so lon°: in the schools and colle«ea of FrontM* and Vm^- 
land is perhaps rather a mark of the low state of srhnlarsbip 
than a( their own merit. Still, with all their defects, a contri- 
bution on fiuch a scale towards tlie pupularisation of classical 
literature is worthy to rank among lite ma^ifieenee of the 
Sih^/e, Certainly it mwy do SO in point of costliness, ii Huet Iw 
CDirect in saying; that the whole undertaking cost upwiirds of 
200,00(1 livTGB — a sum at the then rale "( Gtchnfljjr equal lo 
about 15,000/. slerlins;: rather n lar^e hill for scJiool-books for 
the Uauphin. CoUwrt, however, who had encouraged the enter- 
priKe^ williugly opened the treasury for the purpose. 

lu 1G81, on the Dauphin's marriage^ Huet was released frotn 
the irksome restraint of Court attendajice, and wfis once more hia 
own master. He ijninediately relumed lo Eiis old occupatnaas, 
and si'ems to tutvc proposed In hiuiseU with great satisfactioo a 
life of literary ease in the society of men of letierj. The meaai 
Were provided him in an Abbey, given him by the King— which, 
lo make tlie retiremenl more agreeable, was in his own pr&- 
vince, Aulnai, twelve miles south of Caen — he having qualified 
himsflf duriixg his preceptorsli ip to hold a benetice by be- 
coming a prctre. Unch a step, in such a situation, must suggest 


Peter Daniel Huei — Life and Ojnmon*. 


SUBpiriotis ut' his eincrritj ; but tliey would l>c uiijust. He had 
alwavs desiefncd bimaclf for the ecclesiaslicBl profession, hoA as 
eailv a* Iij5f3 received the etclcsLaslical tonsure frum Harlaj, 
then Archbishop of Rouen, and had mainly direrted liis studies 
lowiinls religiims subjcrts from this fi->tiaideratif>h. But it was 
tLiL- fashion then, bfjth nitb tlie literaiy and the gay class of 
clergv, to defer the final step, as they did baptism in the early 
eentiines. tSaat they mig^hl enjoy li-fe a little first. They l-eceived 
ihc tunsiire, and evep (he l^sst^r orders, without changing ibeir 
dress or their mode of living'. It was during llie prepara- 
tion ul" 1 be ' Demonstration that serious thoughts forced them- 
selves on Huet, and deiercnined him to bring this period of 
probation to a close. He biid, as with a prcsentimrnt of the 
length of days m store for hiin, indulged himself with a long 
youth. Though forty-six before he took priest's orders, lie bad 
atili nearly fifty years of life before him. The change of dress 
was an important mntter In the mUst of a Court. A sudden 
assumption of ihe black soutane would have assuredly exposed 
him to the r«\llerY of the Court ladies, and the sneers of ihe 
fopliiigs. Bossuet adviaed his withdrawing for some days, while 
his friends shoulil announce hi^ purpose of taking orders, and 
then appearing at once in the ecclcsiasticB! habit. Huet pre- 
ferred, however, to make the ciiang^e praduaily. He shortened 
his hair a little every day, and left off bit by bit the gay apparel 
he had hitherto worn, and thus «lid by degrees from the mili- 
taire into the abbe, without attraeting attention by a sudden 
metsimorphosis. This serious business smoothly got over, he 
received priest's orders, and then set lo work to learn the rite« 
beluus-iiig to his function. In a montli he was preporod for the 
ordinal, terrible to the young priest, of the 'premjore Messe ; ' and, 
like De liance, shunning publicity on the occasion, he performed 
the Holy Office in the crypt of the cliurch of St. Genevieve. 

In 1&H\ he bade a glad farewell to Versailles, and took op Hs 
laNtleDce at Aulnai, The situation of bis abbty aud ita scenery 
wctc eiactlj" suited to his tasle in those matters. D'Olivet 
desiribc'S it as ' une solitude agTi.«bl('.nncnt stlu^^'e dans le Boccagc 
qui est le canton Ic plus riant dc la Basse Normandie.' i^Etogede 
Iluet.) Huet himself says: — 

' Such ii iii& variety of hills, valleys, groves, meadows, tidds, fdud> 
tains, rividets, gardens, trees, either in clumps or in long rons, tliat I 
re«hille<:teil nothing more pleasant and refn^hhig. Add to tiii^i the 
salubrity uf the air and the :^weet ItunquiDlty of tFje ^pot ; bo that if 
Providence had gratited me the [tower uf chousing a retreat to my own 
&ncy, I shoidd liBve wishei] for ootliibg rjjfleretit from this. TJiougb 
driveb frciiu it by the opf^rutich of wiuler, jet when I had «uw tested 



Peter Daniel Huet — Life and Opiniotis. 

Us delisrlits, I returned rhither with the greatest satisfaction every year at 
the earliest flight of the awaJlow and the Eirst song: of ^^ nightingale. 
There I pass^ whole sumniers iii channing^ retiremehl, occupied day 
and night in meriitaling abalruse poiuts, for the study of which 1 Lad 

.never found so suitable a reskleiite.' — jUrmoirr. 

The reader wiU perhnps prefer to cliispensc with the Latin 
lyrics {lonici a majorc, we believe they are called), which wind 
up the praises of this Tempe. 

Ten pleasant suminers were pnsscd in this charming retire- 
inent. For the winter* he retreated to Caen, or more genprallj 
to Paris, Poetry and philosophy, pious meditation and raotlpra 
literature, with society elegfnnt or lenrncd, filled up the smouth- 
gliiling diaya. * It 3s but a five Jays' journey from Paris to Caen,' 
he writes lo Bernard, 'there is a diligonce once a week^ the road 
excellent, nnd my chariot shall mept you in Caen, if you will 
pay me a visit here.' Bernard, Savilian Professor of Astronomy, 
■vvas residing in Paris as tutor to the Dukes of Grafton and 
Xorlhumbcrland. Upon no period of his life did Huet loolt 
bock with so much satisfaction. Aulnai was his Tusculum, and 
he Attached its name to liis favourite work the 'Questiones 
Ainetanfc.* Is not this indeed the picture of the lettered Abbe 
in the Gulden Age? Not the good-humnurpd and luxurious 
sluggard, in(riijant :ind hon-vivaiit, and v» peu athccj of the pre- 
revolution limes. Tliis was noi yet the age of — 

' . . . . happy eonventSj bosom 'd deep in vines* 
Where Bhimber AhhotSj purple as their wines.' 

Our Abbe is a real, nny a hard student, and recognizes Iiis sacred 
calling as an obligation to direct his reading to sat^rod subjects, 
though without declining a wholesome mixture of others. We 
need not doubt which side he took in the dispute just now 
agitatiog the convents on tW subject of 'profane learning,' 
between Mahillon and De ftancc. Huet, devout as he was, 
could not hut lament the pxtravafiratil folly of the noble fanatir 
in interdicting the r<'ligioUS from all studies. He writes to 
Mabilloa on the publicnlion of the excellent little 'Traite ties 
Etudes Monastiquea.' 

' Auljiai. iSth A»gust, 1691. — I am delighted ihat you liave imder- 
takeo to di^bu^e them [the religious] of what has been so luduBLriwisly 
inculcate of late years, uaraely, that ignorance is a neceesarj- fjuulity 
of a ^ood religious. I am at this moment in n place where I have 
found this doctrine upheld — a doctrine so favniirnble to idlene^ in the 
cloister, ivhich is the parent of all kinds of la\ily. In vaui I L'ite your 
example, and that of your illustrioiLi brBlliren. 13ut yuur hook may 
do souie ^ooi], if only I can prevail on them to read it. But that may 



peter IMmel Hud — Life and Opinioiu, 


be difficult, as vlien one is iii love with one's lault*, one «!keuu 


N(.iw it was tJiat Huet rerir«l his Hebrew learning, added lo 
it Svriac and Arabic, above all addicted himself to philosophr, 
^oinrr back to the sources, cxamiDinc; the «aiiie9t Greek phfloN. 
sophcrs, and for this purpose making Diogenes Laertius hit coo-'' 
stant CTimpamon. Vet there was a weakness about ibis life, and 
it is fatallj- apparent in t!ie products of it. His zeal of studr, bi« 
interest in the subjects, was not relaxed; his pea (as the phiaae 
is) was more fluent tban ever. Vet none of the works — aiwl tbcr 
ar& manv — wbicb be produced after iCiSl can add to his repu- 
tation. He is copious and multifarious, wilhoat being taborioBs.. 
We see no more of llie massive erudition of the ^ Origeniaii«,* ' 
nothing of the comprehensive method of the ' Demoostiatio.' 
Is tbis simply to be ascribed to a^e, and having: vasled bis 
ten Ijcst years On the Dauphin and the Delphin Cl*»sic«? OrJ 
was it that he had got upon an alien subject, for which hi 
powers were really untitled? Or, lastly, was it the disciKtraguin 
circumstances of the times, the g;encral neglect of learning, 
absorption of all interest into friraloQS and Canatiial iheolt 
quarrels? That all these causes contributed is probable. BaC^ 
we are more Inclined to refer the ^lin^ off in ri^ouT, and I 
^jTasp, and trwA, to the very ease and comfort of bis oatvard , 
existence. College endowments are oftm a tcmptatioa to stop ; 
short in the path of solid teaming; Calhedrali cbapten bave^ 
been sin^larly uaprolificof works of earnest labour ot severe 
thought. To the sleek and digrnificd Abbe, literature bad 
become an amusement, no longer (be serious b««inen and orcii^ 
pation of life. Turned fifty, and baring achieved what HoeC 
liad done — Orl^^a, tlic ' Dcmonstratio,' and ibe Delphin Claanet'j 
— he could not be blamed for ibis. Had be retired ffum tlwj 
fietd altogether, he }iad retirefl with honour. But he 
oued, on the tgntrary, to write and publish, aod only ceaucd lo 
give the mind and toil which had made bis fitst productiaiis 
valuable. Scholars, pldlosnpfaerSf or poeti, have an undonbced' 
right to enjoy themselves in their Own way ; and the tpccttde gf J 
an imlep(?ndcnt leisure amused and adorned by liteiatnre is < 
■wehive to contemplate. But if they write, it must not be alleged] 
in defence of shortcomings tliat they only write for ndiilacifiqil. , 
To write is to deliver opinions, and to instruct oUiers, who ia 
a greater or less degree depend on what tlicy read for jrukhince. 
An opinion then, crudely formed, hastily cxpreMed, inadequalely 
expounded, weakly defeuded, yet backed by a tmne perjupa 
deservedly eminent, is an offence to be visited with all tbe 
ri^nrs of crilicisin. 



Peter Daniel Huet — Life and Opinions. 

Before we jiroceed to give some account of Huct'a pbilo* 
Eopbical writing}!, we must notice what was reaUy only a 
short interlude in his musing; life — his (episcopate. In 1685 
be was nominated by tbe Kin^ to the see oi Soissons. but 
never was more thaii bislio|)-ilesi£rnate i»f tlial plnre. \o ia-j 
strumeuts of any Kjncl could Ix' cibtaineil frciini Rome clurtQ^i 
ttie embroilment >of the Court vi VvAave witb tiic Papal See. I(t1 
tbe meun lime he tiud exeliangetl Soissons lor Aviauelies with 
ajiother bisbop-clestgnate — Brulort, whose naliye place of Siilerf 
was in the nciglibourbood of Soi»som, as AvraiicUcs was of 
Caen. On ibc arrangement of malte^rs between Louis niic] 
Innocent he was cunsecrated bisliop. in IiGli:^. He filled the »e« 
only seven years, ivlien be voluntarily resi-jneil it, uud in IG991 
returned to the life of study wliieh be had learned U> valoe 
more by the tcmjiomry estraiigement, Tlie well-known uoecdcite 
to which we have ali-eady allniled intimates to us that even 
durinis the years of the episcopate the buoks were not l;iid aside. 
But we must not hastily infer from the ilory, that tbe epi&cupal 
dnties were negleeted for the books. Far from ihis, he 
liimself with an activity not universal among prelates tu lookj 
into the affairs of bis diocesp, which the long iDterregnum bad] 
thrown somewhat into disorder. He held annual visitations, 
made tbe aequaiutauce oi all bis elersry, and promulgated an 
entirely new set of synodal statutes fur the regulation of tbe 
diocese, founded on the primitive codes. These arc extant, and 
are said by the Abbe Des Roches to be a complete treatise of 
theology. He was not fond of long sermons, and one of bis orders 
U^ that tbe sermon or explanation of the Gospel should never 
exceed half an hour. The Norman liti piousness extended itscU 
to his clergy, who were in the habit of goin^ to law with eachi 
other on tlie most frivolous matters. To check this spirit, and 
to complete the work of the bringing in the Hugueuots to the 
church, which bis predecessor Froulai had nenily achieved, 
appear to have been the only memorable acts of his episropate, 

Artanches is proud of her Bishop^ whose name now dts- 
linguishes ;i Place which occupies the site of the cathedral. Of 
that rliurcb. at the door of wbiili Heniy II. received nbsolutiiia 
for the murder nf Becket, a single stone, called 'la Pierre 
d'Hervri H.,' is all that remains. But it was not, ns tin* usuaUv 
accurate * Murray' tells ua, the victim of a revolutionary mob;] 
It had become dilapidated from neglect ; the roof fell, an^i some ' 
children were hurt by it; nnd the walls, being prouuuuccd 
dangerous, were pulled down by order of the Maire in ITDS). 

Tlic inlirmities of the bishop increased nilb his year* i be did 
nut like tbe place for a residence, the water disagreed with 


Petfr Daniel Huet — Life and Opiniont, 


him; and he would not, in spite of the nnmerous preccdenls for 
such a course, continue- tn boltl the office witbout diacbarging the 
datiw. Tbe see was nyt ritb, and he p:lndl_v accepted as a 
retirement the abbo^' of Fontenai, two mil>-s from Caen. He 
livtMl tweatv-two years alW Ui$ resigoatioii, partly at FoO' 
teniu, rliiefly at Paris, but widi frcqui'nt visits in the season to 
the waters of Hnurban. He nPisrlectcd not the acts atul thoughts 
of piety, but the studies uliicb batl been the pursuit of hh 
youth were the solace Lff his ape. Nu works of aav motnent 
were to be expected from him, yet he continued to evince his 
lively interest in letters by Qccasional pieces. It wsu oow tliat 
he compiled the ' On^ines de Oken.' of which wc have before 
spoken. He would turn off &bf>rt pieces in Frfrach whUt riding in 
his carrinec through the streets, and iie continually added to his 
l,atin composiliona. He bad already fixed on the future owners of 
his cberishetl books, of which in so lonj; a life he had amassed 
not a. few. He had seen with ^ief l)c Tliou's Tnagnificent col- 
lection dispersed under the hammer, and he could not hear the 
thought that his OWn should undergo the snine fate. To tiie 
man who is destitute of living ties of alTection, books become 
an object of attachment. Nor is it wonderful when we consider 
the coiuinunion his mind has lield with them ; they have bee^ 
more to him than friends. Cujas, the civil lawyer, directed in 
his will that his library should be sold separately, jealous that 
any one man should possess what he had possessed. Huel's 
desire was lo keep his together. He made aii agreement with 
the Jesuit house in Paris, by which he made ovlt to them his 
coMecliun by a deed of gift, stipulatiiLi? that he should enjoy the 
ujeof it during the remainder of his life, and apartments in their 
Maisott Frofetae in the Rue St. Antoine, None of the books 
were on any account to be taken out ot the library, and in every 
one of the volumes was to he entered the caution 'ne extra, bane 
bibliothccam efTenitur.' Menage followed his example, and the 
popularity of the .lesuies soon swelled their store till it betrame 
one of the most coii&iiierable in Paris- Little could Huet foresee 
the short duration of the perpetuity he thought he had thus 
leeured, and that within half a century after his deAth public pro- 
acrip'LOO would strike this powerful society, and confiscation 
disperse their Bne library. iMany of Hurt's books, alter various 
migrations, are at present deposited in the somewhat perilous lo. 
cality of the Hotel de \ ille, They hod had one narrow escape 
before tbey i^kched the Hue St. Anloine, The mom of which 
Huel was locataire ha<l long been ruinous, and one day (ell in 
altogether while he was ab^^euL,. and the volumes lay exposed 



Peter Daniel JIuei — Life and Opinions. 

for lUe passers-by to help tliernselvea, till the Jesuit Pl-res h^ard 
of theaccHlent aocl came to thoir r&scm;. 

In the MaisQii Prqfesse he cnjaycd apartments with a north 
aspect, which he preferred, nnd the society of his friends. Bonr- 
daloue, an inmate of tbe same roof, visited him almost every 
e^'ening', and told him the events of the day. Tivirc a week hii 
friends met by agreement at a fixed Lour at his tonm, and this 
private reception became almost a petite academic of vetenin 
HteralL In the summer he sometimes removed to Fontenni, and 
soni^times to the Laths of BoiirLon. From the waters he fcmnd 
great benefit in his declining years. The physicians uf Xhe place 
insisted cm very strict rules of diet, and, above all, prohibited 
study. Htiel, who had nearly douLled tlie years that oupht to. 
make a man his own physicinn, would neither alter bis diet nor 
Srivo up his books. Kead Ue would himself, and he seems to 
have set the f?ishion pt BomLon, for be tells a pleasant story of 
how he caiig'ht ' an elegant and modest young lady,' M&rie ile 
Roehcchouart, reading u pocket Plato in a comer. 

But in spite of the Bourbon waters a man cannot pass 
three srore and ten with perfect immunity^ ICvery year brought 
n new ailment or took away a friend. First he lost Bour- 
(isloue ; in the same year his eldest sister, a nomou of great 
sense and pietj-. Then another sijtei', who was retired into « 
convent of the Visitation, and to whom he bad been much 
.ittaebed. Both of them bad passed their eightieth year. 'J'hese 
were so many warnings, but Ids time was still distant. After 
he was turned seventy be had Lis first attack of the f^ut, 
completely got the belter of it, and was never troubled with it 
again. Ill 1712, when upwards of eighty, he had so severe an 
illness, that he was given over by the physicians, and received 
the last lites. He recovered, but aaya that neither his senses 
ngr Lis memory were ever again what they had been before the 
attack. Up to thi& illness he had not been used lo employ a 
reader or an amanuensis. Vet it was afler this that he drew 
ap, at the request of friends, those Memoirs of his life «u which 
our narrative has been chiefly founded, and also threw together 
tlie miscellaneous observations which were published after 
his death as the Jluetiana. A few days before lie died be 
recovered his memory and all his mental powers in their full 
vigour. 'He employed the precious moment^,' savs the Abbe 
Olivet, *in acts of religion, and died peaceful and full of tnisl 
in God.' The event look place in the Jesuit House in I'oris, 
January 26. 1721, in the ninety-first year of his age. 

His portrait bos been engraved on copper by Kdcllnck. That 


Peter Daniel Huet — Life and Ojnniont. 


prefixed to the Leip&ic reprint of the * Demottstrntio' vr»% a 
spuiiuus alfair, making bim look, as be himseif tliou£;bt, like a 
groom or porter, with a round, heavy, vacant countenance, Hii 
complexion wag of nnusual p.ileness. Though nalursJIjf of a 
robust constitution, studious habits had enfeebleiJ the powers of 
his atomacbi, and he was, as Lord Bacon says of lilmself, ' all bis 
life pudtlerjnij with physic,' He held it a vulgar error that a 
learned life was unfavourable to health, and useil to cite the 
many instances oi the longevity of men of letters. Hi» diet wax 
temperate, not to say sparing. After forty he ceased lo cat 
supper, and itt dinner only partook of plain dishes^ avoiding 
ragiDiits, and mixing' with his water scarcely an eifjlilh part of 
wine. In the evening lie drank a ilish of tea. or of a mt^dicinal 

I broth known ns Delorme's * bouillon rouge.' A slrans^ affeLtion 
of the le^ which almost took from hiin the use of them was 
•scrihccl by his physi(.'ian to the hot-water bottle, which ho had 
employed all his life as n remedy for cold feet. Later he 
was subject lo frequent slight attacks of bilious fever, for which 
i, he founfl the waters of Dourbon clHcacious, It gratified him to 
Kxemembpr that this had been the malady of the great Lipsius. 
^aln society ho was agre«ible, and fond of conversation, in vvhich 
nothing like pedantry or display of learning appeared. In 
private life he was amiable, though a littlo too sensitive of 
■light or neglect. It is hinted by his friend and admirer the 
^Abbt^ Olivet, that he %vns not altogether free frnm Norman 
^f pugnacity, and fondness for the rliicane and technicalities of law. 
His piety was consistent and ardent, but he did not fall in with 
the devoteeism which prevailed in the later years of Louis XIV. 
For forty years he ncveromitted s)>ending two or three hours every 
davon the study of the i^criptures, regarding the sacred books, he 
says, ' not only as the source of religion, but as of all b^ulvs the 
most fitted to form and ejerdse the man of learning.' As :i priest 
he WHS bound to, and observed^ tlie daily recital of his bre^ iary. 
One of his chaplains (after he was bishop) took notice that in 
the performance of this doty he ran over the office with his eye 
onlv, without pronouncing the words, and remarked it In him. 
• 1 did not know,' said the bishop, 'tljat this was the vrcpiire- 
ment of tite churcb ; hut, as it is so, I shall immediately rthnffrm 
to it.' Religious feeling, indeed, was lierCTJitrtrv in Huel. His 
^^latber had licen brought up a Protcstiint, and had been cunvprtcd 
^Bo Catholici&m, not in the later days of the wholesale cunvcrsioiia 


IV order of Government, but after a long and anxious study of 
the subject, ' La conversion se fit.' says Huet, ' en ronnajssnnce 
de caiise^' His son found among bis papers a thick volume of 
notes and inemorandn on the controverted points, including a 




Peter Duntel llact—Life and Opinions. 

(.talemeuC of the i-easoiis which hail ilctermined bis ilecision. 
His sccnmJ sistiT, liaviiif; Wen loft a wUlow, retired at filtT iatw 
a convent of the Visitation at Caen. His third si&tcr took the 
TOWS al nn early age in the teUbratcd abbey of Dominican 
nuns nt Pont-lEveque. Here she killed herself by excrssivp 
austt-ritics, dying tjf a complaint brought on by total abstincm-i? 
from alt Htjuids. 

Huei's rank as a writer will have been g-atliered from the pre- 
ceding pagps, It will be seen that he belongs to the class wliicb 
Gt-nnnu wiiters on the History of Literature have denominaied 
' PolymalU.' There were few accessible subjects into which 
he Imi! not gone, and he had distributed his attention pretty 
n|ually nmtm^ a lar^e number of them. VVc rannot say tliiit he 
shows any declared aptitude for one of them above the rest. 
This Mas thv natural constitution of his Jnind. He says justly 
of himstlf, 'III wbati'ver branch of knuwledgie it baa been my 
DoTtune to be at any time deeply engag'cd, the riches and beautiei 
1 have disLerued in it have made me envy the men who had 
given themselves up to the cultivation of it.' He has here described 
the fi-^i'lings of the yiiuthful student when he first ^zes from the 
lififjlits on the fair field* of knovvledg^e; they were Huet's feelings 
til roil u;'ii out his life. Tci a student gifted with this untt'ersalily 
of taste there ate two roads open, if he wishes to make his 
fncully available, and abhors, as all men with a true g^-nius for 
knowledge most, to be superficial. He may pursue the separate 
stienres lie eng-iges iu so far as to found on his cursory know- 
ledge of eat-li a prulonnd study of the powers of the humau 
mind, the progress o[ knowledg;e |mst and tp come, the history 
and dcstintps of the human race ; or be may sriert some one 
science to be followed to its limits, using his proficiency in other 
branthes as aids in that thosen subject. f^o one knew this 
belter than, lluct, or has staled it belter, but he did not a«i on 
it. He took neither of these courses, and Ua^in^ I'uUowed many 
topics f'uirtber than most men he is not a mastiT on any one. 
On none of the themes that he handled has he left the uomis- 
takcahle mark of genius; though for some he bos shown unusual 
aptitude. MeLaphysics, tiioylo;ry, philology, clnsslcal editing 
both Greek and Latin, archa?ology, special iopoffraphy. plivsits, 
poetry, fiction, and g:enei-al literiiture, all these have been Inocbed 
by his pen ; io none of them has he erected the ' monumentiun 
ana percnnius.' His remai-ks on general subjects are always 
wnrth reading:; hut they show the man of extensive learnin;^;, 
rather than the master-mind. He wn>te tn >K)th French and 
Latin, but be eviilently preferred the latter. His vemnrulnr 
Style never shook off (he ulTecls of so many years of the riV r/< 

tU provincial Yul;;rarity at ihe expense of idiom, ami i» 
'«rt witliinit being cle^ni. He was very sensitive ti> tlie gibes 
tnniic upon his FrencLi by the wit* — ibe rfgentean^ aVVnv'^'rxiU^ 
as he tails llicin. 'Do tliey ]>relcnil that I have been fortiF 
years at the very source of puntv, and thirty racmher of t)ie 
Acatlemy for nothing';'' {Letter of Dcvember 12, 1702, t,> T, 
MaT-tin.) His Latin i« Jesuit-Latin — faultless^ fluent, and 
perfectly *lear. Yet with these merits, or what nngVit to be 
merits, it is not pleasant rending from its want'uf character and 
its insipidity. It ia like filtcreJ water, from which all savour 
has been strained aWRj with the impurities. He hijnseif haft 
remarked the oratorical eharacter of the Jesuit-Lalin style, and 
has ascriljed it to their babit of rfffenlinff, or hnldinjf rivA viiee 
^ft disputations, iq their cijl1(^K?8, Tb« cause, however, lies deeper 
^ than this -. and the nature of Jesuit education is faithfully 
reflerted in the smooth monotony nf (heir Latin. 

In his outward fortunes Huet offers a rare exception to the 
ordinary career of the great sciiolars. In lus case his private 
means seemed liiin a^fnsE that painful stnior^le u-illi penury 
which makes so mutli yf the history of many men uf learning, 
in an age and a country where church endowments absorbed a 
ar^e part of thenntional wealth. His subsequent promotion wa« 
owins; to the accident of having Ijcen selected for the post of Pre- 
ceptor to the Dauphin, But his own ardour of study was pure; 
and independent of such aims. Fond of society, flattered hyilie 
noticr 4)f the great, vain of social distinction, — all these inclina- 
tions Were overcome by the yet more absorbing passion for 
luinwledge. For this he resi^^ned court life and a liiftliopric, 
and, if fie mav be believed, found his reward in doing' so. 

' Those men make a great raisiake who turn to stmly with a view to 
arrive hy it at honour? and riches. The retirement, tlie itiaetion, the 
uiifttneMi [lit business and the comraoTi oceu[>atio!i8 of hfe* tlie liahil of 
interior nieflitation and abstraction, are not qualities vrhieh equip us for 
tlkt; roBil of tbrtMiie. But there were men of uld, Deitioerilua, Epime7 
niile:;. and others^ who held themselves reeomiwiwed for the saerifiee of 
the fiiviiur* of the worJd hy the phanureR of the mtnd^plcflsurisi njore 
vivid, t^xciriiijf.nml elevmijig ihan any odiepn. He nit whose cradle the 
Sfiit-e has .sinded will liulil elieap tlte applause of tl'ie utullitudii, the 
se<luctioJis of WtiaUl) ami liuiii>urs, and will i^ifek the rewiirds of Ijih 
labour in ilsdf. lie will not be rept-Ued by its tiLKiihetiesH. or its 
luifruiirulnit^ — ralher Ins i«L<«inTi for acquisition will grow with the 
I of ]t\s ariiui^iltious. The^ are iiol uiimeajiitig uortb of praise; 
k of wliat 1 have esperieuee*! — an aNperieiu'e wiiicli k'nfrth of days 
luu only f'lpitrnni'd. If anything could make me rlt-sire my life pro- 
lorigvd, it would be tu lave time to leani that of which I am still 

z 2 \^'erta»X. 


Peler Darnel Huet — Life and Opuiiont. 

ignorant. As for Joseph Scaliger, who said " that if he had had ten 
sons he would not have brought up one to his own career, but wouM 
have sent them to seek preferment in the courts of priuce*," lie lk;]<i 
language unworthy of his eminent leariii ng— language, too, contradicted 
by his own Ur*f-long pursuit of knowledge' 

We &re not now holding up such lives as Haet's and Scaliger's 
as models of general! imitation; but it ma^, at least, correct our 
judgments to recollect, what we are too much fji^'^Q to overlook 
in ouf comparative estimate of Hicmture as a profession, naraelv, 
the sntisfactions which may be dmwn from the pursuit of it for it» 
own sake. Compared with the other professions, as a profession, 
it may sometimes deserve the accusations which diioppointcd 
writeL's have heaped on it. If you want a livelihood and a worthy 
career, fttill more if your ambition ascends to fame, honours, 
wealth, »ecl< it not by authorship; seek it in trade, on the stQck- 
cxchanpc, at the bar. The chosen few only in whom the appe- 
tite for knowledge with which all are bom has not been quenched 
by the more vehement passions, love, ambition, or avarice, maj- 
see in a life like that of Huet that it is as possible to find hap- 
piness in the pursuit of knowledge as in the pursuit of anv other 
object. This la the proper moral of a literary bio^raphj-. The 
tnural commonly drawn is either that pre-eminence in letters 
leads to the uSual rewards, as suft'ly as any other exceUeiice ; 
or that mediocrity in literature, unlike mediocrity in other par- 
suits, leads to failure. These observations are often true, but 
thev are not the main truth. 

The subject of philosophy was tliat which principally engaged 
his attention during the latter half of his life, and it was by the 
opinions lie promulgated on it that lie became most widely known 
througliout the learned world, and excited the greatest amount of 
opposition and hostility. His first pubUcatinn of this sort, ' Cen- 
sura PhilosophiBB Cartesianrr,' appeared in 1G8&. The last, the 
' Tiaite Philosophique do la Foihlesse dc I'Esprit Humain,' was 
published posthumously at Aiustcrdam in 1723. However sliffht 
may be the inirinsic merit n[ these works, yet the positions taken 
up in them, and the slorm of controversy raised, especially by the 
Inst, make lliein iinportnni features in the hislor^' of modern plii- 
losophy. The ' History of Cartesianism,' after the death of its 
fonnder, has still In l>e written; and though so much has been 
publishc-d on Descartes himself, we know no source to which we 
atn turn for a view of the fortunes of his system, though two 
fragments of M. Cousin are most important conlribulions' to it. 
The remarks which follow will be atrictly confined to the personal 
share which the Bishop of Avranches had in these controversies. 

The seventeenlU century witnessed the rise and growth of a 


Peter Daniel Huet — Life and Opimont. 


Temacular literature in France. This growth and expansion was 
not areoinplished witbout a violent strug£;lf with the oM leanung 
ami liter&ture, In the precetlmg century, the siiteentli, nothing 
thill can be cnlletl a Fvcjich literature esisted. All books of 
-solid clmracter were Composed in Lcitin, and addressed to a learned 
and a European puhlic. In the ejojliteenth century Latin is en- 
tirely dlsus<>d^ and French writers, on whatever subjects, address 
a French readinHT publir, and in French- During the inJer- 
mediaie period, tlie latter half vi the stvcnteentli century, the 
nuthora and their readers were separated into two camps: the 
adherents of the old school who used Latin, the 4:oDverts of the 
new who employed French. Ilui the language was but the 
■dress or uniform by which the respective armies weTe distin- 
guished. Their character, subjects, method, opinions, were 
wholly distinct and irreconcilable. Tlic great modem revolution 
m thuUg-ht to which the Refottnatiua Was but ihe preface, wag 
then commencing in earnest. It was net nicreCy a change of 
opinion an speculative points of theology or metaphysics, but an 
entire melamorphosis of the human mind and all its habits. Any 
such total change must imply as its preliminary a revolution in 
philosophy, and that revolution was due in France to Descartes. 
His principal doctiinea must he well known to our readers. 
There was in them a mighty power of truth, with a vast addi- 
tion of fantastic error. But it is not recjuisite for our purpose 
to recall any one of Descartes* doctrines ; for the term Cartesian- 
isin^ as applied after Descartes'^ death (1IJ51), must not be taken 
to nifan only those peculiar dogrnas on I'hysics and Metaphysics 
which he hnd promulgated. It was tlie title either of convenience 
or opprobrium which the men of the old learning fastened on their 
opponents, nn the men of progress, of free thought. The battle 
was nominally fought under the banner of Ariftotle on tlie one side 
and Descartes on the otlier — Ihe Aristotelian orthodoxy and (lie 
Cartesian herpsy ; but it was teally only another epoch ol the okl 
stniggle between a dead tradition and the living energy of mind, 
between conventional formula', which had long censed to mean 
anything, and a serious faitlu The course and issue of such 3- 
-conHict could not be doubtful. All the genius, Ihe original 
tlunltcrs., the wits, and the popular writers, fell 'in, of course, 
with the movement. The Janscnists, or the religious party, 
the Oratorians, who had sucteeded the Jesuits as the most 
ftucccBsful teachers, the higher clergy, Bossuet as well as Fene'lon, 
were, in the extended sense of the term, Cartesians, whether or 
no ihcy rejected substantial forms, or had ever heard of the 
Voriice*. On the other side were ranged the lower clergy, whojse 


Peter Daniel Huet — Life and Oj/iiiiom. 

ignorance removed tbein from any iiitclIectuaL influencrs; Uie 
TJniviTsiiies, tlic lawyers, niitl the rnca of business ; and, above 
all, the .Icsuits, The Jesuits set ip motion llie arms of authority 
— tlic French Government, which they were able to couiQiantt, 
and tlie See of Rome, tiie inveterate enemy of intellectual prt>^ 
gress. It will be easily unde rstooU bow Huet came to be tuund 
in tlie ranks of the antiquated party. He was intimately lu- with 
llie Jesuits ; he had bten brought up at La Fleche ; be returned in 
old agt,' to be an inmate of their Maison I'rofesse in Paris, He 
did not like Bossuet, who eclipsed bim at courl and held bim 
at a distance. lie was on friendly terms with ibe lawyers, and 
all tbe men of aense {lea f/eus senses) detested this new-langlcd 
nuDsense^ which they were sure the Jansenists bad oidy taJten up 
«,iLit of spite tg the Jesuits- But, abyve all, Iluet was devoletlly 
attached to classical studies, and it was an cnor, thoug:h a oatunil 
one, of the new school to pour unmeasured contcmpi upon the 
ancients. This lies at tlic bottom of lluet'g anti-Carteftliini&in. 
lit- is ever coinplaJninpiif the neglect of antiquity, of tbe erdwing 
ijfnoianetof Greek and Latin, and the decay of sound pbilolu^^ical 
lore — -9,]\ wbicli be ascribed to (Jnrtesianism, His C^muru U 
professedly directe<l against ' that audacious contemner of 
Christian and ancient learning' (meaning Descartes). Madntne 
deKevi^ne, who honestly believed that the haute noblctar i\\nHi»ed 
at will of tbe srtuls of authors as they did of the bodies of the 
peasanls, thought be wrote against Descartes to please the Dulce 
of Montausier. M. Burtbolmois supposes Huet was txinvcrlrd by 
a letter of I»aac Voss. Not so. lluct belonged by nature and 
pursuits to the past world. 

Huet fouifht Carteaianism with two weapons — ar^uuirnt and 
ridicule. Tlie ridicule is contained in the A'ouv&iuj: Mrntoirft 
pour tervir a CHisioiredu Carttsianisme, He dictated this to a 
secretary at a time when bis eyes were weak and he was pre- 
cluded frotn more aenuus study. He calU it a jocular romance 
(Itidirra fnbula). But tbe jest is extremely thin. It is, in fact, a 
poor imitation of tlie I'ere Daniel's ' Vova^e du Monde de 
Dc&tartps '— ilseU not a very felicitous perJorinance. J'be Jn- 
suits iiavc never succeeded in humouir, which requires a geniality, 
a native jsrrowth and raciness of character, to wbicb their educa^ 
tion is directly opposite. Huel pretends to disclose tbe sea*!, 
that Descartes had not, as linil hitherto been believed, died in 
Sweden. Like another Zalmoxis, be hnd feigned death and bod 
£L mock funeral, but bad really retired into Finland, wearied of 
maintainintc so long tbe iinerous dijEiiity of oracle of mankind. 
Here be batl gutbered round bim a small aauiemy of young 


Peter Daniel Hiiet — ti/t and Oj/tnicns. 





Laps, to whom be laid down the law in all tlie comfort of in- 

Tlio fopperv of De$<Tirtes, Uis green coat, and cop with ibe 
white leather, nre not oiiiitled, and we nuiv rLHXJjS^nisc iKc philo- 
ftjpliec eve-n in Huel's dim w ater-ct>Sour drawing. But it 
v/aa not easy for humour to make a man like Destartes ridirulmia ; 
and, as D'Alembrrt says, 's'il fnllait absolunient que Ip tldirule 
resist ii queltju'ua, ce ne meruit pas a Des carles.' Huei'sseriuus 
piilemic: is nut much more foimidablp. I'his is the 'Censura 
Pliilfiaiiphiar CartPaJana*/ written in Lutin. li is chiefly mttice- 
»blc in the history yf the voiitroversy ^ bax'iog called out tbe 
reply uf Syliain Regis {P. D. Httttii Ceimira, S,-c., Paris, l(j'>2), 
■ reply of which Fontencllc has said that ilia a model of mwlciw 
ate and cimrtegus controversy. To the personalities (if Hiiel — 
and Huet, who was nlwavs complainins' of * la medlaance des 
gens de Caen, leur vice- hivori,' bind nut been sparing uf Ijariter 
more anjiry than smart— Rpgis makes no returt. Over the 
argnraenlal ion of Huet, vague, declamatory, and sapprficial. 
Regis had no difficult Victory, He csposca with cftlm superiority 
the inisunderstaiidio^s of an antngionisi whenever penetrates into 
the real meaning of the points at issue, who lias no more larasp 
of llie views of DesCartes than he has uf tho»c of H'hith he 
professes to be the champion, and who deals only in external 
BnnlojB'ie& roHected on the surface. Alter the labours uf Du^fald 
Stewart and Cousin, the true sense of the ' Cofrito, ergo sum ' 
is known to even the tyro in metapliysics. It was complt-lcly 
mistaken by Huet, who cannot distinguish it from Pyrrhonism ; 
nowhere can a more luminous and correct exposition of il be 
found than in this brochure of Sylvnin Regis. Tliat liossuet 
preserved a (otal silence to Huet on his book, and that Amauld 
openly disapptwred, is as much to be ascribed to tbcir sense of 
it* incompetency as to their Carte&ian leaijings. Hurt was 
much more in his sphere in determining' the ^Situation of tbe 
TcTTCstria! Paradise' (Hi91), nnil in destribing the ' Voyages of 
Solomon's Navy round the Cape of GtKwl Hope' (llj'jSj — di- 
Tettisenients with which he relieved his more serious pursuits. 

We now come, in the last placcj to the mention of Huet's 
pectdiai' philosophical opinions, which attracted much more 
notice than his feeble polemic against the Cartesians. It is re- 
markable that the eccentric book in which these opinions were 
bruacheil was not the iaconsi<leraIe effusion of his youth, but the 
deliberate mcditntions i>f his old nfrc The first rMaction of the 
•Traite Philosophique,' A:c., was drawn out in HJ90, Ba<l for the 
rcmaininj^ thirty yean of Ids life, to his last moments, he was con- 
tinually retouching it. He spent as much labour on it, as Baron 


trusted to different persutis to sei:UTe its publiiialioii. Bui lie 
foresaw the storm it would raise, and never could rea>ive cm 
biinginfr' it out liiniselJ", and so expose himsell' Xv tlie attacks of 
those whom hr was wont to <'alL * tlie vulgar of the republic nl" 
letters.* The French orijg;inal ^^!^s, published by the AbboOlirel 
in 172o, ayearafter tUe autlior'sdealh. TLie outcry wss immediate 
and universal. The cotntnunicaliun of books was quicker iSjen 
than it h;is ever been 8ini.'e till the last few yoara : it wna imme- 
diately translated into Gei'man and English, "^i'he echo ol the 
clamour is preserved in the perlodifal literature of the nest ten 
years, RcfutattoTis appeared in every quntter of Europe, even 
in Italy. In Holland it was anawered by Crouaaz, the leader of 
the Cartesians tbete ; io Italy by Muratori. So great wn* ibe 
tcandid that it seemed to extend by implication to everything 
eonncLled with liinij among the rest to tlie Jesuits. They cndea.' 
VOurcd to oxtricale themselves by roundly asserting that tbe 
book was spurious. But that evasion was speedily stopped by 
Olivet's pimJiicing the ori,^inal mnnusrript as a voucher ; and be 
referred the authenticity of It to the Forty nf the Academy. The 
sensation excited was not due to auy book-merits in the treati&e 
itself, It has not the weij^bt of a profound discussion; ic has 
not thq popularity oi' an elcjjanl essay. The very same opiqtons 
bad been broached by Huet in an earlier work without attracting 
any general attention — in the * Qua^stiones Alnetana?,' lljUO^ — a 
work wbicb, like Hume's * Treatise,' mig"ht be said to have 
* fallen still-born from the press,' What made the 'Traite de la 
Foiblesse' lelt, was the bii^h rhamcler of the flulhor, known to have 
spent an unuivually lun^ life in study and religlaua exercises^ and 
its incousislency with Ids whole career. It seemed, says Voltaire, 
who reports tiiC opinion of the world, that tbe ' Traite de la 
Foiblesse ' eontradicted the ' Demnnsttatio.' A bishop of eminent 
piety, the bosom friend of Bourdaloue, the iit've and inmate of 
be Jiwuits, the tavaiit of whom Le Clerc could say without 
contratUctioii that ' he was the most learned man left in Kurope,' — 
had left, as Ids last legacy to his fellow men, a work of the most 
POtran;eous scepticism. 

The term aceptieism has come to I>e so peculiarly applied to 
religious doubt, that it may be necessary to say that we mean 
it at present in its orij»)n:il sense— philosophical doubt. The two 
have indeed sometimes gone tofjether, as in Hume. More often 

L they have been separate. The peculiarity of Huel's. case was, that 
he aimed to build religious certainty nn pbilosophiciil doubt. The 
drift of the * Traiit- de la Foiblesse ' issummetl up in the senrence 

Peier Daniel lluet — Life and Opinivnt, 


already eltundatec] ■ntbe'Quii°slio[ie9AlDetanGf,'^*AcI cretlendum 

utile esse non credere." His Pyrrhonism is the porch or gateway 
to the Christian faith. Sreptioism becomes the insbruinent, the 
* New OrEanon/ of religion. Human reason had been variously 
treateil as an impediment or aid, aa preparatory or supple- 
mentarv, to faith. Huet removRs it aJto^ther. VV'e know and 
can know nothing. Not only scientific but ordinary know- 
Jed^ is impossible; our pcrccptiuns are illusoryt our ideas base- 
less, our reasonings fallacious. Nothinjf is cprlain but the re- 
vealed doctrines of the Christian Tailb, As the aocit^nt school 
of Pyrrhonists lind made this doubt the foundation of a scheme 
of lile and action— that, viz,, of passive iniliffcrpiice to good or ill 
fortune — so Huet builds on his doubt the Christian blessedness, 
the peace of God, 

Tbe 'Traitd de la Foiblesse/ s small 12ino volume of barely 
300 piifjes, is divided iain three parls. The first offers to prove 
the proposition, that the human undcrs landing cannot, bj' aid of 
the reason only, attain, any certain knowledge of tralh ; the 
secotid part explains the rig-ht method of philosophising' ; and the 
third meets objections. The metaphysical proofs offer nothing 
ortgiual. nor are they statod with any pretJsion or peculiar skill. 
They are the old PiTrhonian arguments, collected from all sides 
— liirgely from Seztus Empiricus ; and M, BartboImeiS has traced 
Huet's oblig-ations to Martin Shoock's *Dc Scepticismo,^ by means 
of the bishoj/s own copy, now in the Library in Paris, It \a 
curious lo see in what condition the celebrated argument, after- 
wards pushed to its furthest consequences by Berkeley u.nd llume, 
appears in the ^Traite.' ]t stands the very first of the metaphy- 
sical pruu|$ : 

'Qui est quiosera dire, que riniage,ou ombre, ouespeee, qui s'ecoule 
de ce corps e^ttvrieur, qui t>e preseiite a nous, est sa vuritahle rf^sem- 
blaiice. sans aucuue (tifleience ? . . . Far quel »rt, par quelle iiidu^tde 
niuii Giiteiidfinieiit, qui ju^e de ceile resiH'tablunce, ptut-il tdinpartir cet 
objet exLmeur Bvec sou image? puisque I'uii el I'autre soiU hors de 
niion entendemcnt?' 

Those who are at all acquainted with the history of the repre- 
sentative theory of perception will not fail to perceive two things : 
first, as a psychological stiitemeni, bow far short thut of Huet falls 
of the point to which Berkeley and Hume extended the same 
observation of which we have here the rudiments ; and, secondly, 
how much mure keen and skilful as a weapon of scepticism is the 
use llum^ makes cf the discovery. IImw do you know that the 
sensible species yoo perceive is a true copy of the materia! object? 
*Do you not irresistibly believe,' says Hume, ■ that the sensible 
image yon perceive is a true copy uf the external object from 



/*rier Danief Huei^Life and Opinions. 

which it emanates ? Yet you s*e you have no means of know- 
ingr that tliere is an}' externiil object at all behind it; there- 
fore you find yourself irresistibly impelled to a belief for whifU 
you sec there can be no groumls!' We may fu rtli^er observe' that 
the argument ag'ainKt causation ilocs not appear in the 'Traitc-' 
He rould oot have been acquainleii with Joseph Glanvill, as he 
was ignorant of English, and Glanvill had not been trooBlalwl, 
Tlu're are traces, we tbink, that Hume had read the tracts of 
liuet; thnOgU tbc- chief puailts of sccplicnl tn^laphysics wer* 
»o abundantly 8<'at,ter4'd over the fugitive literature of the 
perimlj that they would be unconsriously imbibed by anybody 
whose mind was occupied on the subject. And 30 it might easily 
be, that the arg-ument frrjin the insecurity of arithmetical pro- 
cesses, which occurs -in the ' Qurestiuiics Ahietann*.' migbt be 
suggested 1o Hume by some cusuitl book, and vet made his qwn 
by subsequent reflrctinn in the way in which be appropriatei 
it in the 'Treatise of Human Nature,' Tliere is no braocb of 
criticism so delicate as Ibnt whose uflice it is to track the tmHmis- 
sion of ihoupht in books. There are n few notable and dis- 
tinctly proveil Cnsrs of pla^arism. Tliese c^ses ap.irt, tticre arc 
not many in whicli it is possible to affirm that one phiUisophrr 
biiiTowed from any particular predecessor. In sueh researches 
Testiublftnres &re mistaken for parallels, parallels arc construe<l 
into appropriations. It might be a curious amusement for any 
person having time on bis hands, to take such a botik, say as 
'Hume's Kssays/ and to trace each tdra back into previous 
literature. The result would have a far higher imjiurtance than 
any detection of individual plagiarism, which In so oncinal a 
thinker as Hume would hardly h<ivc nny place. It ukigbt supply 
materials to a future historian of philosophy — it might illustrate 
that process by which the grand masses of thoug'bt, deposited in 
earlier aires, become ground dowu into the diluvial surface spread 
over modern literature. 

On the origin ;ind on the nature oi that particulsr alliance 
between scepticism and belief, of which Huet is so ill us- 
trioua an example, a few general remarks may ^ made. Its 
oripiq may be assigned readily enough in the greujunl proere** 
of the human mind in the seventeenth century. The history 
of philosophy in that century is summed up in the one fad of it£ 
emancipation of thought from control. Guided by this clue 
we shall find our way easily through all the fantastic ctTots, or 
the jarring controversies of the various sects. The op|X)aite 
achcKjls of Ciasscndisls and Cartesians were at variance with each 
other, but they were one and all struggling with the authority of 
the Church. That war wa» internecine. The »yilemi of Des- 


Peter Daniel Huet — Life and Opimons. 




cartes and of Gass^ndi mt^ht be mixed with enonnous crrnr; but 
their errors no less than Liieir trutlfs trnded lo one point, the 
ftwaitcning- n general apiril of J'tee inquiry. Well does Dugald 
Stewart ask, ' Whether the truths whirh Descartes taofrht, or the 
errors info which he fell, were more instructive to the world?' 
Bit by bit the several provinces of human knowledge were being 
conquered from the despolisiii of tlie old traditional system. But 
this pni^ess was not obtained without the most pertinacious 
resistance on the part of gulhoiity. We Lave seen nbove how 
they employed physical force to crush the opinions which tliey 
disliked ; they also employed argument. The writers against 
Ciirtesisnism were as niimeroUB, perhaps as well informed, ns its 
supporters. Tlieir nrguoietits on the special points of contro- 
versy were at least no worse, their errors not greater, perbaps not 
so great, as those of the advocates of the new opinions. \>t ibey 
lost ground every day, not because thev were beaten in the xnga- 
inent on the conirovciled points, but because the ground of 
authority, the real ground on which they rested, was sltaking- 
under them. The Jesuit polemics might ridicule the vortices^ 
miglit upset the innu!c ideas, miglit jtlauslblv defend the sub- 
stautinl forms. All tliese victories in detail had no effci't what- 
ever on the general result of the war, never arreslcd for one 
moment the growing confidence of the human mind in its right 
to independence. What was to be doner' Should they withdraw 
their forces from the extended frontier liiev wejp yjiinly endea- 
vouring lo cover, and concealratc their whole strength for the 
dcl'ence of the capital? Should thcv, tiiat is, resign the church's 
clnims to dictate a creed on physical science^ philosophy, murals, 
politics, in order to strengtiien and secure !»«■ authority on 
religion? This was what the more far-sighted and moderate 
among the Conscrrative party Were willing lo do. Bui they con- 
ceived the desperate design of first ruining the lerritory they 
Were preparing to evacuate. Before philosophy Wns handed over 
lo the philoauphers the old Aristotelian citadel was to Ire blown 
into the nir. When the human mind entered on the inheritance 
it had todcjuered at so much cost, it should find nothing but the 
arid desert of scepticism awaiting it, This was the enterprise 
chat Huet undertook. A theologian and a scholar iTvther (hnn a 
tUetnphysiciaO, be was a. devoted adherent of the old system, with 
which all the stores of learning, classics! and modern, hod 
become identified. Things had changed their position since the 
time of tlrasmuB, Then the men of learning, the Kcholnrs, were 
reformers : now the reformers were a class of men who depre- 
ciated book -knowledge. But Huet, though hating Carte^iantun 
for it« innovating and destructive character, had Oo philosophical 



Fetor Daniel Iluet — Life and Opiniom. 

convictiun of the trutli of ArUtoleliaiiism. He cared not for 
Aristotle, but £ot tlit- treasures of wisdom which rcstetl, or seemed 
|o rest, on the found&tiyji of Aristotle, H these could be saved 
in a.ay other way he would willingly give up the Aristotelian 

It will thus be seen that Huet the sceptic must be referred to 
that class of philosophers wlio have \akc-a up philostjphy, nut as an 
end, but as n m^ans — not for its own sake, but for the support of 
religion. We do not mean that he was insincere in what be wrote, 
but that he was not a genuine uiL'tajihvsiciiLn, Lc Clerc is certainly 
wrong when he s^ys thai he regartJs a\\ that his ftiond had writlen 
on that subject as ' pnres hadineries ;' but we must agree in his 
sentence that 'reasoning un abstract subjects was not Huets 
fvrte' His insight was too deep to allow his philosophy 1o be a 
mere disguise, it was not dec-p enough to give bis thought* any 
real phlloBophical value. Huets sceptit-isjn was no hypocrisy, 
il was not put on, in the Jesuit spiritt for the mere sake o( serving 
the Church. It was a suit of clothes, not a mask ; only we see 
the scliolar peeping- throug^h the boles in the cloak of Pjrrho — ' in 
tjua ae transducebat Ulysses." Now, philosophical argument^ 
however inrrcnious, that is not the native firowth of a philoaopliic 
mind, is of jis small worth as the most elegant verses written by 
one wlio is no ]ioft. But of all the forms of philosophy, scep- 
ticism is that one which must he absolutely worthless if not 
indigenous. For it is not a doctrine^ it is a state. It doet 
not consist of a slH of propositions which may be reasoned 
upon by the niiderstsndine, while the sentiments are not en- 
gaged. It is a crisis in tlie history of the mind which must 
occuFj but cannot be fabriciiteti, When this condition does 
Seize a great and developed intellect, il is the most deeply 
interesting phenomenon thai the human mind offers for our study. 
The ' PcQsees ' (if Pascal is such a disclosiire. What confers the 
inexpressible attraction which those fragments have for all who 
think,, is, that il is a real history of the sorrows and conflicts of 
tlie Understanding. Sucb a scepticism, if it be a disease, is a 
disease that can only take bold of a sincere Hiind ; for it is caused 
by the endeavour to reach a foundation for opinion, and ibe 
struggle is desperate because it is felt to be one for life or 
death. Of such terrihle reality of conflict Huct was not an 
instance. With him philosoptiiral scepticism was a Irnnquil 
doctrine, sincerely embraced indeed and ingeniously defended- — 
a paradox attd nothing more. It neither racked his suul, nor 
shortened his physical existence. In the even tenor of bis 
studious life, and his dnys extended beyond the usual time 
by the cheerful enjoyment of contemplation and reading, we 


School Strmom. 


may rather compare him to some Greek Philosopher of the 
New Academy or the Oarden ; indeed may apply to him the 
vpTV words ia wliich Valeriu* Mn^mus describes Cameades, 
' Lal>oriosU3 cC diutumus sapiential miles ; siquiilem, noiiaginta 
csplells amiis, idem ilti vivendt ac philosophaddi ^nis fuit* 



Akt. II.^ — 1. A Years Sermons to Bovs, preached in tfie Chapel 

of St. Peter's College, Ratifcy. By VV. Sewell, B.D,, Warden. 

Londnii, 1854, 
2. Seven Sermons preached in the Chojiel of Marlborough Colhge. 

By Georg^e E. L. Cotton, M. A., Maaler of Marlborough College, 

Lyndon, 1855. 

* TTOW useful X miffht he if he had hut common sense!' 
XX said V to Z. ' Don't call it common sense,' replied Z ; 
' fur it is the most uncommon tiling in the worEd. Cnll it plain 
sense, or good sense, or sound sense, or anything but common 

Notwithstanding Z's remonstrance, however, -we shall adhere 
to the epitbot wlitch he condemned. For we lake it to imply, 
not that the sense in question is an ordinary endowraent (' rarus 
enim ferme sensus communis' )', but tlint it puts it$ possessors 
into sympntliy with the comman mind of men, and kfeps ttcem 
in communion with their kind. !t is that instinct wliich enables 
them to see tlieir deeds and words in tlie light wherein ihey will 
appear to the mass of observers. It is thar tatt by which some 
happy mortals anticipate the lessons oi experience^ widiout the 
necessity of purchftsin;^ them by failure; while others, for the 
want of it, after many years of blundering, seem to quit, life wJtU 
as little knowledge of the world as when they entered it. 

Yet this faculty, like others, though innate rather than acquired, 
and given in differt-nt degrees to different persons, may be im- 
proved by cultivation, and iveakened by disuse. Those wlio 
have little of it by nature may, by the friction of the worltl> 
become charged with a moral magnetism which puts them into 
affinity with their fellow-creatures. On ihe other Imml, they mny 
lose the little with which they started, if secluded by circum- 
stances Irtim the contact of common things and common men. 

Hence there is no wonder that none should be more frcf]urnt!y 
wanting in common sense than the recluses of the clois'tur, 
whether conventual or academic, who have spent their lives far" 


Sc/iool Sermons. 

from the strife and turmoil of the muUitude. Thert is a natural 
tende^ncv in such a life to place tliein io a state ot mental isola- 
tion, wliicli grows more complete with growing years. The iilpal 
world in which they dwell becomes more and more difTerent 
from the actual. Severed from the pursuits and interesU of the 
crowd, they «re severwl also from fheiT sympathies, so that 
mutual understanding hecomes difficult; and at length theyleani 
ua consciously 

' to livo alone 
Housod in a drcA-m, at dislam-o from the kind.'* 

Nor does it save them from this isolation, that ihcy hare oftra, 
as instructors, o^ youth, many opportunities of contact with other 
minds. On the contrary, this very circumstance may sticn^Liien 
their illusions; for their relfillon to their pupils is not a relation 
of equality. The assent of reverent disciples cannot enlighten 
them as to the feelings of the masses. 

Nor, again, does the highest ability exempt them from this 
loss nf common sense. Nny. their very ability may mislead them, 
by causin«: them to suppose other men on their own intelleiclHal 
level, and therefore to address them in language which th<-y can- 
not interpret, opon topics which they cannot understand : like 
the melaphvsical pliilosopher who insists upon talking to his 
children io the nursery upon objects and subjects, apprehension 
and conception, esBential form and corporeal substance. 

Thus when such men are brought Into a novel jjrosimity to 
their fellow-creatures, either by clian{|:e of circumstances (mch as 
that which occursivhen a collesre-fellow takes a school or parish), 
or by their adopting' a new mode of communicniJon with others 
(such as the publication of a work on topics of common interest 
to ordinary readers), it often happens that they act, speak, or 
wTite, so as to convey to those with whom they have to do nn 
impression quite opjutsile tn that which it was their intention to 
prod uce. 

These remarks have been forcetl upon us by two works which 
have recently appeared, both from the pens of college tutors. 
One is the 'Year's Sermons' of Mr, Sewell, of which wc 
have placed the title at the bead of our article ; the other is 
(I rniiimenttiry upon the Epistles of St. Paul, by one of the 
ablest »mon;i the Fellows of Balliol Collcgc.f On the pub- 
lication of the latter we were startled to see that it was at unre 
pronounced by several religious perlodicaJs to be the work of 
an infidel ; and knowing the high character of its author for 

• Wwilswortlu Slanias on PmI C&stlc. 

f The ]-'pi»fk-» tn thv Thtauloiiians, Galatians, DQt) RotBMif. By B, Jowett, 
M^.. FelLoir Mill Talot of Bulliol CuUege, 0«fonl. 



earnestness and piety, we could not conceit's how such on outcry 
had ;irisf n : hut our surprise vaniahrd wlipn we caine to read t!ie 
bnok itst'5t. VVe saw at once that tW metaphysical clistiotrtions 
familiar to the writer's mind between the spiritual and the super- 
natural (to say nothing of the nf:»y-ria.tural }, were far too refitwd 
to be appreciated by the practical understanding: of his countir- 
men ; and that the somewhat ai^rial barriers by wliieb his posi- 
tion is fenced and limited were too intangible to he perceived by 
grosser eves. Hence, although himself a Christian, be writes in 
such a manner as niiffht well tead others into infidelity. As a 
specimen, it mar suHice to mention tbfit in his essay on Lhe ehs- 
ncler of St. Paul he states that tbc Apostle 'wavers between op- 
pKisile view* in successive verses ' fp. 291) ; that his conVeP&lon 
could only have happened ' to one of his tcinperament ' (p. 292) ; 
that it is doubtful whether he was 'capable of weiffhin^ evi- 
dence' (p. 300) ; thiit he ' appeared to the rest of manliind like 
a visionarj- ' (p. 238) ; that be ' wis not in barmoay with nature ' 
^p. 2951); and that he was 'a poor decrepit being-, afflicted, 
perhaps, with palsy' (1) (p. 303). Of course nothing- could be 
farther from the wish of the writer than to lend Iiis readers to 
pronnunco Ht. Paul 'a paralytic and hi-ain-sick eotbusia&t;' yet 
it la nevertheless quite certain that ninety-nine out of every 
hundred persons who accept the premises of the essayist will 
arrive at ihis and no other conclusion from the perusal of his 
treatise. It is evident that the author is incapable of placing; 
himself intellectually in the position ol bis readers, and of esti- 
mating; the inei'itahle result of his statements upon minds less 
tninscendental than bis onTi. 

A similar incapacity to anticipate the effect of words upon 
those to whom they are addressed inav ''^ predicated of the 
writer whose sermons stand nt the head pf this article, and who 
is another ornament of ihc University of Oxford. Mr. Sewell is 
already well known to the public, not only by his own works, but 
perhaps still better by those beaucifnl and ^aceful stories which 
he has edited for his sisler. He lifls long^ been a distlneruisbeil 
and successful tut(H" in his own college; and he has recently 
entered on a new field of labour, a fruit of wliich is the volume 
before U», 

This volume is a specimen ("thouarb by no means an ordinary 
speriiTien) nf a class of publications which of Ute years has mul- 
tiplied ptiCMligiouslv. The ^enus itself is of quite recent oriinn, 
anil only came into existence a qyarler of a century a^o. Then 
first appeared n volume of scnnens addressed lo schoolhnvs by 
their heftd master, a novelty in theological lilonture, VVe need 
Out say that the school was Kugby, and the preacher Dr. Arnold, 


School Sermont. 

Before his time tbe relation between the masters and boy» at our 
public schnola liad not been generally suppciscd lo involve nov 
relifjious responsibilities. Of course we do not mean to say that 
pious men could have occupied suiih posts without making some 
efforts for the welfare of tliose committed to their charge ; bat 
there wa& no general recognition of any but secular relations 
between the parties. The coinnion view of the case was ex- 
pressed by the prnttiee of Dn Butler of Shrewsburv, himself 
one of tbe best of selmoimasterB, according; to the old standard. 
He always made it a prartice lo cross the street when be saw 
any of his scholars emerging from the door of n public-houie, in 
Ofder that be might not be compelled to notice the irregularity } 
and when a parent on one occasion wrote to biin complaining' nf 
the deterioration in a Son's morals, he replied, ' My busiAess is 
to tench him Greek, and not morality.* 

Dr. Arnold's advcjit to Rugby formed n new epoch in the 
history of public education. The appearance of jjis sermons 
was the first practical realisation of bis theory of a Christian 
school. The impression made by his preaching was deepened 
and rendered permanent after his death by ihc publication of hii 
biography ; and bis view of a head-maater's duties has oo 
been almost universally adopted — so much so, that the former 
state of feeling on the subject has by most been already forgotten ; 
and the previous neglect ol responsibilities which now seem so 
obviously to devolve upon the office of a schoolmaster would by 
many be doubted, or, perhaps, denied. 

In recent times Dr. Arnold's esomple has roused manv lo 
imitate both his priiclicc and his j^reacbing-. Probably atl the 
chief educational foundations in the country are mnv governed by 
men who profess to be tbe disciples oi his life, if not of lits 
Opinions, Chapels have been built for tbe great schools recently 
founded, and have bieen added to some of the more ancient which, 
like (Harrow, were previously without them. In these cliapeU 
the heutl master is expected to address gome word of weekly 
es^bonaiion to bis pupils ; while his relation lonards them is 
deemetl no less a cure of souls than that of the parochial minister. 
One consequence of this has been that a tlood of school sermons 
inundates tlie press ; some of them not unworthy of tlietr Rugby 
prototypes; but many, vapid and colourless transfusions of a 
spirited original, deserving no better name than '^ Arnold and 
icater;^ and some mere advertising puffs of tbe schools from 
which they issue. 

No such want of originality or ti'uihfuiness, however, ran 
be laid lo Mr. Seweli's charge. His volume consists of a 
twelvemonth's course of sermons preached to the bovs of- 


Sciiool Sermons. 



Radley College, a sclioul wliich owes its rouDdalioii to the 
zeal 9XnX muDificePce of its present warden. His object, as 
he explains il in the worli before us^ bas been to realise in 
pi'a.cticc iu& ideal of Cbristlan educntiitn — an ideal based upon 
bis vicns oi the teaching of the rhurch, To this purpose be Ims 
devoled timpj money, atid energy lor many years ; having first 
founded St, Oilumba's College in Ireland, und mpre recently St. 
Peter's CuUege at Rodley. And he bus lately given a croivoing 
proof of his devotion to the ttiusCi by abandoning the (}tiiet of bis 
acndcmic life at Oxford, in order lu lake upon himself j^aluit- 
ously ihe troublesome duties of head master, to promote tlie suc- 
cess of the latter institution. 

It is impossible to speak of such a man without sincere respect 
■id ndmirntion. If thcr^'fore some of the quotations ^'hich yre 
are about to make froin bis »Titin;js seem only calculated to pro- 
voke a smile, we beg uur readers tu remember that if they laug^b 
at Mr. Sewell they will probably be laughing at a better man 
then ihcmselvea. Our object in titin;^ some fantnslic passages is 
not to embarrass, but to aid hi» labours, by showing him some of 
tlie salient features of his work from the point of view in which 
they must strike those to whom it is addressed, and thus in- 
ducing^ him to abstain in future from singularities which ore 
likely to <lefeat his own design. 

The blemishes in his sermons nearly all proceed from the same 
defect — an icnoranee, namely, of the character and habits of lnn's, 
aud a consequent inability to appreciate their tendency tu &eize 
upon the ludicrous aspect of all which conies before them. 
Perhaps also we should add that he seems wholly to want the 
seose uf lmmour~a (lift more necessary to preachers tbnn some 
persons would he willing t*i ullow. Had he jxjssessed ibis en- 
dowment, Mr. Scnell would scarccty hai'e addressed t<i his boys, 
in bis opening sermon, a threat expressed in the following 
langaagc : — 

' Trifle witli m. deceive us, play w)iool-boy tricks. tel( us fnlsfhooda, 
liij bt;liini! qur back:^ wlml you would nut ilare to do before our faces, 
disobey fir orders, neglect vour HtudH-.M, be cart'lesa ol your diifies, 
utid l>e assured that ihi fu'tuds nuw hu>y in iftiniMtcring to jour enjoy- 
lueiuiu, ivill be anued with a nxt ofiiou lu chastise you into obedience.* 
— Si:rmo>ij'ar SeftliiOijiiinja A'undfii/i p. ^. 

Schoolmasters have been notorious, since the days of Juvenal, 
for the posscssiiHi of ''ferrea peciorn^' but we never before heard 
of a pedagitgue' whose ban<ls wielde*! ri ''J'cnra virga.' The 
material instrument o( punishment has always lieen a vegetable, 
not a mineral production. Klon and Westminster baiecuLtivaEcd 
the birch ; Winchester (where Mr. Sewell tells us that be received 

VOL. XCVII. NO. cxciv. 




School Sermom. 

his owa education) has been contented with the apple^twig; it 
WU8 leserve*! for Rudley to introduce a rcxl of iron. 

Armed with sucb a weapun, the warden may well exclaim — 

' I know of no punishment more likely to deter you fmui disobedience 
than the most disjjjaeeful and wretched of all — flogging,' — Sermon for 
fifth Hfundti)/ ia I'Cni, p. 115. 

And we can eailly underKtaad tlie compassionate fueling wllicb 
led bim to make the following acknowledgment — 

' I do net Kosilate to tell you that of all the [itLuiful, but neccssurv, 
dutie.^ attached to llie office which I hold, thai from which 1 most 
shrink^ wliiuh I most dreacf, ]» tlie necessity of inflictinfj any corporal 
punishmeiit upon you, but especially of tlogg;ing' you,' — Ihid. p. III. 

It is less easy to comprehend the followlD^ depreciation of the 
sufferlnf^ Inflicted ; — 

'But then the punishment I Tt is not the pain — the bodily pain — 
which you may have borne. Tliis can he but lUilp. A few niitiiitei 
will effiice it. The tears will be drieJ, the Euiferin;; foi^tLea.' — 

p. no. 

But we can well believe that — 

'When the fellows \i.e. asnstant madlen] fell you tliey THiist bring 
your cjRetice before me, you entreat ihem not to do it. When you 

brought inin rny room it is vary rarely imleefl without trembling 
crying-' — SeriHOH for Snndatf before Aicmsion Hay, p. l&G. 

Nor can we think thnt the tears of the sufferers were likely to be 
dried by the royal anecdote which fallows: — 

'The cliihiren of our Sovereign are, like you, inider tutors atul 
governors ; but tiu tutor or governor, iis I have hoen told, is allowed 
to strike them ; nune but their father. They are ttio elevated, loo 
Dohle, to be ba dE^raded. The Roman laws allowed a Roman to be 
executed, but they would not allow him to be scourged: that even 
slaves, negroes, should be so treated, »« tJtJnk a stigtiiu upon a whole 
nation; and a blow to an adult, to a gentleman, such as you all are 
by birth, is an insult so keenly fell, that, in the eatimallon of aii un- 
cliristian world, it requires to be wiped outwitli pothiiicr Iv^sthon blood. 
Ami yet I, at timed, shuil be compelled to flog suQie of you.' — Sermon 
forjijVt Sunday in Lent, p. 114. 

It will be ol>sen'ed from ttic above cstrads that Mr. Sewelf 
has the merit of spettkin^out plainly and iutelligihlv. Heaconis 
the conventionaLl reserve and reticence which was formerly sop- 
posed essential tu 'the di^Tiity of the pulpit,' He is not afnild 
to call a spa<;le a spade, aaJ a rod a rod. In fart he enLera iiilo 
every iletail ot school life with the minutest particularitv ; aothnt, 
without any information but that supplied by the uTinons before 
us, wc are enabled to draw a complete picture of RoUley. Wo 


ring 1 

School Sermotu. SA 

learn that the favourite amusements are cricket, archery, foot- 
ball, swimming, and boating; in all of which the assistant masters 
are expected to join ; for 

* Boys do not like to be lefl to themselves. They like the presence of 
those older tlun themselves; They often will not play unless those 
wliom they respect will play with them.' — Sermon on third Sunday 
e^ler Easier, p. 172. 

We learn that the boys attend two full services daily in their 
chapel, where they are sometimes not so attentive as they ought 
to be ; and that before entering the chapel doors they are expected 
to * wash their hands and look to their dress ' (p. 339), We Bnd 
that their dinners are usually excellent, and ' of the best and 
purest quality I * [the note of admiration is Mr. Sewell'a] ; but 
that they are somtimes ill-cooked, for which the preacher apolo- 
gises in the sermon for the second Sunday in Advent (p. 414). We 
learn that a pastrycook connected with the establishment resides 
at ' the cottage,' where the boys are permitted to purchase what the 
preacher calls * trash ' (p. 27, 30). And, above all, we are fully 
initiated into the secrets of the * dormitory,* where each boy has 
the luxury of a separate ' cubicle ' (p. 13), but where he is strictly 
forbidden to speak to any of his companions (ibid.). 

This latter rule is thus enforced in the sermon for Sexagesima 
Sunday, — 

' 1. I command you, then, to hold no communication whatever 
amongst yourselves by word of moutii, from the time you enter the 
dormitory, whether by day or at night, to the lime that you leave it. 

' 2. I command you, upon no pretence whatever, to look into each 
other's cubicles, or in any way to intrude upon the privacy wliich is here 
secured to you each. 

* 3. I command you never, untler any excuse whatever, or for any 
purpose, to enter into any cubicle but your own.' — p. 18. 

The violation of these laws is guarded against by the terrors of 
espionage as follows : — 

' Constantly we shall be visiting the dormitory, coming among you 
suddenly — (until we feel that you have strength enough to resist the 
temptation of being left alone), coming among you at all hours, myself, 
the fellows, the prefects, and if we should find it necessary, even our 
confidential servants.' — p. 19. 

A nd lest this warning should be vain, the rod of iron is again 
invoked, — 

' I give to the possible otfender the warning whicli follows: — .... 

we will degrade him tee willjlog him, we will take 

care that not an hour elajises before that hoy is on his way to his 
parents.' — p. 21. 

2 A 2 We 


School Serviom. 

We grieve to say Uiat^ notwithstanding tliese awful denumia- 
tions, some liardent-d c-iirainal was lound bold emmgh to violate 
t]ie silence of liIs cubicle. Tlie indignation causeil by ibis Uis- 
Cnvpiy brought an attack of illness upuQ the "Warden, wlncb be 
thus describes. 

' The ftllows, my boys, and the sixth fonii, know that last WedncslaT 
I uas obliged to send anay my class, and un;ible lo come into the cliupel 
or lliu liall. For some years potil, anything wJiicli very mueh pains 
and Uistresses me has afleeted me in tliis way. And I am going- to Jell 
you ihis niornbig ^ome of the thoiig-lita and rejection?, wiiieli an <pccur- 
renee in the school iiail forceil on me on that day, not imJeed for l)ie 
fir&t time, but very atrongly, and which produced my illnefis.' — p. lOt. 
• • • • • 

' And it was aln) the thun^hl tiiat I mu^t kei^p my word, punish as I 
said I wonlJ puni&h, though 1 fure^w that ttiaC punishment wmdil 
probably bring ivitli it very great evjl^wbich the Qther day so shockM 
and disturbed me.' — p. 10&. 

Yet such is the Warden's compassionate nature, that Jn spite of 
this asrgravntcd provocation, be found means to reconcile con- 
sistency with mercy, and to remit the penalties which be hnd 
previously denounced. This he states as follows: — 

' Why I did not punish — by what consideration I was enabled 10 
view the act a» not coming- under the class M-hieh 1 had especially 
denounced, and therefore as open to forgiveness, I need not here explain- 
But be a^'iured I rljd not reEeni ; aud I did not intend to shrink from 
keeping my word, fmm punishing, as I said I would puuisli, under 
certain circumstance^.' — p, lOS, 

We feel very cunoas to know the extenuating circumstances 

which saved the offender from his dmom. Perhaps they may be 
illustrat&d 1jy an analugy derived fioin a girls' srbonl in wbicb a 
similar prahibiliun existed aginst ' cubicular' conversation, la 
tlial case the Mistress used to enforce her rule of nocturnal 
silence by requiring all her pupils, eviery morniag, to declare 
upon their conscience whether they had spoken to each other on 
the previous night. The young ladies had scruples which pr^ 
rented them from resorting to a falsehood, so that for some time 
they faithfully observed the rsjeulatioiis of La Trappe. But at 
last a gitl, tnore ingenious than the rest, hit upon an expedient 
which ^Ya8 universally adopted. By a legal (or illc^l) fiction 
she assumed the presence of the French mistress in the bed- 
rnom, and addressed all ber remarks, not to her companions, but 
to .Madnme i*clili>I. The answers of her room-mates were directed 
to the same iraaginarv companion ; and thus a rapid and interest- 
ing conversation was kept up, which only diSTercd fix>m urdinarv 
dialogue by the interpolation of ' Madame Petitot ' at tlie 


School Sfrmont. 


bejrinning' of every Bontcnce. By this device ihr infenancts 
maicJens -wese enabled to assure their teacher next motning that 
they bad ntver uttered a syllable to each vther during tbe night. 

SlmuUl sucK a < non-nalural sense' be applied by the R«Ue/] 
boys tL» tlie interprc'talioa of their founder*; statutes, we an? 
thnt the liindoe&s (if the WorOeii tvill put tlie best possible i 
fttmction upon tlie misfleineannur. Hia indulgent chariiv will be 
best illustrated by the view- wbicU he ttwk of the crime of (pAuf/ift^ 
i7t school, upun 3 late occasiun. 

' ToH remember, my boys, that one day last week, wlien the roll ■ 
about to b^ called in school, I heard some out; of yuu whiilling. It 
some boy evidently who was doI awaFe that I was pre§ent ; and it was 
one uf those triHing inatlvertencje* whji(;b are scarcely worth notice, 
it slopped, of course, iht moment my "oice "its heard. WitluNiftl 
weig'liirig ciircCiilly, as I usually W'eigh, what I «'as doin^, I called out ' 
to know u)iu it itii>'. ll ^^a^l!^l:l natiical — I feel m> certain now. froul 
the experience of tiiis wliole year, which every day contirm*. tliat 1 1 
have ooly to ask, wlivti anything is aniiisir who i^ the culprit, and for ibe' 
culprit to come forward at once — ihat iiistinciively I put a question, 
which among boys, under ordihiify circumstances, woiOd have been, for 
niaiiy reaMius, extremely imprudent Dtid daug'etous. \ou Tenieniberi 
that no one aciswered. And while roil wus eallie^, I wa» coEisidering* 
ve^' anxiously w hai I should do. I could not bear the thought of aa > 
exception occurn'ni; to your g^eneral rule and practice of coioiuif forward 
opeoly and manfully at once, ifie moment the question wni p\il, who 
was the offender,' 

• • • • • 

* YoTi remember that I called you up to me. uk^d the whole reboot 
wlici it was, ami still do one amwered. And ihen, for reaimii« into 
which I need not enlfr at length now, I lold yoii, that cotmiden n^ tiio 
cenend practice and principle of the M;hoo), I felt bure then? niu.«l 1m ' 
some mode of accounting for this seeming departure frotn it — iiaX. \io\» 
sometimes wht^tle^l uiicotisciouely, without IhiiikiD^ of wliat lliey wer« 
doing, and that 1 should presume this to have been the case, 1 dicLl 
this, my own dear buyv, hccause I will always put upon aU your actiotif^l 
not the won.1, but the best construction pussibte-' — Sernwn fvr thtn 
Sundatj be/ore Advent, pp. 394-397. 

From the nbovc extracts our readers will bare Icumt tbi 
wbiKtling (even though involuntary and unconscious) ii inblanlll 
stopped at Radley by tlie presence of the Warden, liut Iji 
personal influence over the bi»ys extends farther than this. 'J'hcii 
bitterest apprehcnsioa is — 

' I .-hall oHend (he "Warden, I sliall lose the Wanien'ii Invc, I nhall' 
be uidiappy under his anger, 1 siiall be dbgraci'd in \\\» ey«.' — p. lt*S<., 

Xar, the Blagble»t difference in bis maaacr lufficci to pit 



Sc/iooi Scrrrioiis. 


Bin inla ilislrpss. Tims he tells tlienif in the sermon for 
ilie Sunday before Ascen&ion Day — 

' Tou feel t>ie riifterence, if I smile wlien you conio up In me, or^ 
look prflve — jmss vfm without speakfny — -dft nol observe ynu whi-ii tou' 
tiM.e off' your cap — if' / reftcsr to take t/tr 0nwers trfiicft. you firiritj wip, 
(ir let them Jrnp, a« if t did tinl ralue iftfiu- — if T pass t«3H over in tlie 
cl;la.q, will not pui you (|iie»t!i)n-i — tlo not call you np lo r^uil your 
Shaksjieare,--{li> not geem tp matiot jou,' — p. 197- 

aad o^in — 

' IIow much, or mllier how entirely nil your enjoyment Wioiild 
ia jtrdportioii a.^ you felt tliat I and llie fcllowti ceased to look upon' 
you ivilli affectiuii ami regtirrl — that wy liaii uo pleasure in seeing you, 
in spmkiikg to you^iliat our t-ye looked coldly ou jou.' — p. 254. 

Thus, a glance from tiie Warden's eye has power to airetl the 
attention of the most cfireless trifler, to whom he exclaims — 

'You see my eye u*atchi»|; you, catch it rcstiaig upon you (I will 
speak in g^eneral terms), but each of you iiidividuuily will know of nhoin 

1 am speaking.' — p, 2Qd. 

\y hat, tijerefore, must he the effect of his addressing boy* 
individually by name from the pulpit, as he does in the spnnon 
for Good Friday, and in tiinl i'tjr the Sunday before Easier? 
(pp. 130, 137). 

VVc fear that ihia aiTet'titiniLLle vcineration felt by the hovs for.! 
their Warden must have been severely tried by some of the 
passQ^es which we have quoted. We tan only trust thut the 
irreverent laughter which they would have provoked in ordinary 
boys was suppressed by awe i>r love at Radley. 

let it must not be supposL'd that everything in the roluuia 
before us ia liable to the same objection. There is mucli 
Clirlslian exhortation well calculated tf> muse the conscienco; 
and many practical precepts addressed to the daily duties of the 
audience, which are of the hitrhest value. We mav specify the 
tbiriy-s.econd sermon, <m 'Home DitticB,' as peculiarly cxtcUent; 
although the direction 'Never address your father except with 
the title nf 5j>' is perhapsa little overstrained. Anr>ther admirable . 
discourse ig the tliirtyfirBt, on 'Sofioess of Life,' preached on-i 
Qccnsion of a visit paid to Ka<llt'y by two of the African bishop«» 
although wc cannot quite enter into the joy expressed by the-' 
preacher that * but for unnvuidablc en^a^ementt lour other 
bishops would have bej-n with them ;' a dcHg-ht which seems 
ua too much dependent on. (lie conditional mood of the pra?lrr 
pluperfect tense ^ tcoutdy eonld, sUouid, or mujht have Urn.' It i»( 
fair, howevcrj to let hint express his feelings on the subject in' 

bis own Words — 


ScIiqqI Sermons, 


* If there Ros one iliin^ wJiich I craved and longed and a&ked for in 
the comm^uceiuent of thits work, it uafi the blensijig of ilie bbhopy a£ 
Xhv cluirch — to us&ure iis lliut the blessing of God was wilh us — that we 
"Were not working upuii a false fouivdalion, not biiiltiii:^ up a Babel of i 
our own ilevtce^r iifit swerving either to the right or the left from the 
spirit and leatCiiig of the church/ — p. 419. 

We cannot help wontlering wbethcr all tbe bialifups are equally 
capable of convejfin}; this assurance to tUe Wardens mind; 
wUt-ther (for ejiample) tbe bles&ing: of the BUbop of Casbcl 
would he as valid an authentication as that uf the Bishop uf 
Cape TovvQ,? 

Another very excellent setnmn is the twenty-second, on Ibe 
Sius of tlie Tongue. As a ;^ooft specimen of Mr, Sewoll's style, 
we will eontrlude our exli^tctK wilh the following desrriptiuu of a 
Christian gcotlenian from tluK sermon — 

' A gitiitlt^mnn is iipt merely a (jcrsun accjuninted wiLli eertiun fbmiB 
ILIkI (<li(]ii* lies uf lile, Mtsy and »e)r-|iiMsc«se(i in soc-iely, able Iq qit^k, 
and act. iiiiil move in liie W4irld widiout awkwardnt^s, und free from 
hitl)Jt» wiiich are vulgar anJ in bad tiiKte. A gentlenmn is something 
much beyOJid this ; ibaC winch liiiS at Uie root of all hia «ase, snd re^Ds- 
nit'Dt, and tact, and power of pleasing is tlie SH.nie sjitril which lie? at 
the Fcnut of evcrj christian virtue. It h the thoughtful desire of doiijg 
ill every iui^tance to others as he would that others should do unto 
him. lie is ■.!on->>laiitly lliinking, not indeed how he may give pleaiitire 
to others for the mere «!nse of plea^ng, but how lie can show respect 
foe otirers — how he ma-T avoid hurting their feelings, A\'h«?ii Uej is- in 
lOCiety he scrupulously asc-ertains the position and relation of every OHO 
with whom he is brought into contact, that he may gtve to each liis Hue 

• honour, his proper position. He studies how he may &vuid looehing 
in eohversalioD up)n. any subject whicli may neeillt^s^ly hurt thuir 
feelings— how Iju may abstiiin front any allusion which may call up 

'ttMmgKt:a.hte or oti«nsive sj^uciaiion- A gecitlemajii Dever alludes to, 
iMtP^ven appears conscious of any personal defect, bodily deformity, 
inferiority of laleut, of rank, of n^ptttntiou, in the persons in \vlio?e 
society he is jilaced. He never assumes any superiority to himself— 
never ridicules, never aueers, ue'ver boast», never ninkf s a display of his 
own power, or mnk, or advantages — such as is implied in ridicule, or 
Mrcnxnl, or nbiise — as he never indulges in habits, or tricks, or incli- 
DAtions which may \iv nflensivc